List of Governors of Maryland

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The Governor of Maryland heads the executive branch of the government of the U.S. state of Maryland and is commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[1] The governor is the highest-ranking official in the state, and the constitutional powers of Maryland's governors make them among the most powerful governors in the United States.[2]

Since the American Revolution, Maryland has had a number of state constitutions that have specified different terms of office and methods of selection of its governors. Under the constitution of 1776, governors were appointed by the legislature to one-year terms. An 1838 constitutional amendment allowed the direct election of governors to three-year terms, although the governors came from rotating election districts. The terms were lengthened to four years in the 1851 Constitution and election districts were abolished in the 1864 version.[1] Since then, governors have been elected by the entire state of Maryland.

Maryland governors are limited to two consecutive terms, making former two-term governors eligible to run after four years out of office.[3] Thomas Sim Lee, Daniel Martin, and Robert Bowie have served non-consecutive terms as Governor of Maryland. Albert Ritchie holds the record of Maryland's longest-serving governor with 14 years of service.[4] Maryland has never had a female governor,[5] although one woman, Kathleen Kennedy Townsend, served as Lieutenant Governor under Parris Glendening from 1995 to 2003.[6]

The current governor is Republican Larry Hogan, who was elected on November 4, 2014.[7]

Governors[edit]

  Federalist (8)   Democratic-Republican (9)   Anti-Jacksonian (3)   Jacksonian (1)   Whig (3)   Democratic (27)   Constitutional Union (1)   Republican (9)

Governor[5] Term in office[8] Party Term Previous office[8] Lieutenant governor[6][a]
1 Thomas Johnson (governor).jpeg   Thomas Johnson
(1732-11-04)November 4, 1732 – (1819-10-26)October 26, 1819
(Aged 86)
March 21, 1777

November 12, 1779
Independent 1
(1777)
Continental Congress
(1774–1775)
None
2
(1778)
2 No image.svg Thomas Sim Lee
(1745-10-29)October 29, 1745 – (1819-11-09)November 9, 1819
(Aged 74)
November 12, 1779

November 22, 1782
Independent 3
(1779)
Governor's Executive Council
(1777–1779)
4
(1780)
5
(1781)
3 William paca.jpg William Paca
(1740-10-31)October 31, 1740 – (1799-10-13)October 13, 1799
(Aged 58)
November 22, 1782

November 26, 1785
Independent 6
(1782)
Maryland State Senator
(1777–1779)
7
(1783)
8
(1784)
4 General William Smallwood SC-000580.jpg William Smallwood
1732 – (1792-02-14)February 14, 1792
(Aged 59–60)
November 26, 1785

November 24, 1788
Independent 9
(1785)
Colonel
Continental Army

Maryland State Delegate
(1761–1774)

10
(1786)
11
(1787)
5 Johneagerhoward.jpg   John Eager Howard
(1752-06-04)June 4, 1752 – (1827-10-12)October 12, 1827
(Aged 75)
November 24, 1788

November 14, 1791
Federalist 12
(1788)
Captain
Continental Army

Continental Congress
(1787–1788)

13
(1789)
14
(1790)
6 George Plater portrait.jpg George Plater
(1735-11-08)November 8, 1735 – (1792-02-10)February 10, 1792
(Aged 56)
November 14, 1791

February 10, 1792
Federalist 15
(1791)
Maryland State Senator
(1777–1790)
No image.svg James Brice
(1746-08-26)August 26, 1746 – (1801-07-11)July 11, 1801
(Aged 55)
February 10, 1792

April 5, 1792[b]
Federalist Mayor of Annapolis

(1782–1783; 1787–1788)

2 No image.svg Thomas Sim Lee
(1745-10-29)October 29, 1745 – (1819-11-09)November 9, 1819
(Aged 74)
April 5, 1792

November 14, 1794
Federalist 16
(1792)
Governor of Maryland
(1779–1782)

Continental Congress
(1783–1784)

17
(1793)
7 John Hoskins Stone.jpg John Hoskins Stone
1750 – (1804-10-05)October 5, 1804
(Aged 53–54)
November 14, 1794

November 17, 1797
Federalist 18
(1794)
Maryland State Delegate
(1790)
19
(1795)
20
(1796)
8 GovernorJohnHenry.jpg   John Henry
November 1750 – (1798-12-16)December 16, 1798
(Aged 48)
November 17, 1797

