List of Governors of New York

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Andrew Cuomo the 56th and current Governor of New York.

The Governor of New York is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[1] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, to convene the New York legislature,[1] the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the legislature,[2] and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[3]

Fifty-six individuals have served as governor, four of whom served non-consecutive terms, totaling 60 distinct terms; the official numbering only lists each governor once, so there have officially been fifty-six governors. This numbering includes one acting governor: the lieutenant governor who filled the vacancy after the resignation of the governor, under the 1777 State Constitution.[4] The list does not include people who have acted as governor when the governor was out of state, such as Lt. Gov. Timothy L. Woodruff during Theodore Roosevelt's vice presidential campaign in 1900, or Acting Speaker of the New York State Assembly Moses M. Weinstein, who acted as governor for ten days in 1968 while the governor, the lieutenant governor, and the senate majority leader were out of the state, attending the Republican National Convention in Miami, Florida.[5]

Four men have become President of the United States after serving as Governor of New York: Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and six were Vice President of the United States. (Van Buren and Theodore Roosevelt held both offices.) Two governors have been Chief Justice of the United States: John Jay held that position when he was elected governor in 1795, and Charles Evans Hughes became chief justice in 1930, two decades after leaving the governorship.

The longest-serving governor was the first, George Clinton, who first took office on July 30, 1777, and served seven terms in two different periods, totaling just under 21 years in office. (As 18 of those years were consecutive, Clinton also served the longest consecutive period in office for a New York governor.) Charles Poletti had the shortest term, serving 29 days following the resignation of the previous governor in 1942. The current governor is Andrew Cuomo, who took office on January 1, 2011.

Governors[edit]

New York was one of the original thirteen colonies, and was admitted as a state on July 26, 1788. Prior to declaring its independence, New York was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain, which it in turn obtained from the Dutch as the colony of New Netherland; see the lists of colonial governors and of directors-general of New Netherland for the pre-statehood period.

The office of governor was established by the first New York State Constitution in 1777. The governor was originally for a term of three years,[6] though the constitution did not specify when the term began. A 1787 law set the start of the term at July 1.[7] The New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821 amended the state constitution, reducing the term of office to two years,[8] moving the election to November,[9] and moving the beginning and the end of the term to coincide with the calendar year.[10] An 1874 amendment extended the term of office back to three years,[11] but the 1894 constitution again reduced it to two years.[12] The most recent constitution of 1938 extended the term to the current four years.[13] There is no limit to the number of consecutive terms a governor may serve.

The state constitution has provided since 1777 for the election of a lieutenant governor, who is also ex officio president of the state senate, to the same term (keeping the same term lengths as the governor throughout all the constitutional revisions). Originally, in the event of the death, resignation or impeachment of the governor, the lieutenant governor would become acting governor until the end of the yearly legislative term, the office being filled in a special election, if there was a remainder of the term.[14] Since the 1821 constitution, the lieutenant governor explicitly becomes governor upon such vacancy in the office and serves for the entire remainder of the term.[15] Should the office of lieutenant governor become vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate[note 1] performs all the duties of the lieutenant governor until the vacancy is filled either at the next gubernatorial election or by appointment.[note 2] Likewise, should both offices become vacant at the same time, the president pro tempore acts as governor, with the office of lieutenant governor remaining vacant. Should the presidency pro tempore be vacant too, or the incumbent unable to fulfill the duties, the speaker of the assembly is next in the line of succession.[16] The lieutenant governor is elected on the same ticket as the governor, since 1954 with a single joint vote cast for both offices, but is nominated separately.[17]

List of governors[edit]

  Democratic-Republican (9)   Federalist (1)   Democratic (26)   Whig (5)   Republican (18)

Portrait Governor Term of office Party Home County Term Lt. Governor
1 George Clinton by Ezra Ames (full portrait).jpg   George Clinton
July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812
(aged 72)
July 30, 1777

June 30, 1795
Democratic–
Republican
Ulster 1   Pierre Van Cortlandt
2
3
4
5
6
2 John Jay (Gilbert Stuart portrait).jpg   John Jay
December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829
(aged 83)
July 1, 1795

