List of Greek and Latin roots in English

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The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes very commonly used in the English language.

Some of those used in medicine and medical technology are not listed here but instead in the entry for List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes.


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ab-, a-, abs-, au- [1] away from Latin ab abnormal, abrasion, absent, abstain, abstraction, aversion, avulsion, abstract
acer-, acri- bitter, sharp, sour Latin ācer, ācris, acerbus, acere acerbic, acrid, acrimonious, acrimony, exacerbate
acet- sour, vinegar Latin acētum acetabulum, acetate, acetic, acetone, acetum, triacetate
acid- acidic, sour Latin acidus acidiferous, acidity, acidosis, acidulation, acidulous
acr- height, summit, tip Greek ἄκρος (ákros) "high", "extreme" acrobatics, acromegaly, acronym, acrophobia, acropolis, acrostic
acu-, acut- sharp, pointed Latin acutus, past participle of acuere "to sharpen", from acus "needle" acerose, acupuncture, acumen, acute, acutifoliate
ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, am-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at- [2] movement to or toward; in addition to Latin ad "to", "toward" accept, accurate, adapt, affect, agglomerate, aggregate, aggression, allege, allude, ammunition, annectent, approximate, arreption, arride, arrogant, ascend, assault, assimilate, attend, attract
adip- fat Latin adeps, adipis "fat" adipocellular, adipose
aer- (ΑΕΡ[3]) lift, raise Greek ἀείρειν (aeírein), ἀορτή (aortḗ), αἰρόμενον, ἀϝείρω aorta, aortic, endaortitis, meteor, meteorology
aero- air, atmosphere Greek ἀήρ, ἀέρος (āḗr, āéros) "air" aerobic, aerodynamic, aeronautics, aeroplane, aerorrhachia, aerosol, aerotitis
aesth- feeling, sensation Greek αἰσθητός (aisthētós), αἰσθητικός (aisthētikós) "of sense perception" from αἰσθάνεσθαι (aisthánesthai) "to perceive" aesthesia, aesthesis, aesthete, aesthetics, anaesthetic, synesthesia
aether-, ether- upper pure, bright air Greek αἴθειν (aíthein), αἰθήρ (aithḗr) ether, ethereal, etheric, hypaethros
aev-, ev- age Latin aevum age, coeval, eon, eternal, longevity, medieval, primeval
ag-, -ig-, act- do, go, move Latin agere, actus act, action, agenda, agent, agile, agitate, ambiguous, castigate, cogent, cogitate, cogitation, excogitate, mitigate, navigate
ag-, -agogue lead Greek ἄγειν (ágein) (cognate with Latin agere), ἀγωγός (agōgós) agony, antagonist, antagonize, demagogue, pedagogue, pedagogy, strategy, synagogue
agri-, -egri- field Latin ager, agris "field, country" agriculture, peregrine
agro- field Greek ἀγρός (agrós) agroforestry, agronomy
alac- cheerful Latin alacer alacrity, allegro
alb- dull white Latin albus albedo, albino, albumen
alcyon- [4] kingfisher Greek ἀλκυών, ἀλκυόνος (alkuṓn, alkuónos) Halcyon, halcyon
ale- (ΑΛ[5]) wheat flour Greek ἀλέω, ἄλευρον (áleuron), ἀλείατα aleuromancy, aleurone, aleuronic
alg- [6] pain Greek ἄλγος (álgos), ἀλγεινός, ἀλγεῖν (algeîn), ἄλγησις (álgēsis) analgesic, arthralgia, neuralgia, nostalgia
ali-, alter- other Latin alius alias, alibi, alien, alter, alternate, altruism
all- [7] other Greek ἄλλος (állos) allegory, allogenic, allograph, allophone, parallactic, parallax
allel- [8] one another Greek ἀλλήλων (allḗlōn) allele, allelomorph, allelotaxis, parallel, parallelism, parallelogon, parallelogram
alph- A, a Greek Α, α, ἄλφα (álpha) alphabet, alphabetic, analphabetic, panalphabetic, polyalphabetic
alphit- barley Greek ἀλφός (alphós), ἄλφιτον, ἀλφίτου (álphiton) alphitomancy
alt- high, deep Latin altus, altitudo altimeter, altitude
am-, amat- love, liking Latin amāre, amatus, amor amateur, amatory, amenity, amorous, enamoured
am-, amic-, -imic- friend Latin amicus amiable, amicable, amity, enemy, enmity, inimical
ambi-, am-, amb-, ambo-, an- both, on both sides Latin ambi ambidexterity, ambient, ambiguous, ambit, ambition, ambivalent, amboceptor, amputation, ancipital, andante
ambly- [9] dull Greek ἀμβλύς (amblús) amblygeustia, amblygonite, amblyopia, Amblypoda
ambul- walk Latin ambulare ambulance, ambulatory, preamble
amm- [10] sand Greek ἄμμος (ámmos), ἄμαθος (ámathos) amathophobia, Ammophila
amn- [11] lamb Greek ἀμνός (amnós), ἀμνεῖος, ἀμνειός, ἀμνίον (amníon) amniocentesis, amnion, amnioscope, amniote, amniotic, anamniote
amph-, amphi- [12] both, on both sides of, both kinds Greek ἀμφί (amphí) "on both sides" amphibian, amphibious, amphibole, amphibolic, amphimacer, Amphipoda, amphistyly, amphitheatre, amphoterism
ampl- ample, abundant, bountiful, large Latin amplus ample, amplify, amplitude
amygdal- almond Greek ἀμυγδάλη (amugdálē), ἀμύγδαλον (amúgdalon) almond, amygdala, amygdale, amygdalin, amygdaloid, amygdule
an-, a-, am-, ar- not, without Greek Greek ἀν-/ἀ- "not" ambrosia, anaerobic, anhydrous, arrhythmia, atheism, atypical
ana-, am-, an- [13] again, against, back, up Greek ἀνά (aná) anagram, anabaptist, anaphylaxis, anarrhexis, anion, anode
andr- (ΑΝΕΡ[14][15]) male, masculine Greek ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός (anḗr, andrós), ἀνδρότης Alexander, androcentric, androcentrism, androgen, androgenous, androgyne, androgynous, androgyny, android, andrology, androphobia, androspore, diandry, misandry, monandry, philander, polyandrous, polyandry, protandry, pseudandry, synandrous
anem- wind Greek ἄνεμος (ánemos) anemograph, anemometer, anemometric, anemone, anemophilous, anemophily, anemophobia, anemoscope, anemotropism
anim- breath, life, spirit Latin anima "breath" animal, animation
ann-, -enn- year, yearly Latin annus "year" anniversary, annual, centennial, millennium, perennial
ant-, anti- [16] against, opposed to, preventive Greek ἀντί (antí) "against" antagonist, antagonize, antibiotic, antipodes, antirrhinum
ante-, anti- [17] before, in front of, prior to; old Latin ante "before", "against"; see also antiquus "old" antebellum, antediluvian, anticipate, antiquarian, antiquated, antique, antiquity
anth- flower Greek ἄνθος (ánthos) anther, anthology
anthrac- coal Greek ἄνθραξ, ἄνθρακος (ánthraks, ánthrakos) anthracite, anthracycline, anthrax
anthrop- human Greek ἄνθρωπος (ánthrōpos) "man" anthropology, anthroposophy, anthropomorphic, misanthrope, philanthropy
ap-, apo- away from, separate, at the farthest point Greek ἀπό (apó) "from, away, un-, quite", sometimes "changed, switched" aphelion, apocrine, apocryphal, apogee, aporrhinosis, apostasy, apostate
aper- open Latin aperire aperient, apéritif, aperitive, aperture, overt, overture, pert
aqu- water Latin aqua acquacotta, akvavit, aqua vitae, aquaculture, aquamarine, aquarelle, aquarium, Aquarius, aquatic, aquatile, aqueduct, aqueous, aquifer, aquiferous, aquiform, gouache, semiaquatic
ara- plow, till Latin ărāre arability, arable, aration, aratory, exarate, exaration, inarable, nonarable
arbit- judge Latin arbiter (from ad "to" + baetere "to come, go") arbiter, arbitrage, arbitrary, arbitration
arcan- box Latin arcanus arcane, arcanum
arch-, arche-, archi- ruler Greek ἄρχειν (árchein), ἄρχων (árchōn), ἀρχή (archḗ) "rule" (in compounds: ἀρχε-, ἀρχι-) anarchy, archangel, archetype, architect, archon, autarchism, autarchy, exarch, monarchy, oligarchy, patriarchy, polyarchy, synarchy, triarchy
archae-, arche- ancient Greek ἀρχαῖος (arkhaîos) "ancient" from ἀρχή (arkhḗ) "rule" archaeology, archaic, archaism
arct- Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to cold Greek ἄρκτος (árktos) "bear", ἀρκτικός (arktikós) Antarctic, arctic, Arctic Ocean, palearctic
ard- heat, glow, passion Latin ardere "to burn", arsus ardent, ardor, arson
ardu- difficult Latin arduus "high, steep" arduous
argent- silver Latin argentum argent, Argentina
aret- virtue Greek ἀρετή (aretḗ) aretaic, arete
arid- be dry Latin ārēre "be dry or parched" arid
arist- excellence Greek ἄριστος (áristos) aristocracy, aristocrat
art- art, skill Latin ars, artis artifact, artifice, artificial, artificiality, artisan, inert, inertia
arthr- joint Greek ἄρθρον (árthron) arthritic, arthritis, arthropod, arthroscopic, arthrosis
asin- ass Latin asinus asinine, ass, easel
asper- rough Latin asper "rough" asperity, exasperate
aster-, astr- star, star-shaped Greek ἀστήρ, ἀστέρος (astḗr, astéros), ἄστρον (ástron) "star" aster, asterisk, asteroid, astrology, astronomy, astronaut, diasterism geaster, monaster
athl- prize Greek ἆθλος (áthlos) "contest, feat", ἄεθλος athlete, athletic, decathlon, pentathlon, triathlon
-athroid- gathered or lumped together Greek ἀθροίζειν (athroízein) "to gather together" epiathroid, hypoathroid
audac- daring Latin audax "brave, bold, daring", from audere "to dare" audacious, audacity
aud- hearing, listening, sound Latin audire "to hear" audible, audio, audiology, audit, audition, auditorium, auditory
aug-, auct- grow, increase Latin augēre, auctus "to increase" auction, augend, augment, augmentation, augur, augury, august, author, auxiliary, inauguration
aur- relating to gold, or gold-colored Latin aurum "gold" aureate, aureole
auri-, aus- relating to the ear Latin auris "ear" aural, auricle, aurinasal, auscultate, auscultation
aut-, auto- self; directed from within Greek αὐτός (autós) "self", "same" autarchy, authentic, autism, autocracy, autograph, automatic, autonomy
av- desire Latin avere "crave, long for" avarice, avaricious, avarous, ave, avid, avidity
avi-, au- bird Latin avis auspice, auspicious, avian, aviary, aviation, aviator
axi- merit Greek ἄξιος (áxios) "worth", ἀξίωμα (axíōma) axiology, axiom, axiomatic
axi- axis Latin axis axis, axisymmetry
axon- axis, axle Greek ἄξων, ἄξονος (áxōn, áxonos) axon, axonography, axonometric


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ba- [18] (ΒΑ[19]) Greek βαίνειν (baínein), βατός (batós), βάσις (básis), βῆμα, βήματος (bêma), βάτης, βάθρον (báthron), βατεῖν acrobatic, adiabatic, aerobatic, anabasis, anabatic, antiparabema, base, basic, basidiocarp, basidioma, basidiomycete, basidiospore, basidium, basion, basionym, basis, basophilic, bema, catabasis, catabatic, diabase, diabatic, diabetes, diabetic, dibasic, hyperbaton, hypobasis, katabasis, katabatic, monobasic, polybasic, stereobate, stylobate, tribasic
bac- rod-shaped Latin baculum baculiform, baculum, bacteria
bal-, bel-, bol- (ΒΑΛ[20]) throw Greek βάλλειν (bállein), βολή (bolḗ), βλῆμα (blêma) anabolic, anabolism, ball, ballista, ballistic, ballistospore, belomancy, belonephobia, bolide, catabolic, catabolism, devil, diabolic, emblem, emblematic, embolic, embolism, embolus, holometabolism, hyperbole, metabolism, parable, parabola, paraboloid, parle, parley, problem, problematic, symbol, symbolic, symbolism, taurobolium, thromboembolism
bapt- (ΒΑΦ[21]) dip Greek βάπτειν (báptein), βάμμα (bámma) abaptiston, Anabaptist, baptism, baptize
bar- weight, pressure Greek βαρύς (barús/barýs), βάρος (báros) barograph, barometer, barostat, barycentre, barycentric, baryogenesis, baryon, barysphere, baryton, barytone, hyperbaric, hypobaric, isobaric
bas- step Greek
bath- deep, depth Greek βαθύς (bathús/bathýs), βάθος (báthos) batholith, bathophobia, bathos, bathymetry, bathyscaphe, bathysphere, isobathic
be-, beat- bless Latin beare, beatus beatification
bell-, belli- war Latin bellum, belli antebellum, bellicose, belligerent, rebellion
ben- good, well Latin bene (adverb) beneficence, benefit, benevolent, benign, benignant, benignity
bi-, bin-, bis- two Latin bis, "twice"; bini, "in twos" bicycle, biennial, bifocal, bisexual, bigamy, binary, binoculars, biscotti
bib- drink Latin bibere, bibitus bib, beer, beverage, imbibe
bibl- [22] book Greek βίβλος (bíblos), βιβλίον (biblíon) "book" bible, biblioclasm, biblioclast, bibliogony, bibliographic, bibliography, biblioklept, bibliomancy, bibliomania, bibliophile, bibliophilia, bibliophobe, bibliophobia, bibliotaph
bio-, bi- life Greek βιοῦν (bioûn), βίος (bíos) "life", βιωτός (biōtós), βιωτικός (biōtikós), βίωσις (bíōsis) biodiversity, biography, biohazard, biology, biome, biometric, biosphere
blast- germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleus Greek βλαστάνειν (blastánein), "I put forth shoots", βλαστός (blastós), βλάστημα (blástēma) blastema, blastochyle, blastocoele, blastula, ectoblast, endoblast, entoblast, fibroblast, osteoblast, sideroblast
blenn- slime Greek βλέννος (blénnos) blennadenitis, blennophobia, blennosperma, blennorrhagia
bol- throw Greek
bol- [23] clod, lump Greek βῶλος (bôlos) bole, bolus
bomb- [24] boom Greek βομβεῖν, βόμβος, βόμβησις bomb, bound
bon- good Latin bonus bonify, bonitary
bore- north Latin from Greek borealis "northern" from Βορέας (Boreas) "the north wind" borealis
botan- plant Greek βοτάνη, βότανον (botánē, bótanon), βοτανικός botanic, botanist, botanology, botany
bov-, bu- cow, ox Latin bos (genitive bovis) "ox, cow" beef, boor, bovine, bucinator muscle
brachi-, brachio- arm Latin bracchium brachiferous, brachial artery, brachiocubital
brachi-, brachio-, brachion-, brachioni- arm Greek βραχίων (brakhíōn) brachialgia, brachionerysipelas, brachionigraph, brachiorrhachidian, brachiosaurus
brachy- [25] short Greek βραχύς (brakhús, brakhýs) amphibrach, brachistochrone, brachycephaly, brachydactyly, brachyury, dibrach, tribrach
brady-, bradys- [26] slow Greek βραδύς (bradús, bradýs), βράδος (brádos) bradycardia, bradysuria, bradytelic
branchi- gill Greek βράγχιον (brágkhion, bránkhion) branchiopneustic, branchiopod, nudibranch
brev- brief, short (time) Latin brevis, breviare abbreviate, brevextensor, brevicaudate, brevity, brief
bromat-, bromato-, broma-, bromo- food Greek βρῶμα (brōma) bromatium, bromateccrisis, bromatherapy, bromatology, bromography
brom- [27] oats Greek βρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, brómē) "oats" brome, Bromus, Bromus ramosus
brom- stench Greek βρῶμος (brōmos) "stench, clangor" bromate, bromide, bromine, bromoderma, organobromine
bronch- [28] windpipe Greek βρόγχος (brógkhos/brónkhos), βρόγχια (brónchia) bronchia, bronchiole, bronchion, bronchitis, bronchomalacia, bronchopneumonia, bronchus, tracheobronchomalacia
bront- [29] thunder Greek βροντή (brontḗ) brontology, brontophobia, Brontosaurus
brot- [30] mortal Greek βροτός (brotós) ambrosia, ambrotype
bucc- cheek, mouth, cavity Latin bucca buccal, buccilingual, buccolingual
bulb- bulbous Latin bulbus bulbiform, bulbiparous, bulboartrial, bulborrhexis, bulbous, bulbule
bull- bubble, flask Latin bullire, bulla bullectomy, bulliferous, ebullient, ebullism
burs- pouch, purse Latin bursa bursa, bursalogy, bursar, bursary, bursectomy, bursiform, disburse
butyr- [31] butter Greek βούτυρον (boúturon) butyric
byss- [32] bottom Greek βυσσός, βυσσοῦ (bussós) abyss, abyssopelagic, hypabyssal
byss- [33] flax Greek βύσσος (bússos) byssus