November 14, 1798
Democratic-Republican 21
(1797)
Maryland State Senator
(1789–1797)
9 Benjamin Ogle Maryland.jpg   Benjamin Ogle
(1749-01-27)January 27, 1749 – (1809-07-07)July 7, 1809
(Aged 60)
November 14, 1798

November 10, 1801
Federalist 22
(1798)
None
23
(1799)
24
(1800)
10 John Francis Mercer.jpg   John F. Mercer
(1759-05-17)May 17, 1759 – (1821-07-30)July 30, 1821
(Aged 62)
November 10, 1801

November 13, 1803
Democratic-Republican 25
(1801)
U.S. Representative
from Maryland's 2nd
(1793–1794)
26
(1802)
11 Robert Bowie portrait.jpg Robert Bowie
March 1750 – (1818-01-08)January 8, 1818
(Aged 67)
November 15, 1803

November 10, 1806
Democratic-Republican 27
(1803)
Maryland State Delegate
(1801–1803)
28
(1804)
29
(1805)
12 Robertwrightofmaryland.jpg Robert Wright
(1752-11-20)November 20, 1752 – (1826-09-07)September 7, 1826
(Aged 73)
November 12, 1806

June 9, 1809
Democratic-Republican 30
(1806)
U.S. Senator
from Maryland
(1801–1806)
31
(1807)
32
(1808)
13 Edwardlloydofmaryland.jpg Edward Lloyd V
(1779-07-22)July 22, 1779 – (1834-06-02)June 2, 1834
(Aged 54)
June 9, 1809

November 16, 1811
Democratic-Republican 33
(1809)
Maryland State Delegate
(1800–1805)
34
(1810)
11 Robert Bowie portrait.jpg Robert Bowie
March 1750 – (1818-01-08)January 8, 1818
(Aged 67)
November 16, 1811

November 25, 1812
Democratic-Republican 35
(1811)
Maryland State Delegate
(1801–1803)
14 Levin Winder, portrait by Florence Mackubin.jpg   Levin Winder
(1757-09-04)September 4, 1757 – (1819-07-01)July 1, 1819
(Aged 61)
November 25, 1812

January 2, 1816
Federalist 36
(1812)
Maryland State Delegate
(1806–1809)
37
(1813)
38
(1814)
15 Charles Carnan Ridgely.jpg Charles Carnan Ridgely
(1760-12-06)December 6, 1760 – (1829-07-17)July 17, 1829
(Aged 68)
January 2, 1816

January 8, 1819
Federalist 39
(1816)
Maryland State Senator
(1796–1800)
40
(1817)
41
(1818)
16 Charles Goldsborough, 1802 painting.jpg Charles Goldsborough
(1765-07-15)July 15, 1765 – (1834-12-13)December 13, 1834
(Aged 69)
January 8, 1819

December 20, 1819
Federalist 42
(1819)
U.S. Representative
from Maryland's 8th
(1805–1817)
17 Samuel Sprigg.jpg   Samuel Sprigg
1783 – (1855-04-21)April 21, 1855
(Aged 71–72)
December 20, 1819

December 16, 1822
Democratic-Republican 43
(1819)
None
44
(1820)
45
(1821)
18 Samuel Stevens, Jr. (Maryland Governor).jpg Samuel Stevens Jr.
(1778-07-13)July 13, 1778 – (1860-02-07)February 7, 1860
(Aged 81)
December 16, 1822

January 9, 1826
Democratic-Republican 46
(1822)
Maryland State Delegate
(1819–1820)
47
(1823)
48
(1824)
19 Joseph Kent of Maryland.jpg Joseph Kent
(1779-01-14)January 14, 1779 – (1837-11-24)November 24, 1837
(Aged 58)
January 9, 1826

January 15, 1829
Democratic-Republican 49
(1826)
U.S. Representative
from Maryland's 2nd
(1819–1826)
50
(1827)
51
(1828)
20 No image.svg   Daniel Martin
December 1780 – (1831-07-11)July 11, 1831
(Aged 50)
January 15, 1829

January 15, 1830
Anti-Jacksonian 52
(1829)
Maryland State Delegate
(1819–1820)
21 Thomas King Carroll (Maryland Governor).jpg   Thomas King Carroll
(1793-04-29)April 29, 1793 – (1873-10-03)October 3, 1873
(Aged 80)
January 15, 1830