June 30, 1801
Federalist Westchester 7   Stephen Van Rensselaer
8
1 George Clinton by Ezra Ames (full portrait).jpg   George Clinton
July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812
(aged 72)
July 1, 1801

June 30, 1804
Democratic-
Republican
Ulster 9   Jeremiah Van Rensselaer
3 Morgan Lewis (portrait by Henry Inman).png   Morgan Lewis
October 16, 1754 – April 7, 1844
(aged 89)
July 1, 1804

June 30, 1807
Democratic-
Republican
New York 10   John Broome
4 DTompkins.png   Daniel D. Tompkins
June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825
(aged 50)
July 1, 1807

February 24, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
[note 3]
Richmond 11
12
John Tayler
DeWitt Clinton
13 John Tayler
5 John Tayler, governor of New York (portrait by Ezra Ames).png   John Tayler
July 4, 1742 – March 19, 1829
(aged 86)

(Acting)
February 24, 1817

June 30, 1817

[note 4]
Democratic-
Republican
Albany   Philetus Swift
6 DeWitt Clinton by Rembrandt Peale.jpg   DeWitt Clinton
March 2, 1769 – February 11, 1828
(aged 58)
July 1, 1817

December 31, 1822
Democratic-
Republican
New York 14   John Tayler
15
7 JosephCYates.jpg   Joseph C. Yates
November 9, 1768 – March 19, 1837
(aged 68)
January 1, 1823

December 31, 1824
Democratic-
Republican
Schenectady 16   Erastus Root
6 DeWitt Clinton by Rembrandt Peale.jpg   DeWitt Clinton
March 2, 1769 – February 11, 1828
(aged 58)
January 1, 1825

February 11, 1828
Democratic-
Republican
New York 17   James Tallmadge, Jr.
18   Nathaniel Pitcher
8 No image.svg   Nathaniel Pitcher
November 30, 1777 – May 25, 1836
(aged 58)
February 11, 1828

December 31, 1828
Democratic-
Republican
Washington   Peter R. Livingston
  Charles Dayan
9 MVanBuren.png   Martin Van Buren
December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862
(aged 79)
January 1, 1829

March 12, 1829
Democratic Columbia 19   Enos T. Throop
10 EThroop.png   Enos T. Throop
August 21, 1784 – November 1, 1874
(aged 90)
March 12, 1829

December 31, 1832
Democratic Cayuga   Charles Stebbins
20   William M. Oliver
21   Edward Philip Livingston
11 WMarcy.png   William L. Marcy
December 12, 1786 – July 4, 1857
(aged 70)
January 1, 1833

December 31, 1838
Democratic Albany 22   John Tracy
23
24
12 Henry Inman - William H. Seward.jpg   William H. Seward
May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872
(aged 71)
January 1, 1839

December 31, 1842
Whig Cayuga 25   Luther Bradish
26
13 WBouck.png   William C. Bouck
January 7, 1786 – April 19, 1859
(aged 73)
January 1, 1843

December 31, 1844
Democratic Schoharie 27   Daniel S. Dickinson
14 Silas Wright, Jr. (Engraved Portrait).jpg   Silas Wright
May 24, 1795 – August 27, 1847
(aged 52)
January 1, 1845

December 31, 1846
Democratic St. Lawrence 28   Addison Gardiner
15 New York Governor John Young.jpg   John Young
June 12, 1802 – April 23, 1852
(aged 49)
January 1, 1847

December 31, 1848
Whig Livingston 29   Addison Gardiner
  Albert Lester
  Hamilton Fish
16 Hamilton Fish (portrait by Charles Loring Elliott).png   Hamilton Fish
August 3, 1808 – September 7, 1893
(aged 85)
January 1, 1849

December 31, 1850
Whig New York 30   George W. Patterson
17 WashingtonHunt.png   Washington Hunt
August 5, 1811 – February 2, 1867
(aged 55)
January 1, 1851

December 31, 1852
Whig Niagara 31   Sanford E. Church
18 Horatio Seymour - Brady-Handysmall.png   Horatio Seymour
May 31, 1810 – February 12, 1886
(aged 75)
January 1, 1853