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
cac-, kak- bad Greek κακός (kakós), κάκιστος (kákistos) cachexia, cacodemon, cacography, cacophony, cacorrhacitis, kakistocracy
cad-, -cid-, cas- fall Latin cadere, casus accident, cadaver, cadence, cascade, case, recidivism
caed, -cid-, caes-, -cis- cut, kill Latin caedere, caesus caesura, excise, germicide, homicide, incisor, scissors
cal-, call- beautiful Greek καλός (kalós) "beautiful"; κάλλος (kállos) "beauty", κάλλιστος (kállistos) calisthenics, calligraphy, Callista, Callisto, calophyllous, kaleidoscope
cal- call Latin calare calendar, claim, class, conciliate, conciliatory, council, intercalate, nomenclature
cal- heat Latin calere, calor "heat" caldarium, caldera, calefacient, calefaction, calefactive, calefactory, calenture, calescent, calid, calor, calore, caloric, calorie, calorifacient, calorific, calorigenic, calorimeter, caudle, cauldron, chafe, chafery, chalder, chaldron, chaud-froid, chauffer, chauffeur, chauffeuse, decalescence, decalescent, nonchalance, nonchalant, recalescence, scald
calc- stone Latin and Greek from Latin calx (genitive calcis) "lime", from Greek χάλιξ (khalix) "pebble", "limestone" calcite, calcitrant, calcium, calculate, calculus, chalicothere, chalk, recalcitrant
cale-, cle- call Greek καλέειν/καλεῖν (kaléein/kaleîn), κλῆσις (klēsis), κλητός (klētós) ecclesia, Ecclesiastes, ecclesiastic, ecclesiology, ecclesiophobia, epiclesis, paraclete
calv-, calum- trick, lie, deceive Latin calumnia "slander, trickery", from calvi "to trick, deceive" calumnious, calumny, cavil, challenge
calyp- cover Greek καλύπτειν (kalúptein), καλυπτός (kaluptós), κάλυξ (kálux) apocalypse, calyx, epicalyx, eucalyptus
camer- vault Latin camera antechamber, bicameral, camaraderie, camber, camera, chamber, chamberlain, comrade, concamerate, concameration, multicamera, tricameral, unicameral
camisi- shirt Latin camisia camisade, camisado, Camisard, camisole, chemise
camp- field Latin campus "field", "level ground" camp, campaign, campesino, campestral, campicolous, campimetry, campsite, campus, champion, decamp, encamp, encampment
can- dog Latin canis canaille, canary, canicule, canid, canine, Canis, Canis Major
can- reed, rod Greek κάννα (kánna), κανών (kanṓn) cane, canister, canon, canonic
can-, -cin-, cant-, -cent- sing Latin canere, cantus accent, accentual, accentuate, accentuation, canción, canorous, cant, cantabile, cantata, cantation, cantatory, cantatrice, canticle, canticum, cantiga, cantilena, cantillate, cantillation, cantion, canto, cantor, cantus, canzona, canzone, Carmen, chanson, chansonnier, chant, chanteur, chanteuse, chanticleer, charm, concent, descant, discant, discantus, disenchant, disenchantment, disencharm, disincentive, enchant, enchantment, enchantress, incantation, incantational, incentive, plainchant, precentor, recant, recantation, succentor, vaticinate, vaticination, vaticinator
cand-, cend- glowing, iridescent Latin candere "to be white or glisten" candela, candid, candle, candor, incandescent, incendiary, incense
cap-, -cip-, capt-, -cept- hold, take Latin capere, captus "take or hold" (vowel changes from a to i in compounds) capable, capacious, captive, caption, captivate, capture, conception, except, forceps, incipient, intercept, recipient
capit-, -cipit- head Latin caput, capitis achievable, achieve, achievement, ancipital, ancipitous, biceps, bicipital, cabotage, cad, caddie, cadet, cape, capital, capitular, capitulate, capitulation, captain, chapter, chaptrel, chattel, chef, chief, chieftain, co-captain, co-captaincy, decapitate, decapitation, occipital, occiput, precipitation, precipitous, quadriceps, recap, recapitulate, sincipital, sinciput, sous-chef, subcaptain, triceps, tricipital, unicipital, vice-captain, vice-captaincy
capr- goat Latin caper (genitive capri) "goat", also capreolus "wild goat" cab, caper, caprice, Capricorn, caprine
caps- box, case Latin capsa capsule
carbon- coal Latin carbo, carbonis arbonara, bicarbonate, carbon, carbonate, carbonation, Carboniferous, carbuncle, radiocarbon
carcer- jail Latin carcer, carcerare, cancelli chancel, chancellery, chancellor, chancery, incarcerate, incarceration, subchancel
carcin- cancer (disease) Latin from Greek Latin from Greek καρκίνος (karkínos) "crab" carcinogenic, carcinoma
cardi- heart Greek καρδιά (kardía) cardiac, cardiograph, cardioid, cardiology, cardiomyopathy, electrocardiogram, endocardium, epicardium, hemicardia, myocardium, pericardium
cardin- hinge Latin cardo, cardinis cardinal, cardinality, kern
carn- flesh Latin caro, carnis carnage, carnal, carnality, carnary, carnate, carnation, carneous, carnival, carnivore, carnose, carnosity, carrion, caruncle, carunculate, charcuterie, charnel, discarnate, incarnadine, incarnate, incarnation, reincarnate, reincarnation
carp- fruit Greek καρπός (karpós) "fruit" acarpous, angiocarpous, anisocarpic, Carpo, carpogonium, carpology, carpophagous, carpophore, carpospore, cystocarp, endocarp, epicarp, mesocarp, monocarpic, pericarp, polycarpic, procarp, pseudocarp
carp- wrist Greek καρπός (karpós) "wrist" carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome, carpus, metacarpus
cast- pure, cut Latin castrare and castus, from kes- (to cut) caste, castigate, castrate, chaste, chastity, incest
cata-, cat- down, against, back Greek κατά (katá) "down, against, back" catabolic, catacomb, catalyst, catarrhine, catastrophe, catatonia, cathode, cation
caten- chain Latin catena catenary, concatenation
cathar- pure Greek καθαρός (katharós) catharsis, cathartic
caud- tail Latin cauda caudal, coda
caus-, -cus- cause or motive Latin causa accuse, because, causal, causative, cause, excuse
caust-, caut- burn Greek καίειν (kaíein), καυστός/καυτός (kaustós), καυστικός calm, catacaustic, caustic, cauter, cauterize, cautery, diacaustic, holocaust, hypocaust
cav- hollow Latin cavus cave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess- move, yield, go, surrender Latin cedere, cessus accede, cede, concede, precede, procedure, proceed, procession, recede, secede, succeed, success
cel- hide Latin celare "to hide" ceiling, clandestine, conceal, occult
celer- quick Latin celer, celerare acceleration, celerity
cen-, caen- new Greek καινός (kainós) caenogastropod, caenogenesis, Cenozoic
cen- empty Greek κενός (kenós) cenotaph, kenosis
cen-, coen- common Greek κοινός (koinós) cenobite, coenesthesia, coenocyte
cens- to assess Latin censere censure, census
cent- hundred Latin centum cent, centennial, centurion, percent
centen- hundred each Latin centeni centenarian, centenary
centesim- hundredth Latin centesimus centesimal, centesimation
centr- center Greek κέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur" eccentric
centri- center Latin centrum central, center, concentrate, concentric, centrifugal, centripetal
cephal- head Greek κεφαλή (kephalḗ) acephalic, acephaly, anencephaly, autocephaly, brachiocephalic, brachycephalic, cephalic, cephalomancy, cephalometry, cephalon, cephalopagus, cephalopod, diencephalon, dolichocephalic, encephalitis, encephalogram, encephalopathy, holoprosencephaly, hydrocephalus, macrocephaly, mesaticephalic, mesencephalic, mesocephalic, metencephalon, microcephaly, myelencephalon, neencephalon, paleencephalon, prosencephalon, rhombencephalon, rhombencephalosynapsis, syncephalus, telencephalon
ceram- clay Greek κέραμος (keramos) ceramic
cerat- horn Greek κέρας (keras), κέρατος (keratos) keratin, triceratops
cern-, cer- sift Latin cernere "to sift, separate" ascertain, certain, concern, concert, decree, discern, excrement, secern, secret
cervic- relating to the neck, relating to the cervix Latin cervix, cervicis "neck" cervix, cervical
ceter- other Latin ceterus et cetera
chir- of the hand or hands Greek χείρ (kheir) "hand" chiral, chiropractic, chiroptera
chelon- relating to a turtle Greek χελώνη (khelōne) "tortoise" chelonia
chlor- green Greek χλωρός (khlōros) chlorine, chlorophyll, chloroplast
chondr- cartilage Greek χόνδρος (chondros) hypochondriasis
chore- relating to dance Greek χορεία (khoreia) "dancing in unison" from χορός (khoros) "chorus" choreography, chorus
chord- cord Latin and Greek chorda "rope" from χορδή (chordē) chordata, cord
chrom- color Greek χρῶμα (chrōma) chromatic, chrome, chromium, chromosome, monochrome, polychrome
chron- time Greek χρόνος (chronos) anachronism, chronic, chronicle, chronology, chronometer, synchronize
chrys- gold Greek χρυσός (khrusos) chrysalis, chrysolite
cili- eyelash Latin cilium cilia, supercilious
ciner- ash Latin cinis, cineris incineration
cing-, cinct- gird Latin cingere, cinctus succinct
circ- circle, ring Latin circulus, circus circle, circular, circulate, circus
circum- around Latin circum circumcise, circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate, circumscribe
cirr- orange Greek κιρρός (kirros) cirrhosis
cirr- curl, tentacle Latin cirrus cirrus
cit- call, start Latin citare, frequentative of ciere citation, cite, excite, incite, solicit, solicitous
civ- citizen Latin civis civic, civil, civilian, civility, civilization
clad- branch Greek κλάδος (klados) clade
clam- cry out Latin clamare acclaim, claim, clamor, exclamation, proclamation, reclamation
clar- clear Latin clarus, clarare clarity, clear, declaration
clast- broken Greek κλαστός (klastos) iconoclast, osteoclast
claud-, -clud-, claus-, -clus- close, shut Latin claudere, clausus clause, claustrophobia, conclude, exclude, exclusive, include, occlusion, occult, recluse, seclude
clav- key Greek κλείς (kleis) "key" from κλείειν, (kleiein) "to close" clavichord, clavicle, conclave
cleist- closed Greek κλειστός (kleistos) cleistogamy
cleithr- bar, key Greek κλεῖϑρον (kleithron) cleithrum
clement- mild Latin clemens, clementis clemency, inclement
clin- bed Greek κλίνη (klinē) clinic
clin- lean, recline Latin -clinare decline, declination, incline, inclination, recline
cochl- snail, spiral shell Greek κόχλος (kochlos) cochlea
coel- hollow Greek κοῖλος (koilos) blastocoel, coelom, spongocoel
col- strain Latin colare, colum colander, coulee, percolate
coll- hill Latin collis colliculus
coll- neck Latin collum accolade, collar
color- color Latin color coloration, coloratura, tricolor
comi- friendly, kind Latin comis "courteous, kind" comity
con-, co-, col-, com-, cor- with, together Latin cum (from older form quom) coagulate, collide, compress, connect, connote, contain, corrode, quondam
con- cone Greek κῶνος (kōnos) conic, conical, conoid
condi- season Latin condire condiment
contra- against Latin contra contraband, contraception, contradict, contraindicate, contrast, contravene
copi- plenty Latin copia copious, copy, cornucopia
copr- dung Greek κόπρος (kópros) coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
copul- bond Latin copula "that which binds" copula, copulation, couple
cor-, cord- heart Latin cor, cordis accord, cordial, core, concord, courage, discord, discordant, encourage, record
corac- raven Greek κόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos) coracoid
cori- hide, leather Latin corium, corii excoriate
corn- horn Latin cornu cornea, cornucopia, unicorn
coron- crown Latin corona, coronare corona, coronation
corp-, corpor- body Latin corpus, corporis corporation, corporal, corporeal, corpse, corpulent, corpuscle, incorporate
cortic- bark Latin cortex, corticis cortical
cosm- universe Greek κόσμος (kosmos) cosmic, cosmonaut, cosmopolitan, cosmos, microcosm
cosmet- the art of dress and ornament Greek κοσμητική (kosmētikḗ) from κόσμος (kόsmos) cosmetics, cosmetology
cost- rib Latin costa costal
cotyl- cup Greek κοτύλη (kotulē) cotyledon
-cracy, -crat government, rule, authority Greek κράτος (krάtos), κρατία (kratía) acrasia, akrasia, akratic, anocracy, aristocracy, autocracy, autocrat, autocratic, bureaucracy, democracy, democratic, pancratium, plutocracy, technocracy, technocrat, theocracy
crani- skull Greek κρανίον (kraníon) craniologist, craniometry, craniosynostosis, cranium, hemicrania, megrim, migraine
crass- thick Latin crassus crassitude
crea- make Latin creare, creatus creation, creature, creole, procreation, recreation
cred- believe, trust Latin credere, creditus accreditation, credence, credentials, credibility, credible, credit, creditor, credo, credulity, credulous, creed, discredit, incredible, incredulous, miscreant, recreant
crep- boot, shoe Greek κρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpis, krēpidos) crepidoma
cresc- grow, rise Latin crescere accresce, accrescence, accrescent, accrete, accretion, accrue, concrete, crescendo, crescent, crew, decrease, increase, recruit, recruitment, surcrew
cribr- sieve Latin cribrum, cribrare cribble, cribrate
cric- ring Greek κρίκος (krikos) cricoid
crisp- curled Latin crispus crepe, crispate
crist- crest Latin crista cristate
crit-, crisi- judge, separate Greek κρίνειν (krinein), κρίσις (krisis) crisis, criterion, critic, critical, diacritic, endocrine, hypocrisy
cross- fringe, tassel Greek κροσσός (krossos) crossopterygii
cruc- cross Latin crux, crucis crucial, crucifix, crucify, excruciating
crur- leg, shank Latin crus, cruris crural
-cry wail, shriek Latin critare, from quiritare cry, decry, descry
crypt- hidden Greek κρύπτειν (kruptein) "to hide", κρυπτός (kruptos) apocryphal, cryptic, cryptography
cten- comb Greek κτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos) ctenophore
cub- cube Greek κύβος (kubos) cubic, cuboid
cub- lie Latin cubare incubation, succuba
culin- kitchen Latin culina culinary
culp- blame, fault Latin culpa culpable, culprit, exculpate
cune- wedge Latin cuneus cuneiform
cur- care for Latin cura, curare accurate, curative, curator, cure, curious, manicure, pedicure, secure, sinecure
curr-, curs- run, course Latin currere, cursus concur, concurrent, corridor, courier, course, currency, current, cursive, cursor, cursory, discourse, excursion, incur, occur, recur, recursion, recursive, succor
curv- bent Latin curvus "crooked, curved", from curvare "to bend" cavort, curb, curvature, curve
cuspid- lance, point Latin cuspis, cuspidis bicuspid
cult-, col- cultivate, till, inhabit Latin colere colony, cult, cultivate, cultivation, culture
cut- skin Latin cutis cutaneous, cuticle
cyan- blue Greek κυανός (kuanos) cyanide
cycl- circular Greek κύκλος (kúklos) acyclic, anticyclone, anticyclonic, bicycle, cycle, cyclic, cycloid, cyclone, cyclops, cyclosis, dicyclic, eccyclema, epicycle, epicycloid, hemicycle, hemicyclium, heterocyclic, homocyclic, hypocycloid, isocyclic, mesocyclone, monocyclic, polycyclic, pseudocyclosis, tetracyclic, tricycle, tricyclic, unicycle
cylind- roll Greek κυλίνδειν (kulíndein), κύλινδρος (kúlindros) cylinder, cylindric, cylindroid, cylindroma, pseudocylindric
cyn- dog Greek κύων, κυνός (kúōn, kunós) cynic, cynicism, cynodont, cynology, cynophobia, Cynosaurus, cynosure, eucynodont
cyst- capsule Greek κύστις (kustis) cystic
cyt- cell Greek κύτος (kutos) cnidocyte, cytoplasm