January 13, 1831
Jacksonian 53
(1830)
Maryland State Delegate
(1816–1817)
20 No image.svg   Daniel Martin
December 1780 – (1831-07-11)July 11, 1831
(Aged 50)
January 13, 1831

July 11, 1831
Anti-Jacksonian 54
(1831)
Maryland State Delegate
(1819–1820)
22 George Howard (Maryland Governor).jpg George Howard
(1789-11-21)November 21, 1789 – (1846-08-02)August 2, 1846
(Aged 56)
July 11, 1831

January 17, 1833
Anti-Jacksonian None
55
(1832)
23 James Thomas, Governor of Maryland.jpg   James Thomas
(1785-03-11)March 11, 1785 – (1845-12-25)December 25, 1845
(Aged 60)
January 17, 1833

January 14, 1836
Whig 56
(1833)
Maryland State Senator
(1826–1831)
57
(1834)
58
(1835)
24 Thomas Veazey, 1836 painting.jpg Thomas Veazey
(1774-01-31)January 31, 1774 – (1842-07-01)July 1, 1842
(Aged 68)
January 14, 1836

January 7, 1839
Whig 59
(1836)
Maryland State Delegate
(1811–1812)
60
(1837)
61
(1838)
25 William Grason (Maryland Governor).jpg   William Grason
(1788-03-11)March 11, 1788 – (1868-07-02)July 2, 1868
(Aged 80)
January 7, 1839

January 3, 1842
[c]
Democratic 62
(1838)
Maryland State Delegate
(1837)
26 Francis Thomas of Maryland - photo portrait seated.jpg Francis Thomas
(1799-02-03)February 3, 1799 – (1876-01-22)January 22, 1876
(Aged 76)
January 3, 1842

January 6, 1845
Democratic 63
(1841)
U.S. Representative
from Maryland's 6th
(1835–1841)
27 Thomas Pratt by Dieterich, 1904.jpg   Thomas Pratt
(1804-02-18)February 18, 1804 – (1869-11-09)November 9, 1869
(Aged 65)
January 6, 1845

January 3, 1848
Whig 64
(1844)
Maryland State Delegate
(1832–1835)
28 Philip Francis Thomas, sitting.jpg   Philip F. Thomas
(1810-09-12)September 12, 1810 – (1890-10-02)October 2, 1890
(Aged 80)
January 3, 1848

January 6, 1851
Democratic 65
(1847)
U.S. Representative
from Maryland's 1st
(1839–1841)
29 Enoch Louis Lowe.jpg Enoch Lowe
(1820-08-10)August 10, 1820 – (1892-08-23)August 23, 1892
(Aged 72)
January 6, 1851

January 11, 1854
Democratic 66
(1850)
Maryland State Delegate
(1845)
30 Thomas ligon maryland.jpg Thomas Watkins Ligon
(1810-05-10)May 10, 1810 – (1881-01-12)January 12, 1881
(Aged 70)
January 11, 1854

January 13, 1858
Democratic 67
(1853)
U.S. Representative
from Maryland's 3rd
(1845–1849)
31 Thomas H. Hicks, Md - NARA - 525674.jpg   Thomas H. Hicks
(1798-09-02)September 2, 1798 – (1865-02-14)February 14, 1865
(Aged 66)
January 13, 1858

January 8, 1862
Constitutional Union 68
(1857)
Maryland State Delegate
(1830–1836)
32 Augustus Williamson Bradford - photo portrait standing.jpg   Augustus Bradford
(1806-01-09)January 9, 1806 – (1881-03-01)March 1, 1881
(Aged 75)
January 8, 1862

January 10, 1866
Republican N/A Baltimore County Clerk of Courts
(1845–1851)
33 Thomas Swann of Maryland, sitting.jpg Thomas Swann
(1809-03-03)March 3, 1809 – (1883-07-24)July 24, 1883
(Aged 74)
January 10, 1866

January 13, 1869
Republican Mayor of Baltimore
(1856–1860)
  Christopher C. Cox[d]
34 Governor oden bowie of maryland.jpg   Oden Bowie
(1826-11-10)November 10, 1826 – (1894-12-04)December 4, 1894
(Aged 68)
January 13, 1869