December 31, 1854
Democratic Oneida 32   Sanford E. Church
19 Myron H. Clark (portrait by Leon Bonnat).png   Myron H. Clark
October 23, 1806 – August 23, 1892
(aged 85)
January 1, 1855

December 31, 1856
Whig (fusion) Ontario 33   Henry Jarvis Raymond
20 John Alsop King.jpg   John Alsop King
January 3, 1788 – July 7, 1867
(aged 79)
January 1, 1857

December 31, 1858
Republican Queens 34   Henry R. Selden
21 Edwin D. Morgan (portrait by George Peter Alexander Healey).png   Edwin D. Morgan
February 8, 1811 – February 14, 1883
(aged 72)
January 1, 1859

December 31, 1862
Republican New York 35   Robert Campbell
36
18 Horatio Seymour - Brady-Handysmall.png   Horatio Seymour
May 31, 1810 – February 12, 1886
(aged 75)
January 1, 1863

December 31, 1864
Democratic Oneida 37   David R. Floyd-Jones
22 Reuben Fenton - Brady-Handy.jpg   Reuben Fenton
July 4, 1819 – August 25, 1885
(aged 66)
January 1, 1865

December 31, 1868
Union Chautauqua 38   Thomas G. Alvord
39   Stewart L. Woodford
23 John T. Hoffman (portrait by Jacob Lazarus).png   John Thompson Hoffman
January 10, 1828 – March 24, 1888
(aged 60)
January 1, 1869

December 31, 1872
Democratic New York 40   Allen C. Beach
24 JADix.png   John Adams Dix
July 24, 1798 – April 21, 1879
(aged 80)
January 1, 1873

December 31, 1874
Republican Albany 41   John C. Robinson
25 SJTilden of NY.jpg   Samuel J. Tilden
February 9, 1814 – August 4, 1886
(aged 72)
January 1, 1875

December 31, 1876
Democratic New York 42   William Dorsheimer
26 Lucius Robinson (portrait by George Waters).png   Lucius Robinson
November 4, 1810 – March 23, 1891
(aged 80)
January 1, 1877

December 31, 1879
Democratic Chemung 43
[note 5]
  William Dorsheimer
27 Alonzo B. Cornell.jpg   Alonzo B. Cornell
January 22, 1832 – October 15, 1904
(aged 72)
January 1, 1880

December 31, 1882
Republican New York 44   George Gilbert Hoskins
28 StephenGroverCleveland.png   Grover Cleveland
March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908
(aged 71)
January 1, 1883

January 6, 1885
Democratic Erie 45
[note 6]
  David B. Hill
29 DavidBennettHill.png   David B. Hill
August 29, 1843 – October 20, 1910
(aged 67)
January 6, 1885

December 31, 1891
Democratic Chemung   Dennis McCarthy
46   Edward F. Jones
47
30 RPFlowers-portrait.jpg   Roswell P. Flower
August 7, 1835 – May 12, 1899
(aged 63)
January 1, 1892

December 31, 1894
Democratic Jefferson 48   William F. Sheehan
31 Levi Morton - Brady-Handy portrait - standard crop.jpg   Levi P. Morton
May 16, 1824 – May 16, 1920
(aged 96)
January 1, 1895

December 31, 1896
Republican New York 49
[note 7]
  Charles T. Saxton
32 Frank S Black.jpg   Frank S. Black
March 8, 1853 – March 22, 1913
(aged 60)
January 1, 1897

December 31, 1898
Republican Fulton 50   Timothy L. Woodruff
33 T Roosevelt.jpg   Theodore Roosevelt
October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919
(aged 60)
January 1, 1899

December 31, 1900
Republican New York 51   Timothy L. Woodruff
34 Benjamin Barker Odell Jr cph.3b20166.jpg   Benjamin Barker Odell
January 14, 1854 – May 9, 1926
(aged 72)
January 1, 1901

December 31, 1904
Republican Orange 52   Timothy L. Woodruff
53   Frank W. Higgins
35 Frank W Higgins.jpg   Frank W. Higgins
August 18, 1856 – February 12, 1907
(aged 50)
January 1, 1905