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
dactyl- digit, finger, toe Greek δάκτυλος (dáktulos) dactylology, polydactyly, pterodactyl
daman- to tame Greek adamas "untameable, invincible" adamant, adamantine, Damian
damn-, -demn- to inflict loss upon Latin damnāre condemn, damnation, indemnify
de- down, away from, removing Latin decay, declare, decline, decompose, dedicate, deduce, defend, deletion, delineate, delude, demarcate, dementia, depress, derogatory, desecrate, descend, destroy, detract
deb- owe Latin debere, debitus debit, debt
dec- ten Greek δέκα (déka) "ten", δεκάς, δεκάδος (dekás, dekádos), δεκάκις (dekákis) "ten times", δεκαπλάσιος (dekaplásios) "ten-fold" decad, decade, decagon, decagram, decahedron, Decalogue, decamer, decamerous, decameter, decapod, decathlon
decim- tenth part Latin decimus, tenth; from decem, ten decimal, decimate
decor- ornament Latin decorus "fit, proper" and decorare "to decorate", from decor "beauty, ornament" and decus "ornament" decor, decorate, decorous, decorum
del- delete Latin delere (from + linere) delete, deletion, indelible
delt- shaped like a Δ Greek δέλτα (délta) deltoid
dem- people Greek δῆμος (dēmos) demagogue, democracy, demography, endemic, epidemic
den- ten each Latin deni denarius, denary, denier, dinar, dinero, dinheiro
dendr- resembling a tree Greek δένδρον (déndron); akin to δρύς (drys) "tree" dendric, dendrite, dendrochronology, rhododendron
dens- thick Latin densus condense, dense, density
dent- tooth Latin dens, dentis dental, dentifrice, dentures
der- skin Greek δέρειν (dérein), δέρμα, δέρματος (dérma, dérmatos) Dermaptera, dermatology, dermis, ectoderm, endoderm, epidermis, hypodermic, mesoderm, scleroderma, taxidermy, xeroderma
deuter- second Greek δεύτερος (deúteros) deuteragonist, Deuteronomy, deuterostome
dexi- right Greek δεξιός (deksiós) Dexiarchia
dexter- right Latin dexter dexterity, dextrose
di- two Greek δι- (di-) dicot, diode, dipole
dia- apart, through Greek διά (diá) diagram, dialysis, diameter
dic-, dict- say, speak, proclaim Latin dīcere, dictus, dictare benediction, condition, contradict, dictate, dictation, dictator, diction, dictionary, dictum, edict, indictment, interdiction, malediction, predict, prediction, valediction, verdict
dida- teach Greek διδάσκειν (didáskein) autodidact, Didache, didact, didactic
digit- finger Latin digitus digital
dino- terrible, fearfully great Greek δεινός (deinós) dinosaur
dipl- double; twofold Greek διπλός (diplós) diploid, diploma, diplosis
doc-, doct- teach Latin docere, doctus docile, doctor, doctrine, document, indoctrinate, indoctrination
dodec- twelve Greek δώδεκα (dōdeka) dodecahedron, dodecasyllabic
dog-, dox- opinion, tenet Greek δόξα (dóxa) "opinion", from δοκεῖν (dokeîn) "to appear, seem, think", δόγμα (dógma) dogma, dogmatic, dogmatism, doxology, heterodox, orthodox, paradox
dol- pain Latin dolere "to grieve", also dolus "grief" and dolor "pain" condolence, dol, doleful, dolorous, indolence
dom- house Latin domus dame, dome, domestic, domicile
domin- master Latin dominus "master"; (from domus "house") danger, domain, dominant, dominate, domination, domineer, dominion, domino, dungeon, predominant
domit- tame Latin domitare, frequentative of domare daunt, domitable, indomitable
don- give Latin dōnum, donare condone, donate, donation, donor, pardon
dorm- sleep Latin dormire dormant, dormitory
dors- back Latin dorsum dorsal, dorsum, dossier, endorse
drom- run Greek δραμεῖν (drameîn), δρόμος (drómos) anadromous, catadromous, diadromous, heterodromous, hippodrome, palindrome, syndrome
du- two Latin duo deuce, dual, duality, duo, duplex, duplicity
dub- doubtful Latin dubius doubt, dubiety, dubious
duc-, duct- lead Latin ducere, ductus abduce, abduct, adduce, adduct, conduce, deduce, induce, introduce, produce, reduce, seduce, traduce
dulc- sweet Latin dulcis billet-doux, dolce, dulcet, dulcian, dulcimer
dur- hard Latin durus, durare durable, duration, duress, endure, obduracy, obdurate, obduration
dy- two Greek δύο (dúo) dyad, dyadic
dyna- power Greek δύναμις (dúnamai) dynamic, dynamism, dynamite, dynamo, dynasty, heterodyne
dys- badly, ill Greek δυσ- (dus-) dysentery, dysplasia, dystrophy


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ec- out Greek ἐκ (ek) eccentric, ecstasy, ecstatic
ecclesi- assembly, congregation Greek ἐκκλησία (ekklēsiā) from ἐκκαλέω (ekkaleō) "I summon" or "I call out" Ecclesiastes, ecclesiastical
eco- house Greek οἶκος (oikos) ecology, economics, economy, ecumenism
ecto- outside Greek ἐκτός (ektos) ectoderm
ed-, es- eat Latin edere, esus edible, obesity
eg- goat Greek αἴξ, αἰγός (aix) egophony
ego- self, I (first person) Latin, Greek ego, ἐγώ egocentric
eiren- peace Greek εἰρήνη (eirene) "peace" eirenic, irenic, irenology
electr- amber Greek ἤλεκτρον (elektron) electron, electricity, electric, electronic
elem-, alm- pity Greek ἐλεημοσύνη (eleemosyne) almoner, alms, eleemosynary
em-, empt- buy Latin emere, emptus exemption, preempt, redeem
eme- vomit Greek ἐμεῖν, ἔμετος (emein, emetos) emesis, emetic
emul- striving to equal, rivaling Latin aemulus, aemulare emulator
en-, em- in Greek ἐν (en) emphasis, enclitic, enthusiasm
encephal- brain Greek ἐγκέφαλος (enkephalos) encephalopathy
endo- inside, within Greek ἔνδον (endon) endocardial, endocrine, endocytosis, endoskeleton, endosperm
engy- narrow Greek ἐγγύς (engys) Engystomops
ennea- nine Greek ἐννέα (ennea) ennead, enneagon, enneode
ens- sword Latin ensis ensiform
eo-, eos- dawn, east Greek Ἠώς/Ἕως (ēṓs) Eocene
ep-, epi- upon Greek ἐπί (epi) ephemeral, epicenter, epidemic, epistemic, epitaph, epithet, epoch, epiphany
equ-, -iqu- even, equal, level Latin aequus equal, equanimity, equate, Equator, equilibrium, equinox, equipoise, equity, equivalence, equivocal, equivocate, iniquity
equ- horse Latin equus equestrian
ere- row Greek ἐρέσσειν (eréssein), ἐρέτης (erétēs) "rower", ἐρετμόν (eretmón), εἰρεσία trierarch
erg-, org-, urg- work Greek ϝέργον (wérgon), έργον (érgon), ἐργάτης (ergátēs), ὄργανον (órganon), ὀργανικός (organikós), ὄργια (órgia) allergic, allergy, argon, demiurge, dramaturgy, endoergic, energetic, energy, erg, ergate, ergatocracy, ergodic, ergometer, ergonomics, ergophobia, exoergic, georgic, heterorganic, homorganic, liturgy, metallurgy, microorganism, organ, organic, organism, organist, organize, organogenesis, organoid, organoleptic, orgiastic, orgy, parergon, surgeon, synergism, synergy, theurgic, theurgist, theurgy, zymurgy
erot- [34] (sexual) love Greek ἔρως, ἔρωτος (erōs, erōtos) erogenous, erotic
err- stray Latin errare aberration, err, errant, erroneous, error
erythr- red Greek ἐρυθρός (eruthros) erythrocyte
eso- within Greek ἔσω (esō) esoteric
eth- custom, habit Greek ἦθος (ēthos) ethology
ethm- sieve, sift Greek ἠθεῖν (ētheîn), ἠθμός (ēthmos); ἤθειν (hethein) ethmoid
ethn- people, race, tribe, nation Greek ἔθνος (ethnos) ethnarch, ethnic, polyethnic
etym- true Greek ἔτυμος (etumos) etymology, etymon
eu- well, good Greek εὖ (eu) euphoria, euthanasia
eur- wide Greek εὐρύς (eurus) Europe, eurypterid
ex-, e-, ef- from, out Latin ex exclude, exist, exit, extend, extrude
exo- outside Greek ἔξω (eksō) exoskeleton, exothermic
extra- outer Latin extra, extraneus and exterus estrange, exterior, extra, extraordinary, strange
extrem- outermost, utmost Latin extremus extreme, extremity, extremophile