January 10, 1872
Democratic 69
(1867)
Maryland State Senator
(1867–1869)
None
35 Williampinkneywhite.jpg William Pinkney Whyte
(1824-08-09)August 9, 1824 – (1908-03-17)March 17, 1908
(Aged 83)
January 10, 1872

March 4, 1874
Democratic 70
(1871)
U.S. Senator
from Maryland
(1868–1869)
36 James Black Groome, sitting.jpg James Black Groome
(1838-04-04)April 4, 1838 – (1893-10-05)October 5, 1893
(Aged 55)
March 4, 1874

January 12, 1876
Democratic Maryland State Delegate
(1872–1874)
37 John Lee Carroll (Maryland Governor).jpg John Lee Carroll
(1830-09-30)September 30, 1830 – (1911-02-27)February 27, 1911
(Aged 80)
January 12, 1876

January 14, 1880
Democratic 71
(1875)
Maryland State Senator
(1867–1876)
38 Williamthamilton.jpg William T. Hamilton
(1820-09-08)September 8, 1820 – (1888-10-26)October 26, 1888
(Aged 68)
January 14, 1880

January 9, 1884
Democratic 72
(1879)
U.S. Senator
from Maryland
(1869–1875)
39 Governor robert mclane of maryland.jpg Robert Milligan McLane
(1815-06-23)June 23, 1815 – (1898-04-16)April 16, 1898
(Aged 82)
January 9, 1884

March 27, 1885
Democratic 73
(1883)
U.S. Representative
from Maryland's 4th
(1879–1883)
40 Henry Lloyd (Maryland Governor).jpg Henry Lloyd
(1852-02-21)February 21, 1852 – (1920-12-20)December 20, 1920
(Aged 68)
March 27, 1885

January 11, 1888
Democratic Maryland State Senator
(1882–1885)
41 Governor elihu emory jackson of maryland.jpg Elihu Emory Jackson
(1837-11-03)November 3, 1837 – (1907-12-27)December 27, 1907
(Aged 70)
January 11, 1888

January 13, 1892
Democratic 74
(1887)
Maryland State Senator
(1884–1886)
42 Frank Brown, Maryland governor, portrait.jpg Frank Brown
(1846-08-08)August 8, 1846 – (1920-02-03)February 3, 1920
(Aged 73)
January 13, 1892

January 8, 1896
Democratic 75
(1891)
Maryland State Delegate
(1876–1878)
43 Governor lloyd lowndes of maryland.jpg   Lloyd Lowndes Jr.
(1845-02-21)February 21, 1845 – (1905-01-08)January 8, 1905
(Aged 59)
January 8, 1896

January 10, 1900
Republican 76
(1895)
U.S. Representative
from Maryland's 6th
(1873–1875)
44 John Walter Smith, photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg   John W. Smith
(1845-02-05)February 5, 1845 – (1925-04-19)April 19, 1925
(Aged 80)
January 10, 1900

January 13, 1904
Democratic 77
(1899)
U.S. Representative
from Maryland's 1st
(1899–1900)
45 Edwin Warfield of Maryland, sitting.jpg Edwin Warfield
(1848-05-07)May 7, 1848 – (1920-03-31)March 31, 1920
(Aged 71)
January 13, 1904

January 8, 1908
Democratic 78
(1903)
Maryland State Senator
(1881–1887)
46 Austin Lane Crothers, photograph of head with top hat.jpg Austin Lane Crothers
(1860-05-17)May 17, 1860 – (1912-05-25)May 25, 1912
(Aged 52)
January 8, 1908

January 10, 1912
Democratic 79
(1907)
Maryland State Delegate
(1897–1900)
47 Governor phillips goldborough of maryland.jpg   Phillips Lee Goldsborough
(1865-08-06)August 6, 1865 – (1946-10-22)October 22, 1946
(Aged 81)
January 10, 1912

January 12, 1916
Republican 80
(1911)
Comptroller of Maryland
(1898–1900)
48 Emerson Harrington, Bachrach photo portrait, 1919.jpg   Emerson Harrington
(1864-03-26)March 26, 1864 – (1945-12-15)December 15, 1945
(Aged 81)
January 12, 1916

January 14, 1920
Democratic 81
(1915)
Comptroller of Maryland
(1912–1916)
49 Albert Ritchie cph.3b33171.jpg Albert Ritchie
(1876-08-29)August 29, 1876 – (1936-02-24)February 24, 1936
(Aged 59)
January 14, 1920