December 31, 1906
Republican Allegany 54   M. Linn Bruce
  John Raines
36 Charles Evans Hughes cph.3b15401.jpg   Charles Evans Hughes
April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948
(aged 86)
January 1, 1907

October 6, 1910
Republican New York 55   Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler
56
[note 8]
  Horace White
37 Horace White.jpg   Horace White
October 7, 1865 – November 27, 1943
(aged 78)
October 6, 1910

December 31, 1910
Republican Onondaga   George H. Cobb
38 John Alden Dix LOC.jpg   John Alden Dix
December 25, 1860 – April 9, 1928
(aged 67)
January 1, 1911

December 31, 1912
Democratic Washington 57   Thomas F. Conway
39 SulzerTheBroadAx.PNG   William Sulzer
March 18, 1863 – November 6, 1941
(aged 78)
January 1, 1913

October 17, 1913
Democratic New York 58
[note 9]
  Martin H. Glynn
40 Martin H. Glynn.jpg   Martin H. Glynn
September 27, 1871 – December 14, 1924
(aged 53)
October 17, 1913

December 31, 1914
Democratic Albany   Robert F. Wagner
41 CharlesSWhitman.jpg   Charles S. Whitman
September 29, 1868 – March 29, 1947
(aged 78)
January 1, 1915

December 31, 1918
Republican New York 59   Edward Schoeneck
60
42 AlfredSmith.png   Al Smith
December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944
(aged 70)
January 1, 1919

December 31, 1920
Democratic New York 61   Harry C. Walker
43 NathanLMiller.jpg   Nathan L. Miller
October 10, 1868 – June 26, 1953
(aged 84)
January 1, 1921

December 31, 1922
Republican Cortland 62   Jeremiah Wood
  Clayton R. Lusk
42 AlfredSmith.png   Al Smith
December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944
(aged 70)
January 1, 1923

December 31, 1928
Democratic New York 63   George R. Lunn
64   Seymour Lowman
65   Edwin Corning
44 FDR in 1933.jpg   Franklin D. Roosevelt
January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945
(aged 63)
January 1, 1929

December 31, 1932
Democratic Dutchess 66   Herbert H. Lehman
67
45 Herbert Lehman.jpg   Herbert H. Lehman
March 28, 1878 – December 5, 1963
(aged 85)
January 1, 1933

December 3, 1942
Democratic New York 68   M. William Bray
69
70
71
[note 10]
[note 11]
  Charles Poletti
46 Charles Poletti.jpg   Charles Poletti
July 2, 1903 – August 8, 2002
(aged 99)
December 3, 1942

December 31, 1942
Democratic New York   Joe R. Hanley
47 ThomasDewey.png   Thomas Dewey
March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971
(aged 68)
January 1, 1943

December 31, 1954
Republican Dutchess 72   Thomas W. Wallace
  Joe R. Hanley
73
74   Frank C. Moore
  Arthur H. Wicks
  Walter J. Mahoney
48 William Averell Harriman.jpg   W. Averell Harriman
November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986
(aged 94)
January 1, 1955

December 31, 1958
Democratic New York 75   George DeLuca
49 Nelson Rockefeller.jpg   Nelson Rockefeller
July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979
(aged 70)
January 1, 1959

December 18, 1973
Republican Westchester 76   Malcolm Wilson
77
78
79
[note 12]
 
50 Malcolm Wilson (Governor of New York).jpg   Malcolm Wilson
February 26, 1914 – March 13, 2000
(aged 86)
December 18, 1973

December 31, 1974
Republican Westchester   Warren M. Anderson
51 Hugh Carey - 1977 NFTA Report.jpg   Hugh Carey
April 11, 1919 – August 7, 2011
(aged 92)
January 1, 1975

December 31, 1982
Democratic Kings 80   Mary Anne Krupsak
81   Mario Cuomo
52 Mario Cuomo NY Governor 1987.jpg   Mario Cuomo
June 15, 1932 – January 1, 2015
(aged 82)
January 1, 1983

December 31, 1994
Democratic New York 82   Alfred DelBello
  Warren M. Anderson
83   Stan Lundine
84
53 Pataki cropped.JPG   George Pataki
(1945-06-24) June 24, 1945 (age 71)
January 1, 1995