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
fa-, fat- (FA[35]) say, speak Latin fari, see also fateri affable, bifarious, confess, defamation, fable, fame, fascinate, fate, ineffability, infamy, infancy, infant, infantry, nefarious, preface, profess
fab- bean Latin faba faba bean
fac-, fact-, -fect-, -fic- (FAC[36]) do, make Latin facere, factus affair, affect, affectation, amplify, artifact, artifice, benefactor, benefice, benefit, confection, counterfeit, defeat, defect, disaffect, edifice, effect, effectible, effection, effective, effectivity, effector, effectual, effectuality, effectuate, effectuation, efficacious, efficacity, efficacy, efficiency, efficient, enface, enfacement, facade/façade, face, facet, facette, facial, faciend, facient, facile, facilitate, facilitation, facilitative, facilitator, facilitatory, facility, facinorous, facsimile, fact, faction, factional, factionary, factious, factitious, factor, factorable, factorial, factory, factotum, factual, fake, fashion, feasible, feat, feature, feckless, fiat, forfeit, infect, inofficious, interoffice, laissez-faire, malefaction, manufacture, modify, nonofficial, office, official, officiant, officiary, officiate, officious, olfaction, omnificence, omnificent, parfait, perfect, perfecta, perfectibility, perfectible, perfection, perfective, perfector, pluperfect, prefect, prefectural, prefecture, prequalification, proficiency, proficient, profit, profitability, profitable, profiteer, profiterole, prolific, qualification, quasiperfect, rarefy, refactorable, refashion, refect, refection, refectory, reinfect, remanufacture, resurface, reunification, sacrifice, scientific, semelfactive, suboffice, subprefect, suffice, sufficiency, sufficient, superficial, superficiality, surface, surfeit, surficial, transfection, trifacial, trifecta, uniface, unifacial, unifactorial, unification
falc- sickle Latin falx, falcis defalcation, falcate, falciform, falchion, falcon
fall-, fallac-, fals- false, deceive Latin fallere, falsus, fallax, fallacis default, fail, fallacious, fallacy, fallible, false, falsetto, falsify, falsity, fault
famili- a close attendant Latin famulus familiarity, family
fasc- bundle Latin fascis fasciculation, fascism
fatu- foolish, useless Latin fatuus fatuous, infatuation
feder- treaty, agreement, contract, league, pact Latin foederare, from foedus (genitive foederis); see also fides "faith" confederacy, confederation, federal, federate, federation
fel- cat Latin feles, felis Felinae, feline
felic- happy, merry Latin felix, felicis felicity
fell- suck Latin fellare fellation
femin- women, female Latin femina femininity
femor- thigh Latin femur (genitive femoris) femoral, femur
fend-, fens- strike Latin fendere, -fensus defend, fend, offend, offense
fenestr- window Latin fenestra defenestration
fer- to bear, carry Latin ferre aquifer, circumference, confer, conifer, defer, differ, ferry, fertile, infer, Lucifer, offer, prefer, refer, suffer, transfer, vociferous
ferv- boil, glow Latin fervere ferment, fervent, fervid, fervor, perfervid
feroc- fierce Latin ferox, ferocis ferocity
ferr- iron Latin ferrum ferrous
fet- stink Latin fetere fetid, fetor
fic- fig Latin ficus Ficus, fig
fid-, fis- faith, trust Latin fides "faith, trust", from fidere "to trust" confidante, confidence, confident, diffident, faith, fealty, fidelity, fiduciary, infidel, perfidious, perfidy
fig-, fing-, fict- (FIG[37]) to form, shape Latin fingere "to touch, handle; devise; fabricate, alter, change" configure, disfigure, effigy, feign, fiction, fictitious, figment, figurine, nonfiction, transfigure
fil- thread Latin filum defile, filament, file, filigree, fillet, profile
fili- son Latin filius affiliation
fin- end Latin finis affinity, confine, define, final, finale, finance, fine, finish, finite, infinite, refine
find-, fiss- (FID[38]) cleave, split Latin findere, fissus fission, fissure
firm- firm, strong Latin firmus, firmare affirm, confirm, confirmation, firm, firmament, infirm
fistul- hollow, tube Latin fistula fistula
fix- attach Latin fixare, frequentative of figere affix, fix, fixation, fixture, prefix, suffix, transfix
fl-, fla- (FLA[39]) blow Latin flāre, flātus afflatus, conflate, deflate, flatulence, flatus, flavor, flute, inflate, insufflation, soufflé, sufflate
flacc- flabby Latin flaccus, flaccere flaccid
flav- yellow Latin flavus flavonoid
flect-, flex- bend Latin flectere, flexus circumflex, deflect, flex, flexible, flexile, flexion, flexor, inflect, inflection, reflect, reflection, reflex
flig-, flict- strike Latin flīgere, flictus afflict, conflict, inflict, profligacy, profligate
flor- flower Latin flos, floris floral, florid
flu-, fluv-, flux- flow Latin fluere, fluxus affluent, confluence, effluent, fluctuate, fluctuation, fluency, fluent, fluid, fluidity, flush, fluvial, flux, influence, influx, superfluous
foc- hearth Latin focus bifocal, focal, focus
fod-, foss- dig Latin fodere, fossus fossil
foen- hay Latin foenum Foeniculum
foli- leaf Latin folium defoliant
font- spring Latin fons, fontis font, fontal, fontanelle
for- bore, drill Latin forare, foratus foralite, foramen, foraminifer, perforation
form- shape Latin forma conform, deform, form, formal, formation, formula, formulate, inform, perform, reform, uniform
formic- ant Latin formica formaldehyde, formic acid
fornic- vault Latin fornix, fornicis fornication
fort- strong Latin fortis force, fort, forte, fortify, fortitude, fortress
fove- shallow round depression Latin fovea fovea
frag-, frang-, -fring-, fract- break Latin frangere, fractus defray, diffract, fractal, fraction, fractious, fracture, fragile, fragment, frangible, fray, infraction, infringe, refract, refractory, refrain
frater-, fratr- brother Latin frater fraternal, fraternity
fric-, frict- rub Latin fricare, frictus dentifrice, friction
frig- cold Latin frigere frigid, frigorific
front- forehead Latin frons, frontis confront, frontage, frontal
fruct-, frug- fruit Latin frux, fructis fructose, frugivorous
fug-, fugit- flee Latin fugere centrifuge, fugacious, fugitive, refuge
fum- smoke Latin fumus fume, fumigation
fund- bottom Latin fundare "to found", from fundus "bottom, foundation" found, founder, foundation, fund, fundament, fundamental, fundamentalism, profound, profundity
fund-, fus- pour Latin fundere, fusus confound, diffusion, effusion, effusive, found, fusion, infusion, perfusion, profuse, profusion, refund, suffusion, transfusion
fulmin- flash Latin fulmen "lightning flash" fulminant, fulminate, fulmination
fung-, funct- do Latin fungi, functus function, fungibility
fur-, furt- thief, steal Latin fur (genitive furis) "thief", furare ferret, furtive
furc- fork Latin furca bifurcation
fusc- dark Latin fuscus fuscous, obfuscate, obfuscation


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
galact- (ΓΛΑΚ[40]) milk Greek γάλα, γάλακτος (gála, gálaktos) galactagogue, galactic, galactorrhea, lactose
gam- marriage, wedding Greek γάμος (gámos), γαμεῖν (gameîn), γαμέτης (gamétēs), γαμετή (gametḗ) allogamy, anisogamete, anisogamy, autogamy, cryptogam, endogamy, exogamy, gamete, gametic, gametophyte, heterogametic, heterogamous, heterogamy, homogametic, karyogamy, misogamy, monogamy, oogamy, planogamete, plasmogamy, polygamist, polygamy
gamb- leg Latin gamba gam, gambit, gambol, gammon
gar- (GAR[41]) chatter Latin garrire gargantuan, gargle, gargoyle, garrulous, jargon
gastr- stomach Greek γαστήρ, γαστρός (gastḗr, gastrós) gastric, gastrin, gastritis, gastroenterologist, gastroenterology, gastrolith, gastronomic, gastronomy, gastroparesis, gastropod, mesogastric, Myxogastria
ge-, geo- earth Greek γῆ (), γαῖα, γαίας (gaîa), γεω- (geō-) apogee, biogeography, epigeous, geocentric, geocentrism, geode, geodesy, geodetic, geography, geoid, geology, geomancy, geometry, hypogeous, hypogeum, Pangea, perigee
geiton- neighbor Greek γείτων, γείτονος (geítōn), γειτόνημα geitonogamy
gel- icy cold Latin gelum gelatin, gelid
gen- (GEN[42]) beget Latin gignere, genitus, genus (genitive generis), see also generare congenial, engender, gender, generate, generation, genial, genius, genital, genitive, genteel, gentle, genuine, genus, indigenous, ingenious, ingenuous, primogenitor, progeny
gen- (ΓΕΝ[43]) birth, beget, race, kind Greek γίγνεσθαι (gígnesthai), and related γένος (génos), γενετικός (genetikós), γένεσις (génesis); see also γενεά (geneá) allergen, anagenesis, antigen, autogenesis, autogenous, biogenesis, dysgenic, endogen, epigone, eugenics, gametogenesis, gene, genealogy, genesis, genetic, genocide, gonad, heterogeneous, homogeneous, hydrogen, oogenesis, paragenesis, pathogen, spermatogenesis
ger- old Greek γέρων, γέροντος (gérōn, gérontos) erigeron, geriatric, geriatrics, gerontocracy, gerontology
ger-, gest- (GES[44]) bear, carry Latin gerere, gestus agger, congest, digest, gerundive, gestation, register, suggest, vicegerent
germ- sprout Latin germen, germinis germ, German, germane, germination
geu- (ΓΕΥΣ[45]) taste Greek γεύειν (geúein), γεύεσθαι (geúesthai), γεῦσις ageusia, dysgeusia, hypergeusia, hypogeusia, parageusia
glabr- hairless Latin glaber glabrous
glaci- ice Latin glacies glacier
gladi- sword Latin gladius gladiator, gladiolus
glia- glue Greek γλία (glía) glial
glob- sphere Latin globus global, globe, globule
glori- glory Latin gloria glorify, glorious, glorify, glorified
gloss-, glot- tongue Greek γλῶσσα (glóssa), γλωττίς (glōttís) aglossia, epiglottis, gloss, glossary, glottis, isogloss, monoglot, polyglot
glutin- glue Latin gluten, glutinis agglutination, glue, gluten
glyc- sweet Greek γλυκύς (glukús) glycogen, glycolipid, glycoprotein, hypoglycaemia
glyph- carve Greek γλύφειν (glúphein), γλυφή (gluphḗ), γλυπτός (gluptós), γλυπτικός (gluptikós) anaglyph, ditriglyphic, glyph, glyptic, glyptograph, monotriglyph
gnath- jaw Greek γνάθος (gnáthos), γναθμός Agnatha, agnathous, chilognath, compsognathus, endognathion, epignathous, exognathion, gnathic, gnathophyma, hypognathous, hystricognath, mesognathion, mesognathous, prognathism
gnosc-, -gnit- know Latin gnoscere acquaint, acquaintance, agnition, agnize, cognition, cognitional, cognitive, cognitivity, cognizable, cognizance, cognizant, cognize, cognoscence, cognoscenti, cognoscible, cognovit, connoisseur, ennoble, ennoblement, ignoble, ignorant, ignoscible, incognito, nobiliary, nobilitate, nobilitation, nobility, noble, note, notice, noticeable, notion, notional, notionality, notoriety, notorious, precognition, quaint, reacquaint, recognition, recognize, reconnaissance, reconnoiter, reconnoitre
gno- (ΓΝΩ[46]) know Greek γιγνώσκειν (gignṓskein), γνῶναι, γνωτός (gnōtós), γνωστός (gnōstós), γνωστικός (gnōstikós), γνῶσις (gnṓsis), γνῶσμα, γνώμη (gnṓmē), γνώμων (gnṓmōn) agnosia, agnostic, agnosticism, anagnorisis, diagnosis, dysanagnosia, gnomic, gnomon, gnomonic, gnosia, gnosis, Gnostic, gnosticism, pathognomonic, physiognomy, prognosis, telegnosis
gon- corner, angle, knee Greek γωνία (gōnía), γόνυ (gónu) goniometer, gonion, gonioscope, gonitis, polygon, trigon, trigonometry
grad-, gred-, gress- (GRAD[47]) walk, step, go Latin gradi, gressus "to step", from gradus "step" aggression, egress, grade, gradual, graduate, ingress, progress, regress, transgress
gramm- letter, writing Greek γράφειν (gráphein), γράμμα, γράμματος (grámma, grámmatos), γραμματικός (grammatikós) anagram, anagrammatic, diagram, diagrammatic, engram, epigram, epigrammatic, grammar, grammatic, grammaticist, hologram, lipogram, monogram, pangrammatic, pentagram, program, programmatic, telegram, tetragram, tetragrammaton
gran- grain Latin granum granary, granite, granola, granule
grand- grand Latin grandis grandiloquous, grandiosity
graph- draw, write Greek γράφειν (gráphein), γραφικός (graphikós), γραφή (graphḗ), γραφία (graphía), γραφεῖον (grapheîon) allograft, anepigraphic, autograft, autograph, digraph, epigraphic, epigraphy, graft, graph, grapheme, graphemics, graphene, graphic, graphite, graphology, heterograph, holography, homograph, isograft, monograph, orthography, paragraph, photograph, photographic, syngraft, telegraphy, trigraph
grat- thank, please Latin gratus, see also gratia congratulate, grace, grateful, gratify, gratitude, gratuity, gratulate, ingrate, ingratiate
grav- heavy Latin gravis aggravate, grave, gravitate, gravity
greg- flock, herd Latin grex, gregis aggregate, congregation, egregious, gregarian, gregarious, segregation
gubern- govern, pilot Latin gubernare gubernatorial
gust- taste Latin gustus disgust, gusto
gutt- drop Latin gutta gutta, guttifer, guttiform
guttur- throat Latin guttur guttural
gymn- nude Greek γυμνός (gumnós) gymnasium, gymnast, gymnastics, gymnophobia, gymnoplast, gymnosophist, gymnosperm, gymnospore
gyn-, gynaec- woman Greek γυνή, γυναικός, (gunḗ, gunaikós) epigynous, epigynum, gynecology, gynodioecious, gynoid, misogynist, monogyny, gynarchy
gyr- ring Greek γῦρος (gûros) gyre, gyrectomy, gyrencephalic, gyrodyne, gyroid, gyromagnetic, gyromancy, gyroscope, gyrosphere, gyrostat, gyrostatic gyrotropic, gyrus, polygyria
gyrin- tadpole Greek γυρός, γυρῖνος (gurînos), γυρινώδης (gurinṓdēs) Gyrinophilus