January 9, 1935
Democratic 82
(1919)
Attorney General of Maryland
(1915–1919)
83
(1923)
84
(1926)
85
(1930)
50 Harry Whinna Nice, photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg   Harry Nice
(1877-12-05)December 5, 1877 – (1941-02-25)February 25, 1941
(Aged 63)
January 9, 1935

January 11, 1939
Republican 86
(1934)
Baltimore City Alderman
(1903–1905)
51 Governor herbert oconor of maryland.jpg   Herbert O'Conor
(1896-11-17)November 17, 1896 – (1960-03-04)March 4, 1960
(Aged 63)
January 11, 1939

January 3, 1947
Democratic 87
(1938)
Attorney General of Maryland
(1935–1939)
88
(1942)
52 William Preston Lane Jr.
(1892-05-12)May 12, 1892 – (1967-02-07)February 7, 1967
(Aged 74)
January 3, 1947

January 10, 1951
Democratic 89
(1946)
Attorney General of Maryland
(1930–1934)
53   Theodore Roosevelt McKeldin
(1900-11-20)November 20, 1900 – (1974-08-10)August 10, 1974
(Aged 73)
January 10, 1951

January 14, 1959
Republican 90
(1950)
Mayor of Baltimore
(1943–1947)
91
(1954)
54   John Millard Tawes
(1894-04-08)April 8, 1894 – (1979-06-25)June 25, 1979
(Aged 85)
January 14, 1959

January 25, 1967
Democratic 92
(1958)
Comptroller of Maryland
(1950–1959)
93
(1962)
55 Spiro Agnew.jpg   Spiro T. Agnew
(1918-11-09)November 9, 1918 – (1996-09-17)September 17, 1996
(Aged 77)
January 25, 1967

January 7, 1969
Republican 94
(1966)
Baltimore County Executive
(1962–1966)
56 1marvinmandel.JPG   Marvin Mandel
(1920-04-19)April 19, 1920 – (2015-08-30)August 30, 2015
(Aged 95)
January 7, 1969

January 17, 1979
Democratic 95
(1969)[e]
Speaker of the Maryland
House of Delegates

(1964–1969)
  Blair Lee III
96
(1970)
97
(1974)
Blair Lee III
(1916-05-19)May 19, 1916 – (1985-10-25)October 25, 1985
(Aged 69)
June 4, 1977

January 15, 1979[f]
Democratic Lieutenant Governor of Maryland
(1971–1979)
Blair Lee III

(Continued to serve as

Lieutenant Governor

while Acting Governor)

57 Maryland Governor Harry Hughes speaking at Fort Belvoir, Feb 16, 1988.jpg Harry R. Hughes
(1926-11-13)November 13, 1926
(Age 91)
January 17, 1979

January 20, 1987
Democratic 98
(1978)
Maryland State Senator
(1959–1971)
Samuel Bogley
99
(1982)
J. Joseph Curran Jr.
58 William Donald Schaefer.jpg William Donald Schaefer
(1921-11-02)November 2, 1921 – (2011-04-18)April 18, 2011
(Aged 89)
January 20, 1987

January 18, 1995
Democratic 100
(1986)
Mayor of Baltimore
(1971–1989)
Melvin Steinberg
101
(1990)
59 Parris Glendening speaking, September 2006.jpg Parris N. Glendening
(1942-06-11)June 11, 1942
(Age 75)
January 18, 1995

January 15, 2003
Democratic 102
(1994)
Prince George's County Executive
(1983–1994)
Kathleen Kennedy Townsend
103
(1998)
60 Robert ehrlich speaking at healthierUS summit cropped.jpg   Robert (Bob) Ehrlich Jr.
(1957-11-25)November 25, 1957
(Age 60)
January 15, 2003

January 17, 2007
Republican 104
(2002)
U.S. Representative
from Maryland's 2nd
(1995–2003)
  Michael Steele
61 Governor O'Malley Portrait.jpg   Martin O'Malley
(1963-01-18)January 18, 1963
(Age 54)
January 17, 2007