December 31, 2006
Republican Putnam 85   Betsy McCaughey Ross
86   Mary O. Donohue
87
54 Eliot Spitzer.jpg   Eliot Spitzer
(1959-06-10) June 10, 1959 (age 57)
January 1, 2007

March 17, 2008
Democratic New York 88
[note 13]
  David Paterson
55 David Paterson 2 by David Shankbone.jpg   David Paterson
(1954-05-20) May 20, 1954 (age 62)
March 17, 2008

December 31, 2010
Democratic New York   Joseph Bruno
  Dean Skelos
  Malcolm Smith
  Pedro Espada
[note 14]
  Richard Ravitch
(Contested)
[note 15]
  Malcolm Smith
[note 16]
  Richard Ravitch
[note 17]
56 Andrew Cuomo by Pat Arnow cropped.jpeg   Andrew Cuomo
(1957-12-06) December 6, 1957 (age 58)
January 1, 2011

Incumbent
Democratic Westchester 89   Robert Duffy
90   Kathy Hochul
Denotes that Governor or Lieutenant Governor was acting.

Other high offices held[edit]

This is a table of congressional and other federal offices, and ranking diplomatic positions to foreign countries held by New York governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented New York.

* Denotes those offices for which the governor resigned the governorship.
† Denotes those offices from which the governor resigned to take the governorship.
Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held Source
House Senate
George Clinton 1777–1795
1801–1804
Delegate to the Continental Congress, Vice President of the United States [19]
John Jay 1795–1801 President of the Continental Congress, U.S. Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Minister to Spain, Chief Justice of the United States [20]
Daniel D. Tompkins 1807–1817 H Vice President of the United States* [21]
DeWitt Clinton 1817–1822
1825–1828
S [22]
Nathaniel Pitcher 1828 H [23]
Martin Van Buren 1829 S† U.S. Secretary of State*, Minister to the United Kingdom, Vice President of the United States, President of the United States [24]
Enos T. Throop 1829–1832 H [25]
William L. Marcy 1833–1838 S† U.S. Secretary of War, U.S. Secretary of State [26]
William H. Seward 1839–1842 S U.S. Secretary of State [27]
Silas Wright 1845–1846 H S† [28]
John Young 1847–1848 H [29]
Hamilton Fish 1849–1850 H S U.S. Secretary of State [30]
Washington Hunt 1851–1852 H [31]
John Alsop King 1857–1858 H [32]
Edwin D. Morgan 1859–1862 S [33]
Reuben Fenton 1865–1868 H† S [34]
John Adams Dix 1873–1874 S Minister to France, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury [35]
Grover Cleveland 1883–1884 President of the United States* [36]
David B. Hill 1885–1891 S [37]
Roswell P. Flower 1892–1894 H [38]
Levi P. Morton 1895–1896 H Minister to France, Vice President of the United States [39]
Frank S. Black 1897–1898 H† [40]
Theodore Roosevelt 1899–1900 Vice President of the United States, President of the United States [41]
Benjamin B. Odell, Jr. 1901–1904 H [42]
Charles Evans Hughes 1907–1910 U.S. Secretary of State, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court*, Chief Justice of the United States.
William Sulzer 1913 H† [43]
Martin H. Glynn 1913–1914 H [44]
Franklin D. Roosevelt 1929–1932 President of the United States [45]
Herbert H. Lehman 1933–1942 S [46]
W. Averell Harriman 1955–1958 U.S. Secretary of Commerce, Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Ambassador to the Soviet Union [47]
Nelson Rockefeller 1959–1973 Vice President of the United States [48]
Hugh Carey 1975–1982 H† [49]
Andrew Cuomo 2011— U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Living former U.S. governors of New York[edit]