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
hab-, -hib-, habit-, -hibit- have Latin habere, habitus ability, able, debenture, debile, debilitate, debility, debit, debitor, debt, debtor, habit, prohibition
hadr- thick Greek ἁδρός (hadrós) hadrocodium, hadron, hadrosaurid
haem-, hem- [48] blood Greek αἷμα, αἵματος (haîma, haímatos) anaemia, haematemesis, haematopoiesis, haemophilia, haemophobia, haemoptysis, haemorrhage, haemorrhoid, haemostatic, hematocrit, hematogenesis, hematoma, hematophagy, hematopoiesis, hematopoietic, hemocoel, hemocyte, hemoglobin, hemophagy, hemophilia, hemophiliac, hemoptysis, hemorrhage, hemorrhagic, hemorrhea, hemorrhoid, hemorrhoidectomy, hemostat, hemotherapy, hyperaemia/hyperemia, hyphaema/hyphema, polycythaemia
hal- salt Greek ἅλς, ἁλός (hals, halos) halite, halogen
hal-, -hel- breathe Latin halare, halatus anhelation, exhalation, exhale, inhalant, inhale, halitosis
hapl- simple, single Greek ἁπλοῦς (haplous) haploid, haplotype
haur-, haust- draw Latin haurire, haustus exhaust, exhaustible, exhaustion, exhaustive, hauriant, haurient, haustellate, haustellum, haustorium, haustrum, inexhaustible, nonexhaustive
hedo- pleasure Greek ἡδονή (hēdonē) hedonism, hedonist
heli- sun Greek ἥλιος (hēlios) heliocentric, heliograph, heliotrope, helium
hemer- day Greek ἡμέρα (hemera) Decameron, ephemeral
hemi- half Greek ἥμισυς (hēmisus) hemicycle, hemisphere
hemo- blood
hen- one Greek ἕν (hén) enosis, enotikon, henad, hendiadys, henotheism, hyphen
hendec- [49] eleven Greek ἕνδεκα (héndeka) hendecagon, hendecagram, hendecasyllabic, hendecasyllable
hept- seven Greek ἑπτά (heptá) heptachord, heptagon, heptameter, heptathlon, heptode
her-, heir- heir Latin heres (genitive heredis) heir, heiress, hereditary, heredity, heritage, inherit
here-, hes- cling, stick Latin haerere, haesus adhere, adhesive, cohere, coherent, cohesive, hesitate, incoherent, inherent, inhesion, nonadherence, nonadherent, nonadhesive
herald- messenger, envoy Latin heraldus herald, heraldic, heraldry
herb- grass Latin herba herbal, herbicide, herbivore
heres-, heret- take, choose Greek αἴρω (hairein) "to take, choose" heresy, heretic, heretical
herp- creep Greek ἕρπω, ἕρπειν (herpō, herpein) herpes, herpetology
heter- different, other Greek ἕτερος (heteros) heterochromatin, heterodoxy, heterogeneity, heterogeneous, heterosexual
heur- find Greek εὑρίσκω (heuriskō) heuristic
hex- six Greek ἕξ (hex) hexagon, hexahedron, hexode
hi- gape Latin hiare dehisce, dehiscence, dehiscent, hiatal, hiatus, indehiscence, indehiscent, inhiation
hibern- wintry Latin hibernus hibernation
hiem- winter Latin hiems hiemal
hier- sacred Greek ἱερός (hieros) hierarchy, hieroglyphics
hipp- horse Greek ἵππος (hippos) hippodrome, hippopotamus
hirsut- hairy Latin hirtus, hirsutus hirsute
hispid- bristly Latin hispidus hispidity, hispidulous
histri- actor Latin histrio, histrionis histrionic
hod- way Greek ὁδός (hodos) anode, cathode, herpolhode, hodometer, synod, tetrode, triode
hol- whole Greek ὅλος (holos) holistic, holography
hom- same Greek ὁμός (homos) homogeneous, homophone, homonym, homosexual, homozygous
homal- even, flat Greek ὁμαλός (homalos) "even", from ὁμός (homos) "same" anomalous, anomaly
home- like Greek ὅμοιος (homoios) homeostasis
homin- human Latin homo, hominis hominid
honor- esteem Latin honos, honoris honorable, honorarium
hor- boundary Greek ὅρος (horos) aphorism, horizon
hor- hour Greek ὥρα (hōra) horoscope
horm- that which excites Greek ὁρμή (hormē) hormone
hort- garden Latin hortus, horti horticulture
hospit- host Latin hospes, hospitis hospice, hospital, hospitality, inhospitable
host- enemy Latin hostis hostile
hum- ground Latin humus, humare exhume, exhumation, human, humane, humanity, humus, inhume
hyal- glass Greek ὕαλος (hualos) hyaline, hyaloid
hydr- water Greek ὕδωρ (hudōr) dehydrate, hydrant, hydrate, hydraulics, hydrogen, hydrology, hydrolysis, hydrophily, hydrophobia, hydroponic, hydrous
hygr- wet Greek ὑγρός (hugros) hygrometer
hymen- skin or membrane Greek ὑμήν (humēn) hymen, Hymenoptera
hyo- U-shaped Greek ὑοειδής (huoeidēs) hyoid
hyp- under Greek ὑπό (hupo) hypoallergenic, hypodermic, hypothermia, hypotonic
hyper- above, over Greek ὑπέρ (huper) hyper, hyperbole, hyperlink, hypertonic
hypn- sleep Greek ὕπνος (hupnos) hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotize
hyster- later Greek ὕστερος (husteros) hysteresis


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
iatr- heal Greek ἰᾶσθαι (iâsthai), ἰατρός (iatrós), ἰατρικός (iātrikós), ἴασις, ἴαμα iatrogenic, psychiatrist
ichthy-, ich- fish Greek ἰχθύς, ἰχθύος (ichthús, ichthúos) ichthyology
icos- twenty Greek εἴκοσι (eíkosi), ϝεικοσι icosagon, icosahedron
id- shape, form, picture Greek εἶδειν (eídein), εἶδος (eîdos) idol, idolatry, idyll
ide- idea; thought Greek ἰδεῖν (ideîn), ιδέα (idéa) ideogram, ideologue, ideology
idi- own, peculiarity Greek ἴδιος (ídios), "private, personal, one's own", ϝίδιος idiom, idiopathic, idiosyncrasy, idiosyncratic, idiot
ign- fire Latin ignis igneous, ignite, ignition
imagin- copy Latin imāgō, imāginis image, imagine
in- sinew Greek ἴς, ἰνός (ís, inós), ἰνίον (iníon) inion
in- (1), il-, im- in, on Latin in illuminate, import, incur, intend, invite
in- (2), il-, im-, ir- not, un- (negation) Latin in- illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
inan- empty, vain Latin inanitio "emptiness" and inanitas "worthlessness", from inanire "to empty", from inanis "empty, void, worthless" inane, inanition, inanity
infra- below, under Latin infra infrastructure
insul- island Latin insula insular, insulation
inter- among, between Latin inter (preposition) intercollegiate, intermission, intersection
intra- within Latin intra intramural
irasc-, irat- be angry Latin irasci "grow angry", from ira "anger" irascible, irate, ire
irid- rainbow Latin iris iridescent
is-, iso- equal, same Greek ἴσος (ísos), ϝίσϝος (wíswos) isometric, isomorphic, isosceles, isotonic, isotropic
ischi- hip joint Greek ἰσχίον (ischíon), ἰσχιαδικός (ischiadikós) ischiadic, ischium, sciatic, sciatica
iter- again Latin iterum, iterare iteration
itiner- journey Latin iter, itineris itinerary


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
jac- lie Latin jacēre "to be thrown" adjacent
jac-, -ject- cast, throw Latin jacere (also spelled iacere), iectus deject, ejaculate, eject, inject, interject, project, reject, trajectory
janu- door Latin janua janitor, January
joc- joke Latin jocus (also spelled iocus) jocose, jocular, jocularity, jocund, jocundity, joke
judic- judge Latin judex, iudicis adjudicate, judicial, judiciary
jug- yoke Latin jugare, jugum conjugal, subjugate
jung-, junct- join Latin iungere, junctus conjunction, enjoin, injunction, join, junction, juncture, junta
junior- younger Latin junior junior, juniority
jus-, jur- law, justice Latin ius, iuris abjure, jurisprudence, jury, just, justice, objurgate, perjury
juv-, jut- help Latin juvare, jutus adjutant
juven- young, youth Latin juvenis juvenile, rejuvenate
juxta- beside, near Latin juxta juxtaposition


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
kil(o)- thousand Greek χίλιοι (chílioi) kilobyte, kilogram, kilometer
kine-, cine- movement, motion Greek κινεῖν (kineîn), κίνησις (kínēsis), κίνημα (kínēma) cinema, kinesthetic, kinetic, telekinesis
klept- steal Greek κλέπτειν (kléptein), κλέπτης (kléptēs) kleptomania, kleptoplasty
kudo- glory Greek κῦδος (kûdos) kudos


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
lab-, laps- slide, slip Latin labi, lapsus elapse, relapse
labi- lip Latin labia, labiae bilabial, labial
labor- work Latin labor collaboration, elaboration, laboratory
lacer- tear Latin lacer laceration
lacrim- cry, tears Latin lacrima lacrimal, lacrimous
lact- milk Latin lac, lactis, lactare lactate, lactation, lactose
lamin- layer, slice Latin lamina laminate, lamination
lamp- torch Greek λαμπάς (lampas) lamp
lapid- stone Latin lapis, lapidis dilapidate, lapidary
larg- large Latin largus enlargement, large, largesse, largo
larv- ghost, mask Latin larva larva, larvae, larval
lat- broad, wide Latin latus latitude
later- side Latin latus, lateris bilateral
laud-, laus- praise Latin laudare "to praise" laud, laudanum, laudable, laudation, summa cum laude
lav- wash Latin lavare launder, laundry, lava, lavation, lavatory, lave, lavender, lavish, lotion
lax- not tense Latin laxus, laxare laxative, relaxation
lecith- egg yolk Greek λέκιθος (lekithos) lecithin
led-, les-, -lid-, -lis- hurt, strike Latin laedere, laesus, -lidere allision, collide, collision, elide, elidible, elision, illesive, lesion
leg-, lect- read, gather Latin legere collect, diligence, election, intelligence, lectern, lecture, legend, legible, legion, lesson, neglect, religion, sacrilege, select
leg- law Latin lex, legis, legare legal, legislate, legislation, legislative, legislator, legislature, legitimate, legitimize, privilege
leg- send Latin legare (from legis) delegate, league, legacy, legato, relegate
lei- smooth Greek λεῖος (leios) leiomyoma
lekan- dish, pot Greek λεκάνη (lekanē) lekane
leni- gentle Latin lenis, lenire leniency
leon- lion Latin leo, leonis Leo, leonine, Leopold
lep- flake, scale Greek λέπειν, λεπίς, λεπίδος (lepis, lepidos) Lepidoptera
lepsi- grasp, seize Greek λῆψις (lēpsis) epilepsy
leuc-, leuk- white Greek λευκός (leukos) leucocyte
lev- lift, light, raise Latin levare "lighten, raise", from levis "light" (in weight) alleviate, elevate, elevator, leaven, lever, leverage, levitation, levity, levy, relieve
liber-, liver- free Latin liber, liberare deliver, deliverance, libel, liberal, liberalize, liberate, liberation, libertine, liberty
libr- book Latin liber, libri librarian, library
lig- bind Latin ligare, ligatus ligament, ligature
limac- slug Latin limax, limacis limacoid, limacon
limpa- clear, water Latin limpa "water" limpid
line- line Latin linea line, linearity
line- smear, smudge Latin linere delete, deletion, indelible, liniment
lingu- language, tongue Latin lingua bilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict- leave Latin linquere, lictus relict, relinquish
lip- fat Greek λίπος (lipos) lipolysis
liq- flow Latin liquere deliquesce, liquefy, liqueur, liquid, liquor, prolix
lit- prayer, supplication Greek λιτή (lite) litany
liter- letter Latin littera alliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, literary, literature, obliterate
lith- stone Greek λίθος (lithos) lithic, lithosphere, megalith, Mesolithic, monolith, Neolithic, Paleolithic
loc- place Latin locus, locare allocate, local, locality, locate, location, locomotion, locus
log-, -logy word, reason, speech, thought Greek λόγος (logos), λογία (logia) analogy, anthology, apology, biology, dialogue doxology, ecology, epilogue, etymology, eulogy, geology, ideologue, logarithm, logic, logogram, meteorology, monologue, morphological, neologism, neurology, philology, prologue, psychology, tautology, terminology, theology, toxicology, trilogy, zoology, logophile
long- long Latin longus elongate, longitude, oblong, prolong
loqu-, locut- speak Latin loqui allocution, circumlocution, colloquial, colloquy, elocution, eloquent, eloquence, grandiloquent, interlocution, loquacious, loquacity, magniloquent, obloquy, soliloquy
luc- bright, light Latin lux (genitive lucis), lucere elucidate, lucid, Lucifer (bearer of light), lucubrate, noctilucent, pellucid, translucent
lud-, lus- play Latin ludere, lusus allude, collude, delude, elude, elusive, elusory, illude, illusion, ludicrous, lusory, prelude
lumin- light Latin luminare, from lumen illumination, luminary, luminous
lu-, luv-, lut- wash Latin luere (see also diluere, fluere and pluere) abluent, ablution, alluvium, colluvium, deluge, depollute, diluent, dilute, dilution, dilutive, diluvial, diluvian, diluvium, elute, elution, eluvial, elluviation, eluvium, illuviation, illuvium, lutaceous, lutite, pollution
lun- moon Latin luna luna, lunar, lunatic
luteo- yellow, golden Latin lūteus luteal, corpus luteum, luteinizing hormone
lysi-, lyti- dissolving Greek λύσις (lusis) analysis, analytic, cytolysis, hydrolysis, lysigeny