January 21, 2015
Democratic 105
(2006)
Mayor of Baltimore
(1999–2007)
  Anthony G. Brown
106
(2010)
62 Larry-Hogan.JPG   Lawrence (Larry) Hogan Jr.
(1956-05-25)May 25, 1956
(Age 61)
January 21, 2015

Incumbent
Republican 107
(2014)
Maryland Secretary of Appointments
(2003–2007)
  Boyd Rutherford
  1. ^ Maryland did not have a Lieutenant Governor until 1864; the office was abolished in 1867 and re-established in 1970.[9][10]
  2. ^ Served as Acting Governor following the death of Governor George Plater.[11]
  3. ^ First directly-elected Governor of Maryland.[12]
  4. ^ The office of Lieutenant Governor was created under the Constitution of 1864, but abolished in 1867.[13]
  5. ^ Elected by the Maryland General Assembly to fill the vacancy left by Spiro Agnew's resignation, following his election to the U.S. vice presidency. Mandel was elected to a full term in 1970.[14]
  6. ^ Served as Acting Governor after Governor Marvin Mandel suffered a stroke and transferred over the powers of Governor to Blair Lee. Governor Mandel rescinded his appointment two days before the term ended.[15]

Living former U.S. governors of Maryland[edit]

As of May 2017, four former U.S. governors of Maryland are currently living, the oldest being Harry Hughes (1979–1987, born 1926). The most recent U.S. governor of Maryland to die was Marvin Mandel (served 1969–1979, born 1920), on August 30, 2015.[16] The most recently serving governor to die was William Donald Schaefer (served 1987–1995, born 1921) on April 18, 2011.[17]

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)
Harry R. Hughes 1979–1987 (1926-11-13) November 13, 1926 (age 91)
Parris N. Glendening 1995–2003 (1942-06-11) June 11, 1942 (age 75)
Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. 2003–2007 (1957-11-25) November 25, 1957 (age 60)
Martin O'Malley 2007–2015 (1963-01-18) January 18, 1963 (age 54)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Maryland Governor - Origin & Functions". Maryland Manual Online. Retrieved June 24, 2007. 
  2. ^ Prah, Pamela (March 9, 2007). "Massachusetts gov rated most powerful (archived)". Stateline.Org. Archived from the original on May 28, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2007. 
  3. ^ "Maryland Governor: Origins and Functions". Maryland Manual Online. Maryland State Archives. 2006. Retrieved June 27, 2007. 
  4. ^ "Albert C. Ritchie, State House titan". The Baltimore Sun. July 22, 1999. Retrieved May 30, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b "Archives of Maryland Historical List Governors of Maryland, 1634--". Maryland State Archives. January 21, 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Maryland Lieutenant Governors". Maryland State Archives. May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2017. 
  7. ^ Wagner, John; Johnson, Jenna (November 5, 2014). "Republican Larry Hogan wins Md. governor's race in stunning upset". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b "Maryland : Past Governors Bios". National Governors Association. 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2017. 
  9. ^ Dayhoff, Kevin (December 7, 2005). "Why We Have a Lieutenant Governor". The Tentacle. Retrieved May 30, 2017. 
  10. ^ Papenfouse, Edward. The Archives of Maryland, new series, An Historical List of Public Officials of Maryland. I. Annapolis, MD: Maryland State Archives: 1990. 
  11. ^ Buchholz, Heinrich Ewald (1908). "Appendix B". Governors of Maryland: From the Revolution to the Year 1908 (Second ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company. 
  12. ^ Shaum, Jack (May 21, 2006). "Two Maryland Governors were Queen Anne's natives". The Star Democrat. Retrieved September 13, 2017. 
  13. ^ Smith, Herbert Charles; Willis, John T. (2012). "The Maryland Governor and the Executive Branch". Maryland Politics and Government: Democratic Dominance. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803237902. 
  14. ^ Clymer, Adam (August 30, 2015). "Marvin Mandel, Progressive Maryland Governor Convicted of Fraud, Dies at 95". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2017. 
  15. ^ "Blair Lee III (1916-1985)". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved September 13, 2017. 
  16. ^ Dresser, Michael; Colin Campbell (August 31, 2015). "Former Maryland Gov. Marvin Mandel dies". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved May 30, 2017. 
  17. ^ Bernstein, Adam (April 18, 2011). "William Donald Schaefer dies; Maryland governor, comptroller, Baltimore mayor". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 30, 2017. 

Notes[edit]