As of April 2016, there are three former U.S. governors of New York who are currently living at this time, the oldest being George Pataki (served 1995–2006, born 1945). The most recent governor to die was Mario Cuomo (served 1983–1994, born 1932), on January 1, 2015; he is also the most recently serving governor to have died.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)
George Pataki 1995–2006 (1945-06-24) June 24, 1945 (age 71)
Eliot Spitzer 2007–2008 (1959-06-10) June 10, 1959 (age 57)
David Paterson 2008–2010 (1954-05-20) May 20, 1954 (age 62)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The state constitutions refer to this position as the "temporary president of the senate"
  2. ^ On September 22, 2009, the New York Court of Appeals upheld the right of the governor to appoint a lieutenant governor to fill the vacancy.
  3. ^ Resigned to be Vice President of the United States.
  4. ^ Under the Constitution of 1777, Tayler was acting governor until the end of the legislative year.
  5. ^ As per an 1874 amendment to the constitution (taking effect January 1, 1875), Robinson's term was the first to last three years instead of two. As Tilden had been elected prior to the amendment taking effect, he served the old two-year term.[18]
  6. ^ Resigned to be President of the United States.
  7. ^ As per the 1894 constitution, Morton's term was the first to last two years instead of three.
  8. ^ Resigned to be an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
  9. ^ Impeached and removed from office for campaign contribution fraud.
  10. ^ As per the 1938 constitution, Lehman's fourth term, commencing January 1, 1939, was the first scheduled to last four years instead of two.
  11. ^ Resigned to be Director of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations at the U.S. Department of State
  12. ^ Resigned to devote himself to his Commission on Critical Choices for Americans.
  13. ^ Spitzer resigned due to a prostitution scandal
  14. ^ Espada is a Democrat, but combined with the Republicans in a change of leadership which triggered the 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis.
  15. ^ Ravitch was appointed on July 8, 2009, but the appointment was contested in the courts. On August 20, the Appellate Division rejected the appointment, and Ravitch de facto vacated the office.
  16. ^ Smith succeeded Espada on July 9 as Temporary President of the New York State Senate, and claimed to be Acting Lt. Gov. under the provisions of the New York State Constitution while the appointment of Ravitch was contested. Smith was de facto the sole occupant of the office from August 20 to September 22.
  17. ^ On September 22, the New York Court of Appeals reversed the Appellate Division's ruling, and thus re-instated Ravitch to the lieutenant governorship, beginning de jure on July 8.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ a b New York Constitution article IV, § 3
  2. ^ New York Constitution article IV, § 7
  3. ^ New York Constitution article IV, § 4
  4. ^ "Governors of New York". State of New York. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  5. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (December 3, 2007). "Moses Weinstein, 95, Legislator and Judge, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2008. 
  6. ^ 1777 New York Constitution article XVIII
  7. ^ "Governors of New York". New York Department of State. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  8. ^ 1821 New York Constitution article III, § 1
  9. ^ 1821 New York Constitution article I, § 15
  10. ^ 1821 New York Constitution article I, § 16
  11. ^ John Joseph Lalor, ed. (1883). "New York". Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States. II. Chicago: Melbert B. Cary & Company. p. 1017. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  12. ^ 1894 New York Constitution article IV, § 1
  13. ^ New York Constitution article IV, § 1
  14. ^ 1777 New York Constitution article X
  15. ^ New York Constitution article IV § 5
  16. ^ New York Constitution article IV § 6
  17. ^ "Executive Branch of the Several States". The Green Papers. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  18. ^ Lincoln, Charles Z. (1906). The Constitutional History of New York. II. Rochester, New York: The Lawyers Co-Operative Publishing Company. p. 512. ISBN 0-8476-9431-3. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  19. ^ "Clinton, George". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  20. ^ "John Jay". The Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Tompkins, Daniel D.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Clinton, DeWitt". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Pitcher, Nathaniel". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Martin, Van Buren". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  25. ^ "Throop, Enos Thompson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  26. ^ "March, William Learned". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  27. ^ "Seward, William Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Wright, Silas Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  29. ^ "Young John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Fish, Hamilton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  31. ^ "Hunt, Washington". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  32. ^ "King, John Alsop". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  33. ^ "Morgan, Edwin Denison". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Fenton, Reuben Eaton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  35. ^ "Dix, John Adams". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Grover Cleveland". The White House. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  37. ^ "Hill, David Bennett". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Flower, Roswell Pettibone". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Morton, Levi Parsons". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Black, Frank Swett". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  41. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt". The White House. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Odell, Benjamin Barker". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
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