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
macer- lean Latin macer emaciate, macerate, meager
macro- long Greek μακρός (makrós) macrobiotic, macroeconomics, macron
magn- great, large Latin magnus magnanimity, magnanimous, magnate, magnificent, magnify, magnitude, magnum
maj- greater Latin major, majus majesty, major, majority, majuscule, mayor, semimajor, supermajority
mal- bad, wretched Latin malus dismal, grand mal, malady, malaise, malediction, malefaction, malevolent, malfeasance, malfunction, malice, malicious, malignancy, malnourished, malodorous, premalignant
mamm- breast Latin mamma mammal, mammary
man- flow Latin mānāre, manatus emanate, emanationism, immanant, immanation
man- (MAN-[50]) stay Latin manēre, mansus immanence, immanent, manse, mansion, permanence, permanent, remanence, remanent
man-, manu- hand Latin manus amanuensis, Bimana, bimanous, bimanual, emancipate, manacle, manage, mandamus, maneuver, manicure, manifest, maniple, manual, manufacture, manumit, manuscript, Quadrumana, quadrumanous
mand-, -mend- order, commit Latin mandāre, mandatus command, commend, commendation, countermand, demand, mandate, mandatory, recommend, remand
mania mental illness, craziness Greek μανία (manίā) kleptomania, mania, maniac, pyromania
mar- sea Latin mare, maris mariculture, marinade, marinate, marination, marine, maritime, submarine, ultramarine
mascul- male, man Latin masculus, masculi emasculate, masculine
mater-, matr- mother Latin mater, matris maternal, maternity, matrimony, matrix, matron
maxim- greatest Latin maximus maxim, maximal, maximum
mechan- machine or instrument Greek μηχανή (mēkhanḗ) mechane, mechanics, mechanophobia
medi-, -midi- middle Latin medius, mediare dimidiation, immediate, intermediary, mean, media, median, mediate, mediation, medieval, mediocre, Mediterranean, medium, moiety, multimedia, postmeridian, submediant
mega-, megal- great, large Greek μέγας, μεγάλου (mégas, megálou) megacycle, megalomania, megalopolis, megaphone
mei- less Greek μεῖον (meiōn) ameiosis, ameiotic, meiosis, meiotic
melan- black, dark Greek μέλας, μέλανος (melas, mélanos) Melanesia, melanism, melanoma, melatonin, melancholy
melior- better Latin meliorare "to improve", from melior "better" ameliorate, amelioration, meliorism
mell- honey Latin mel, mellis mellifluous, melliloquent, mellivorous
memor- remember Latin memor commemorate, immemorial, memoir, memorabilia, memorable, memorandum, memorial, memory, remembrance
men- month Greek μήν (mḗn) menopause, menorrhea
mening- membrane Greek μήνιγξ, μῆνιγγος (meninx, mēningos) meningitis, meninx
mend- defect, fault Latin mendax "lying, a liar", from menda "defect, fault" amend, amendment, emend, mendacious, mendacity
menstru- monthly Latin menstruus menstrual, menstruation
mensur- measure Latin mensura "measurement", from metiri "to measure" commensurable, commensurate, dimension, immense, incommensurable, incommensurate, measure
ment- mind Latin mens, mentis comment, dement, dementia, memento, mental, mentality, mention, reminisce, reminiscence
mer- part Greek μείρεσθαι (meíresthai), μέρος (méros) antimere, isomer, meristem, metamere, monomer, pentamer, polymer, tautomerism
merc- reward, wages, hire Latin merx (genitive mercis) amercement, commerce, commercial, market, mercantile, mercenary, mercery, merchandise, merchant, mercy, noncommercial
merg-, mers- dip, plunge Latin mergere emerge, immersion
mes- middle Greek μέσος (mésos) Mesolithic, mesozoic
meta- above, among, beyond Greek μετά (metá) metabolism, metamorphic, metamorphosis, metaphase, metaphor, metaphysics, metastatic, meteor, method
meter-, metr- measure Greek μέτρον (métron) altimeter, barometer, diameter, hexameter, isometric, meter, metre, metric, metrology, metronome, parameter, pentameter, perimeter, symmetric, telemetry, tetrameter, thermometer
metr- mother Greek μήτηρ, μητρός (mḗtēr, mētrós), μητρικός (mētrikós) metrocyte, metropolis
mic- grain Latin mica mica, micelle
micro- small Greek μικρός (mikrós) microcosm, microeconomics, micrometer, microphone, microscope, microscopic
migr- wander Latin migrare emigrant, immigrant, migrant, migrate, migration
milit- soldier Latin mīles, militis militant, military, militia
mill- thousand Latin mille mile, millennium, million
millen- thousand each Latin milleni millenarian, millenary
mim- repeat Greek μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeîsthai), μίμος (mimos) mime, mimeograph, mimesis, mimetic, mimic, pantomime
min- jut Latin minere eminent, imminent, prominent
min- less, smaller Latin minor, minus minority, minuscule, minutiae
mina- lead Latin minare, variant of minari amenable, demeanor, menace, promenade
mir- wonder, amazement Latin miror, mirari, miratus sum admire, miracle, mirror
mis- hate Greek μισεῖν (miseîn), μῖσος (mîsos) misandrist, misandry, misanthrope, misanthropy, misocainea, misogamist, misogamy, misogynist, misogyny, misoneism, misopaedia, misophonia, misotheism
misc-, mixt- mix Latin miscere, mixtus miscellaneous, mixture
miser- unhappy, wretched Latin miser commiseration, miser, miserable, misery
mit-, miss- (MIT-[51]) send Latin mittere, missus admissibility, admissible, admission, admissive, admit, admittatur, admittee, commissar, commissariat, commissary, commission, commissive, commissural, commissure, commit, commitment, committal, committee, compromis, compromise, compromissary, decommission, decommit, decommitment, demise, demiss, demit, dimissory, dimit, dismiss, dismissal, dismissive, emissary, emission, emissitious, emissive, emissivity, emit, emittent, entremet, fideicommissary, fideicommissum, impermissible, inadmissibility, inadmissible, intermission, intermittent, intromissible, intromission, intromissive, intromit, intromittent, manumission, manumit, mess, message, messenger, missile, mission, missionary, missive, mittimus, noncommittal, omissible, omission, omissive, omit, permissible, permission, permissive, permissory, permit, permittee, premise, premiss, premit, pretermission, pretermit, promise, promisee, promissive, promissory, readmission, readmit, recommit, remise, remiss, remissible, remission, remissive, remissory, remit, remittal, remittance, remittee, remittence, remittent, remittitur resubmit, retransmission, retransmit, subcommittee, submission, submissive, submit, surmise, transmissibility, transmissible, transmission, transmissive, transmit, transmittal
mit- thread Greek μίτος (mítos) mitochondrion, mitosis, mitospore
mne- memory Greek μνήμη (mnēmē) amnesia, amnesty, dysmnesia, mnemonic
mod- measure, change Latin modus "measure" mode, model, moderate, moderation, moderato, moderator, modern, modest, modicum, modify, modification
mol- grind Latin mola, molere, molitus molar
moll- soft Latin mollis emollient, mollify
mon- alone, one Greek μόνος (mónos) monachism, monadic, monarchy, monastery, monastic, monatomic, monism, monk, monoid, monolith, monometer, monopoly, monopsony, monotone
mon- warn Latin monere admonish, monitor, monster, monument, premonition, summon
monil- string of beads Latin monile Moniliformida
monstra- show Latin monstrare demonstrate, muster, remonstrate
mont- mountain Latin mons, montis Montana
mor- foolish, dull Greek μωρός (mōrós) "foolish, dull" moron, moronic, oxymoron, oxymoronic, sophomore, sophomoric
mor- disposition Latin mos moral, morose
mora- pause, delay Latin morari "to delay", from mora "a pause, delay" demur, moratorium, remora
mord- bite Latin mordere, morsus mordacious, morsel, remorse
morph- form, shape Greek μορφή (morphē) allomorph, amorphous, anamorphic, anamorphosis, anthropomorphism, apomorphy, dimorphic, dysmorphic, endomorph, hemimorphic, holomorphic, metamorphosis, morpheme, morphology, perimorph, plesiomorphy, polymorphic, synapomorphy
mort- death Latin mors, mortis immortal, immortality, mortal, mortality, mortician, mortuary
mov-, mot- move, motion Latin movere, motus commotion, emotion, mobile, momentum, motile, motion, motive, motor, move, movement, mutiny, promote, remove
mulg-, muls- milk Latin mulgere emulsion
multi- many, much Latin multus multilingual, multiple, multiplex, multiplication, multiply, multitude
mund- world Latin mundus anima mundi, map, mundane
mur- wall Latin mūrus, muri immurement, murage, mural
mus- mouse Greek μῦς, μυός (mûs, muós) musophobia
mus- thief Latin mus, muris mouse
musc- fly Latin musca, muscae Musca, Muscicapidae, Muscidae, mosquito
mut- change Latin mutare immutable, mutation
my- shut (the eyes) Greek μύειν (múein), μύσις miosis, myopia, myopic, myosis, mystery
myc- fungus Greek μύκης, μύκητος (múkēs, múkētos) ascomycete, basidiomycete, mycology, Mycoplasma, zygomycete, zygomycosis
myri- countless, ten thousand Greek μυρίος (muríos) myriad, myriapod, myriapodology
myrmec- ant Greek μύρμηξ (múrmēx) myrmecochory, myrmecoid, myrmecology, myrmecophobia, Myrmidons
myth- story Greek μῦθος (mûthos) mythic, mythology, mythomania, mythos
myx- slime Greek μύξα (múxa) Myxini
myz- suck Greek μυζάω (muzáō), μύζησις (múzēsis) Myzopoda


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
nar- nostril Latin naris naris
narc- numb Greek νάρκη (narkē) narcolepsy, narcosis, narcotic
narr- tell Latin narrare narrative
nas- nose Latin nasus nasal
nasc-, nat- born Latin nascere, nasci (past participle natus) innate, nascent, natal, native, renaissance
naut- ship Greek ναύτης (nautes) Argonaut, astronaut, nautical
nav- ship Latin navis naval
ne-, neo- new Greek νέος (neos) Neolithic, neologism, neonate, neophyte
neb-, nub- cloud Latin nebula, nubes nebula, nebulosity, nebulous, nuance, nubilous, obnubilate
necr- dead Greek νεκρός (nekros) necrophobia
nect- swimming Greek νηκτός (nēktos) nectopod
nect-, nex- join, tie Latin nectere, nexus connect, nexus
neg- say no Latin negare negative, renegade, renege
nema- hair Greek νῆμα (nēma) nematode
nemor- grove, woods Latin nemus, nemoris nemoral
nephr- kidney Greek νεφρός (nephros) nephritis
nerv- sinew, nerve Latin nervus enervate, innervate, nerve, nervous
nes- island Greek νῆσος (nēsos) Polynesia
neur- nerve Greek νευρών (neurōn) neural, neuritis, neurologist, neurology, neuron, neuropathic, neurosurgeon, neurotic
nict- beckon, wink Latin nictari nictation
nigr- black Latin niger denigrate
nihil- nothing Latin nihilum annihilation, nihilism
noc- hurt, harm Latin nocere innocent, innocuous, nociception, nociceptive, nocuous, nuisance
noct- night Latin nox (genitive noctis) equinox, noctambulist, noctilucent, nocturnal
nod- knot Latin nodus denouement, node, nodule
nom- arrangement, law, order Greek νόμος (nomos) agronomy, astronomy, autonomous, autonomy, bionomics, economics, economy, gastronomy, metronome, numismatic, polynomial, taxonomy
nomad- those who let pasture herds Greek νομάς, νομάδος (nomas, nomados) nomadic
nomen-, nomin- name Latin nomen, nominis nomenclature, nominate, nomination, ignominious, ignominy
non- not Latin non none
non- ninth Latin nonus nonary
nonagen- ninety each Latin nonageni nonagenary
nonagesim- ninetieth Latin nonagesimus nonagesimal
not- back, south Greek νότος (notos) notochord
not- letter, note, paper Latin notare annotation, connotation, connote, denotation, denote, notable, notary, notate, notation
noth- spurious Greek νόθος (nothos) nothogenus
nov- nine Latin novem November, novennial
nov- new Latin novus innovate, innovation, nova, novel, novice, renovate
noven- nine each Latin noveni novenary
novendec- nineteen Latin novendecim novemdecillion
nox-, noc- harmful Latin noxa noxious, obnoxious
nu- nod Latin nuere innuendo
nub-, nupt- to marry, to wed Latin nubes, nubis, nubere connubial, nubile, prenuptial
nuc- nut Latin nux, nucis nuclear, nucleus
nuch- back of neck Latin nucha nuchal cord
nud- naked Latin nudus denude, nudist, nudity
null- none Latin nullus nullify
numer- number Latin numerus enumerate, innumerable, numeral, numeration
nunci- announce Latin nuntius pronunciation
nutri- nourish Latin nutrire malnutrition, nutrient


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ob-, o-, oc-, of-, og-, op-, os- [52] against Latin ob obduracy, obdurate, obduration, obfuscate, oblique, obliquity, obstinate, obstreperous, occur, offend, omit, oppose, ostensible, ostentatious
obel- spit Greek ὀβελός (obelós), ὀβελίσκος (obelískos) metobelus, obelisk, obelism, obelus
ochl- crowd, mob Greek ὄχλος, ὄχλου (ókhlos) enochlophobia, ochlocracy, ochlophobia
oct- eight Greek ὀκτώ (oktṓ), ὀκτάς (oktás, oktádos) octad, octadic, octagon, octahedron, octameter, octode
oct- eight Latin octō octangular, octennial, octovir
octav- eighth Latin octāvus octaval
octogen- eighty each Latin octogeni octogenarian, octogenary
octogesim- eightieth Latin octogesimus octogesimal
octon- eight each Latin octoni octonary
ocul- eye Latin oculus, oculare ocular, oculus, ullage
od- path, way Greek ὁδός (hodós) anode, diode, odometer, parodos, pentode, tetrode, triode
odi- hate Latin odium odious
odont- tooth Greek ὀδούς, ὀδόντος (odoús, odóntos) anodontia, conodont, dicynodont, macrodontia, mastodon, odontoid, odontology, orthodontics, orthodontist, periodontal, smilodon, Zanclodon
odor- fragrant Latin odor malodorous, odoriferous, odorous
odyn- pain Greek ὀδύνη (odúnē) allodynia, anodyne, glossodynia, mastodynia, pleurodynia
oec- house Greek οἶκος (oîkos) andromonecy, archdiocese, dioecious, dioecy, ecesis, ecology/oecology, economize, gynomonoecy, heteroecious, monoecy, oeconomus, oikology, oikophobia, paleoecology, parish, paroecious, perioeci, trioecious
oed-, ed- swell, swollen Greek οἶδος (oîdos), οἰδεῖν (oideîn), οἴδημα, οἴδηματος (oídēma) angioedema, edema/oedema, edematous/oedematous
oen- wine Greek ϝοῖνος (woînos), οἶνος (oînos) enology, oenochoe, oenologist, oenology, oenophile, oenophilia, oinochoe
oesophag- gullet Greek οἰσοφάγος (oisophágos) oesophagectomy, oesophagitis, oesophagus
oestr- [53] gadfly, sting Greek οἶστρος (oîstros), οἰστράω, οἴστρησις, οἴστρημα anestrous, anestrus, anoestrus, estrogen, estrogenic, estrus, oestrone, oestrus
ogdo- eighth Greek ὄγδοος (ógdoos), ὀγδοάς, ὀγδοάδος (ogdoás, ogdoádos) ogdoad
-oid like Greek -οειδής (-oeidēs) asteroid, mucoid, organoid
ole- oil Latin oleum oleosity
olecran- skull of elbow Latin from Greek ὠλέκρανον (ōlékranon) olecranon
olig- few Greek ὀλίγος (oligos) oligarchy, Oligocene, oligopoly, oligosaccharide, oligotrohic
oliv- olive Latin oliva olivaceous, olivary, olivette
om- raw Greek ὠμός (ōmós), ὠμότης omophagia
om- shoulder Greek ὦμος (ṓmos), ὠμία (ōmía) acromion, omohyoid, omophorion
-oma morbid growth, tumor Greek -ωμα melanoma
omas- paunch Latin omasum abomasum, omasum
oment- fat skin Latin omentum omental
omin- creepy Latin omen, ominis abominable, ominous
omm- eye Greek ὁράω, ὦμμαι, ὄμμα, ὄμματος (ómma) ommatidium, ommatophore
omni- all Latin omnis omnipotence, omnipresent, omniscient, omnivore
omphal- navel Greek ὀμφαλός (omphalós) omphalectomy, omphalic, omphalopagus, omphalophobia
on- ass Greek ὄνος (ónos), ὀνίσκος (onískos) Oniscidea, Oniscomorpha
onc- barb, hook Greek ὄγκος, ὄγκινος (ógkinos) Oncinocalyx, Oncorhynchus
oneir- dream Greek ὄνειρος (óneiros), ὀνειρώσσω, ὀνείρωξις (oneírōxis) oneiric, oneirism, oneirocritic, Oneirocritica, Oneirodidae, oneirogen, oneirogenic, Oneiroi, oneiroid, oneirology, oneiromancy, oneironaut, oneironautics, oneirophobia, oneirophrenia, oneiroscopy
oner- burden Latin onus, oneris exonerate, onerous
oni- price Greek ὦνος (ônos), ὤνιος (ṓnios) oniochalasia, oniomania, oniomaniac
onom- name Greek όνομα, ὀνόματος (ónoma, onómatos) antonomasia, onomasiology, onomastic, onomasticon, onomastics, onomasty, onomatology, onomatophore, onomatopoeia
ont- being, existence Greek ὄντος, ὀντότης (óntos, ontótēs), οὐσία (ousía) dysontogenesis, homoiousia, homoousia, monoousious, ontogenesis, ontogenetic, ontogeny, ontology, ousia, parousia
onych- claw Greek ὄνυξ, ὄνυχος (ónux, ónuchos), ὀνύχιον (onúchion), ὀνύχινος, ὀνυχίζω hapalonychia, Mesonychia, mesonychid, onychectomy, onyx, sardonyx
-onym name Greek ὄνυμα (ónuma) anonymous, antonym, allonym, cryptonym, eponymy, euonym, homonym, metonymy, pseudonym, synonym
oo- egg Greek ᾠόν (ōión) dioon, oidioid, oidium, ooblast, oocyst, oocyte, oogenesis, oogonium, ootheca, ootid, ootidogenesis
op- hole Greek ὀπή (opḗ), ὀπαῖον (opaîon) metope, opaion
opac- shady Latin opacus opacity
oper- work Latin opus, operis cooperate, inoperable, opera, operate, opus
opercul- little cover Latin operculum operculum
ophi- snake Greek ὄφις, ὄφεως (óphis, ópheōs) Brachyurophis, ophicephalous, Ophicephalus, Ophiceras, Ophiclinus, ophidiophobia, ophiolite, ophiologist, ophiology, ophiophagous, Ophiophagus, ophiophagy, ophiophobia, Ophisaurus, Ophisops, ophitic
ophthalm- eye Greek ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmós) exophthalmic, exophthalmos, microphthalmia, ophthalmia, ophthalmic, ophthalmologic, ophthalmologist, ophthalmology, ophthalmoparesis, ophthalmoplegia, parophthalmia, xerophthalmia
opisth- [54] behind Greek ὄπισθεν (ópisthen), ὀπίσθιος anopisthograph, opisthion, opisthobranch, opisthodomos, opisthoglyphous, opisthognathous, opisthograph, opisthokont, opisthosoma, opsimath, opsimathy
ops-, opt- (ΟΠ) eye Greek ὄψεσθαι (ópsesthai), ὀπτός (optos), ὀπτικός (optikós), ὄψις (ópsis) amblyopia, anopia, autopsy, biopsy, catadioptrics, catoptrics, catoptromancy, catoptrophobia, cyclops, diopter/dioptre, dioptrics, diplopia, eisoptrophobia, emmetropia, hemianopsia, myopia, opsoclonus, optic, optokinetic, panopticon, pleoptics, synopsis, synoptic, tritanopia
opsi- late Greek ὀψέ (opsé), ὄψιος opsimath
opt- choose Latin optare adopt, optional
optim- best Latin optimus optimum
or- mountain Greek ὄρος, ὄρεος (óros, óreos), ὀρειάς Oread, orogeny, orography
or- mouth Latin os (genitive oris) "mouth" oral, orifice
ora- pray, plead Latin orare "to pray, plead" adore, adoration, inexorable, oracle, orate, oration, orator, oratory, orison
orb- circle Latin orbis orbit
orch- testicle Greek ὄρχις (orchis), ὀρχίδιον (orchídion) anorchia, cryptorchidism, monorchism, orchid, orchiectomy, orchiopexy, orchis, polyorchidism
orches- dance Greek ὀρχεῖσθαι (orcheîsthai) orchestra
ordin- order Latin ōrdō, ordinis ordinal, ordinary
oreg- reach Greek ὀρέγειν (orégein), ὀρεκτός (orektós), ὀρεκτικός (orektikós), ὄρεξις (órexis), ὄρεγμα (óregma) anorectic, anorexia, dysorexia, orectic, orexin, parorexia
org- work Greek ὄργια (órgia)
organ- organ, instrument, tool Greek ὄργανον (órganon) organic, organism, organogenesis
ori-, ort- eastern Latin oriri, ortus orient
orn- decorate Latin ōrnāre adorn, ornament, ornate
ornith- bird Greek ὄρνις, ὄρνιθος (órnis, órnithos) Avernus, ornithology, ornithomancy, ornithorhynchus, ornithosis
orth- straight Greek ὀρθός (orthós), ὀρθότης orthocenter, orthocentric, orthodontia, orthodontic, orthodontist, orthodox, orthodoxy, orthographic, ortholog, orthologous, orthonym, orthopedic, orthoscope, orthosis, orthostat, orthostyle, orthotic
oryz- rice Greek ὄρυζα (óruza), ὀρύζιον Oryza, Oryzomys, rice, risotto
oscill- swing Latin oscillum oscillation
osm- odor Greek ὀσμή (osmḗ), ὄσμησις anosmia, dysosmia, hyperosmia, hyposmia, osmium, osmophobia, parosmia, phantosmia
osm- Greek ὠσμός (ōsmós) osmometry, osmosis, osmotic
oss- bone Latin os, ossis ossification
oste- bone Greek ὀστέον, ὀστοῦν (ostéon, ostoûn), ὀστοῦν (ostoûn) dysostosis, exostosis, hyperostosis, monostotic, Osteichthyes, osteoarthritis, osteoblast, osteochondritis, osteochondrosis, osteoclast, osteoid, osteology, osteolysis, osteoma, osteomalacia, osteonecrosis, osteopathy, osteoporosis, osteosarcoma, osteosis, periosteum, synostosis
osti- entrance Latin ostium ostiole
ostrac- shell Greek ὄστρειον (óstreion), ὀστρακίζω (ostrakízein), ὄστρακον (ostrakon) Entomostraca, Leptostraca, Malacostraca, ostracism, ostracize, ostracod, ostracoderm, ostracon, periostracum
ostre- oyster Greek ὄστρεον ostreophagist, oyster
ot- ear Greek οὖς, ὠτός (oûs, ōtós) anotia, Aotus, microtia, Myosotis, otalgia, otic, otitis, otocephaly, otocleisis, otoconium, otocyst, otodynia, otolith, otology, otopathy, otophyma, otoplasty, otorhinology, otorrhea, otosclerosis, otoscope, otoscopy, ototomy, parotic, parotid, periotic, synotia
ov- egg Latin ovum oval, ovary, ovule
-over- close, cover Latin operire "to close, cover" cover, covert, coverture, discover, operculum
ovi- sheep Latin ovis ovine
oxy- sharp, pointed Greek ὀξύς (oxus) anoxia, anoxic, dioxide, hypoxia, oxide, oxygen, oxymoron, oxytone, paroxysm
oz- smell Greek ὄζειν (ózein), ὄζων (ózōn), ὄζη ozocerite, ozone, ozopore


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
pac- peace Latin pax, pacis appease, Pacific Ocean, pacifism, pacifist, pacify
pach- thick Greek παχύς (pachus) pachydermata, Pachypodium
pact- fasten Latin pangere "to fix, fasten" compact, impact, impaction, impinge, pact, page, propagate
paed- child Greek παῖς (pais), genitive παιδός (paidos) orthopedic, paediatric, page, pedagogue, pedagogy, pedant, pedantic, pediatric, pedophilia
pagin- page Latin pagina pagination
pal- stake Latin palus impalement, pale
palae-, pale- ancient, old Greek παλαιός (palaios) Paleo Diet, Paleolithic era, paleomagnetism, paleontology, paleopsychology, Paleozoic
palin- back Greek πάλιν (palin) palindrome
pall- be pale Latin pallere pallid, pallor
palli- cloak Latin palliare "to cover, cloak", from pallium "cloak" pall, palliate, palliative, pallium
palm- palm Latin palma palmate
palp- touch Latin palpare palp, palpable, palpate, palpation, palpitant, palpitation
palustr- in marshes Latin paluster palustral
pan-, pam- all Greek πᾶς, παντός (pas, pantos) Pan-American, panacea, pandemic, pandemonium, panoply, panoptic
pand-, pans- spread Latin pandere, pansus expand, expansion
par- equal Latin par compare, disparage, par, parity, peer, subpar
par- order, prepare, provide, procure Latin parare apparatus, disparate, empire, imperative, imperious, pare, prepare, repair, separate, sever, vituperate
para- beside, near Greek παρά (para) parable, paradox, parallel, parameter, parody
parc-, pars- spare, save Latin parcere, parsus parcity, parsimony
pariet- wall Latin paries, parietis parietal
part- part Latin pars, partis apart, bipartite, compartment, depart, impartial, parcel, part, partial, participate, particle, partisan, partition
parthen- maiden Greek παρθένος (parthenos) Parthenon, parthenogenesis
parv- little Latin parvus parvovirus
pasc-, past- feed Latin pascere, pastus pastor, pasture, repast
pass- pace, step Latin passus
passer- sparrow Latin passer passeriform, passerine
pat- be open Latin patere paten, patent
path- feeling, disease Greek πάθος (pathos) antipathy, apathy, empathy, pathetic, pathogen, pathology, sympathy
pater-, patr- father Latin pater (genitive patris) paternity, patrilocal, patriot, patron, patronage, patronize
pater-, patr- father Greek πατήρ, πατριά (patēr, patria) patriarch
pati-, pass- suffer, feel, endure, permit Latin pati, passus passion, passive, patience
pauc- few Latin paucus paucal, pauciloquent, paucity
pav- beat Latin pavire pave, pavement
pecc- sin Latin peccatum "sin, fault, error", from peccare "to miss, mistake" impeccable, peccadillo, peccant, peccavi
pect- fixed Greek πηκτός (pēktos) pectic, pectin
pector- chest Latin pectus, pectoris pectoral
pecu- property Latin pecunia "property", from pecu "cattle" peculiar, pecuniary, pecunious
ped- foot Latin pes, pedis centipede, impede, pedal, pedestrian
pejor- worse Latin pejor pejorative
pell-, puls- drive, push Latin pellere, pulsus appulse, compel, compulsory, dispel, expel, expulsion, impel, impulse, propel, propellent, propulsion, propulsive, propulsor, pulsate, pulse, push, repel, repellent, repulsive
pen- almost Latin paene peninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pen-, poen-, puni- punish Latin punire "punish" (earlier poenire), from poena "punishment" impune, impunity, pain, penal, penalize, penalty, penance, penitence, penitent, penitentiary, pine, punish, punitive, repent, subpoena
pend-, pens- hang Latin pensare, frequentative of pendere append, penchant, pendant, pending, pendulum, pensive, prepense, suspend, suspense
penn-, pinn- feather Latin penna, pinna pennate, pinnacle, pinnate, pinnule
pent- five Greek πέντε (pente) pentagon, pentagram, pentagrid, pentode
pentecost- fiftieth Greek πεντηκοστός (pentēkostos) pentecostalism
pept- digest Greek πέσσειν, πεπτός (pessein, peptos) dyspepsia, peptic, peptide, peptone
per-, pel- thoroughly, through Latin per pellucid, perfection, permeate, pernicious, persistence, peruse, pervade
peran- across, beyond Greek πέραν (péran) Perates
peri- around Greek περί (perí) Pericles, pericope, perigee, perihelion, perimeter, period, periphery, periscope
persic- peach Greek περσικός (persikos)
pessim- worst Latin pessimus pessimal
pet- strive toward Latin petere appetite, compete, competition, impetus, petition, petulant, propitiate, repeat, repetition
petr- rock Greek πέτρα (petra) epipetric, petroglyph, petrographic, petrography, petrology, petrosomatoglyph
phae- dark Greek φαιός (phaios) phaeomelanin, pheochrome
phag- eat Greek φαγεῖν (phageîn), φαγία (phagía) autophagosome, autophagy, bacteriophage, dysphagia, esophagitis, geophagia, hematophagy, macrophage, odynophagia, phagocyte, phagocytosis, phagolysosome, phagophilia, phagophobia, phagosome, phagy, polyphagia, pseudodysphagia, sarcophagus
phalang- close formation of troops, finger bones Greek φάλαγξ, φάλαγγος (phalanx, phalangos) phalanges
phalar- having a patch of white Greek φάλαρος (phalāros)[55] phalarope
pharmac- drug, medicine Greek φάρμακον (pharmakon) pharmacy
phan-, phen- to show, visible Greek φαινειν (phainein) diaphanous, emphasis, epiphany, fantasy, phanerozoic, phantasm, phantom, phase, phene, phenetic, phenology, phenomenon, photic, sycophant, theophany, tryptophan
pher-, phor- bear, carry Greek φέρω (pherō), φόρος (phoros) metaphor, pheromone
phil-, -phile love, friendship Greek φιλέω (phileō, philia) bibliophile, hydrophile, philanthropy, philharmonic, philosophy
phleg- heat, inflammation Greek ϕλέγω (phlegein) "to burn", φλέγω (phlegō) phlegm, phlegmatic
phloe- tree bark Greek φλοιός (phloios) phlobaphene, phloem
phob- fear Greek φόβος (phobos) acrophobia, arachnophobia, claustrophobia, ergophobia, homophobia, hydrophobia, zeusophobia
phon- sound Greek φωνή (phōnē) cacophony, euphony, homophone, microphone, phonetic, phonograph, symphony
phos-, phot- light Greek φῶς, φωτός (phōs, phōtos) phosphor, phosphorus, photic, photo, photoelectric, photogenic, photograph, photosynthesis
phragm- fence Greek φράγμα (phragma) diaphragm
phren- diaphragm, mind Greek φρήν, φρενός (phrēn, phrenos) frenetic, schizophrenia
phryn- toad, toad-like Greek φρύνη (phrunē) Phrynobatrachus
phyl- tribe Greek φύλον (phulon) phylogenetics, phylum
phyll- leaf Greek φύλλον (phullon) chlorophyll, phyllotaxis
physi- nature Greek φύσις (phusis) physics
physalid- bladder Greek φυσαλ(λ)ίς (phusal(l)is) physalis
phyt- plant Greek φυτόν (phuton) neophyte, phytoplankton
pi- kind, devout, pity Latin pius expiate, impious, piety, pious, pity
pic- pitch Latin pix, picis piceous
pil- hair Latin pilus depilatory, epilator
pil- pillar, ball Latin pila pile, pill, pillar, pillory
pin- drink Greek πίνειν (pinein) pinocytosis
pin- pine Latin pinus pineal gland
ping-, pict- paint Latin pingere, pictus depiction, picture, pigment
pingu- fat Latin pinguis Pinguicula, pinguitude
pir- pear Latin pirus piriformis muscle
pisc- fish Latin piscis Pisces, piscivore
pis- pea Greek πίσος (pisos)
plac- plate, tablet Greek πλάξ, πλακός (plax, plakos) duplex, duplicity
plac- calm Latin placare, placatus implacable, placable, placate, please, supple
plac-, plea- please Latin placēre, placitus complacent, complaisant, displease, placebo, placid, plea, please, pleasure
plagi- oblique Greek πλάγιος (plagios) plagiocephaly, plagioclase
plan- flat Latin planus explanation, planar, plane
plang-, planct- Latin plangere, planctus plangent
plas- mould Greek πλάθω (plathō) plasma, plastic
platy- flat, broad Greek πλατύς (platus) plaice, plateau, platitude, platypus
plaud-, -plod-, plaus-, -plos- approve, clap Latin plaudere, plausus applaud, applause, explosion, implode, plaudits, plausible
ple-, plet- fill Latin plere complement, complete, deplete, implement, replete, suppletion, supply
pleb- people Latin plebs, plebis plebeian, plebs
plec- interwoven Greek πλέκω (plekō) plectics, symplectomorphism
plect-, plex- plait Latin plectere, plexus perplex
plen- full Latin plenus plenary, plenitude, plenty, replenish
plesi- near Greek πλησίος (plēsios) plesiosaur
pleth- full Greek πλῆθος (plēthos) plethora
pleur- side Greek πλευρά (pleura) pleuritis
plic- fold Latin plicare, plicatus appliance, application, apply, duplication, explicate, explicit, implicate, implicit, imply, ply, replicate, supplicant, supplicate, supplication
plinth- brick Greek πλίνθος (plinthos) Plinthograptis
plor- Latin plorare implore
plu- rain Latin pluere, see also pluvia pluvial
plum- feather Latin pluma plumage, plumate
plumb- lead Latin plumbum plumber
plur-, plus- more Latin plus, pluris double, plural, pluralist, plus, quadruple, surplus, triple
plurim- most Latin plurimus plurimal
plut- wealth Greek πλοῦτος (ploutos) plutocracy
pneu- air, breath, lung Greek pnein, πνεῦμα (pneuma) apnoea, pneumatic, pneumonia
pod- foot Greek πούς, ποδός (pous, podos) antipode, podiatry, tripod
pogon- beard Greek πώγων, πώγωνος (pōgōn, pōgōnos) pogonotrophy
poie- make Greek ποιέω (poieō) poet, poiesis
pol- pole Greek πόλος (polos) dipole, polar
pole-, poli- city Greek πόλις (polis) acropolis, cosmopolitan, megalopolis, metropolis, police, policy, politics
polem- war Greek πόλεμος (polemos) polemarch, polemic, polemology
poli- grey Greek πολιός (polios) poliomyelitis
pollic- thumb Latin pollex, pollicis pollicate
pollin- fine flour Latin pollen, pollinis pollination
poly- many Greek πολύς (polus) polyandry, polygamy, polygon, polysaccharide, polytheistic
pon-, posit- put Latin ponere, positus apposite, apropos, component, depose, deposit, exponent, expose, expound, impose, impound, opponent, position, positive, postpone, posture, propone, proponent, proposition, propound, repose
ponder- weight Latin pondus, ponderis, ponderare ponder, preponderance
pont- bridge Latin pons, pontis pontoon
popul- people Latin populus, populare population, popular, populous
por- passage Greek πόρος (poros) pore, porosity
porc- pig Latin porcus porcine, pork
porn- prostitute Greek πόρνη (pornē) pornography
porphyr- purple Greek πορφύρα (porphura) porphyrin
port- carry Latin portare "to carry", porta "gate" comportment, deport, export, import, port, portable, portage, portal, porter, portfolio, purport, rapport, report, support, transport
portion- part, share Latin portio portion, proportion
post- after, behind Latin post posterior, posterity, postscript
pot- power Latin potere "be powerful", from potis "powerful, able" despot, impotent, possess, potent, potentate, potential, power
pot- drink Latin potus, potare potable, potion
potam- river Greek ποταμός (potamos) hippopotamus, Mesopotamia
prasin- leek-green Greek πράσινος (prasinos) prasinous
prat- meadow Latin pratum
prav- crooked Latin pravus depravity
pre- before Latin prae previous
prec- pray Latin precāri "to ask, beg, pray", from prex "prayer" deprecation, imprecation, pray, prayer, precarious
pred- prey Latin praedari "plunder", from praeda "prey" depredate, predation, predator, predatory, prey
prehend-, prend-, prehens- grasp Latin prehendere, prehensus apprehend, comprehend, comprehensive, enterprise, prehensility, prehension, prey, prison, prize, reprehend, surprise
prem-, -prim-, press- press Latin premere, pressus pressure
presby- old Greek πρέσβυς (presbus) Presbyterianism
preter- past Latin praeter preterite, pretermission
preti- price Latin pretium, pretiare
prim- first Latin primus primacy, primal, primary, prime, primeval, primitive
prior- former Latin prior priority
priv- separate Latin privus, privare, privatus deprivation, privilege
pro- before, in front of Greek πρό (pro) prologue, prostate
pro- for, forward Latin pro procrastinate, propel, propulsion
prob- worthy, good Latin probare "prove to be worthy", probus approbation, approve, disapprobation, opprobrium, probable, probation, probe, probity, proof, prove, reprobate, reprove
proct- anus Greek πρωκτός (prōktos) proctology
prodig- waste Latin prodigus "wasteful", from prodigere "drive away, waste" prodigal, prodigality
prodig- prodigy Latin prodigium "prodigy" prodigious, prodigy
propri- property; one's own Latin proprietas "appropriateness, property, ownership", from proprius "one's own" appropriate, proper, property, proprietary, proprietor, propriety
pros- forward Greek πρός (pros) prosenchyma, prosthesis
prot- first Greek πρῶτος (prōtos) protagonist, Proterozoic, protocol, protoindustrial, protoplasm, prototype, protozoan
proxim- nearest Latin proximus, proximare approximate, proximity
prun- plum Latin prunus prune
psamm- sand Greek ψάμμος (psammos) psammite, psammophyte, psammosere, psammous
pseud- false Greek ψευδής (pseudēs) pseudonym
psil- bare Greek ψιλός (psilos) epsilon, psilocybin
psych- mind Greek ψυχή (psuchē) psyche, psychiatry, psychology, psychosis
psychr- cold Greek ψυχρός (psuchros) psychrometer
pter- wing, fern Greek πτερόν (pteron) helicopter, pterodactyl
pto- fall Greek πτῶσις (ptōsis) ptosis
pty- saliva Greek πτύον (ptuon) ptyalin
ptych- fold, layer Greek πτύξ, πτυχή (ptuchē) triptych
pub- sexually mature Latin pubes, puberis pubescent, pubic
public- public Latin publicus publication, publicity
pude- shame Latin pudere impudent, pudendum, repudiate
pug-, pugn- fight Latin pugnare "to fight", from pugnus "fist" impugn, pugilism, pugnacious, repugnant
pulchr- beautiful Latin pulcher, pulchri pulchritude
pulmon- lung Latin pulmo, pulmonis pulmonary
pulver- dust Latin pulvis, pulveris pulverize
pung-, punct- prick Latin pungere, punctus acupuncture, expunge, poignant, point, punch, punctual, punctuation, puncture, pungent
pup- doll Latin pupa pupa, pupate, puppet
pur- pure Latin purare "to purify", from purus "pure" impurity, pure, puree, purge, purify, purity
purg- cleanse Latin purgare expurgate, purgatory, purge
purpur- purple Latin purpura purpurate, purpureal
put- prune, reckon Latin putāre amputation, compute, dispute, impute, putative, reputation
pyg- rump Greek πυγή (pugē) callipygian, pygostyle
pyl- gate Greek πυλών, πυλῶνος (pulōn, pulōnos) pylon
pyr- heat, fire Greek πῦρ, πυρός (pur, puros) pyrolysis


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
quadr- four Latin quattuor quadrangle, quadrennial, quadriceps, quadrifarious, quadrifid, quadrifolium, quadrifrons, quadrilateral, quadrilingual, quadriliteral, quadrillion, quadrimester, quadrinational, quadrinodal, quadrinomial, quadrinominal, quadripara, quadrireme, quadrisection, quadrivalent, quadrivium, quadruped, quadruple, quadruplet, quadruplex, quadruplicate, quatrain, quatre, quatrefoil
quadragen- forty each Latin quadrageni quadragenarian, quadragenary
quadragesim- fortieth Latin quadragesimus Quadragesima, quadragesimal
quart- fourth Latin quartus inquartation, interquartile, quadroon, quart, quartal, quartan, quartary, quarte, quarter, quartermaster, quartet, quartic, quartile, quartine, quarto, semiquartile
quasi- as if Latin quasi quasar
quatern- four each Latin quaternī biquaternion, quatern, quaternary, quaternate, quaternion, quaternity, quire
quati-, -cuti-, quass-, -cuss- shake Latin quatere cassate, cassation, concussion, concussive, conquassate, decussation, discuss, discussion, discussive, discutient, excuss, excussio, excussion, fracas, percuss, percussion, percussive, percussor, quash, quassation, recussion, repercussion, rescue, squash, squassation, subconcussive, succuss, succussation, succussion, succussive
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit- search, seek Latin quaerere, quaesītus acquest, acquire, acquiree, acquirement, acquisite, acquisition, acquisitive, acquisitory, conquer, conquest, corequisite, disquisition, exquire, exquisite, inquest, inquire, inquiry, inquisition, inquisitive, inquisitor, inquisitorial, inquisitory, perquisite, perquisition, prerequisite, quaere, quaestor, query, quest, question, questionable, questionary, questionnaire, questor, reconquer, reconquest, request, require, requirement, requisite, requisition, requisitive, requisitor, requisitory
qui- rest Latin quies, quiētus acquiesce, acquiescence, acquiescent, acquit, acquittal, acquittance, inquietude, quiescence, quiescent, quiet, quietude, quietus, quit, requiem, requiescat
quin- five each Latin quini biquinary, quinarius, quinary, quinate
quindecim- fifteenth Latin quindecimus quindecimal
quinden- fifteen each Latin quindeni quindenary
quinque- five Latin quinque cinquain, cinque, quinquefoil, quinquennial, quinquennium, quinquepartite, quinquevalent
quint- fifth Latin quintus biquintile, quint, quinta, quintal, quintan, quintant, quintary, quinte, quintessence, quintessential, quintic, quintile, quintipara, quintus, semiquintile
quot- how many, how great Latin quotiens quota, quotient, subquotient


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
rad-, ras- scrape, shave Latin radere, rasus abrade, abrasion, abrasive, corrade, corrasion, erase, erasure, nonabrasive, radula, radular, raduliform, rase, rash, rasorial, raster, rasure, subradular
radi- beam, spoke Latin radius, radiare radiance, radiation
radic- root Latin rādix, rādīcis eradicate, radical
ram- branch Latin rāmus ramification, ramose
ran- frog Latin rana Rana
ranc- rancidness, grudge, bitterness Latin rancere rancid, rancor
rap- rob, seize Latin rapere, raptus arreption, arreptitious, enrapt, enrapture, rapacious, rapacity, rape, rapid, rapidity, rapine, rapt, raptio, raptor, raptorial, rapture, rapturous, raptus, ravenous, ravine, ravish, subreption, subreptitious, surreptitious
rap- turnip Latin rapum rapeseed
raph- seam Greek ῥάπτειν (rháptein), ῤαφή (rhaphḗ) raphe, raphae
rar- rare Latin rarus rarity
rauc- harsh, hoarse Latin raucus raucous
re-, red- again, back Latin re- recede, redact
rect-, reg-, -rig- straight, direct Latin regere "to direct, lead straight, guide", related rectus "straight, right" correct, direct, dirigible, erect, erection, ergo, rectangle, rectify, rectitude, rectum, regent, regime, regimen, regiment, region, surge
reg-, rex- king Latin rex (genitive regis) regal, regency, regicide, Regis, regulation, reign, rex, royal
regul- rule Latin regula "to rule" regular, regulate, regulation, rule
rem- oar Latin remus bireme, trireme
ren- kidney Latin renes renal
rep-, rept- crawl, creep Latin repere, reptus reptile
resid- left behind Latin residere "remain behind" (see also sedere) reside, residence, resident, residual, residue
ret- net Latin rete reticle, retina
retro- backward, behind Latin retro retrograde, retrospective, retrovirus
rhabd- rod Greek ῥάβδος (rhábdos) rhabdoid, rhabdom, rhabdomyolysis
rhach-, rach- spine Greek ῥάχις, ῥάχεως (rháchis) rachis/rhachis, rhachiodont, rachischisis
rhag- rend, tear Greek ῥαγίζω, ῥῆξις (rhêxis), ῥῆγμα (rhêgma) bronchorrhagia, hemorrhage, menorrhagia, regma, rhagades, rhegma, rhegmatogenous, rhexis
rhe- flow Greek ῥεῖν (rheîn), ῥεῦμα (rheûma) antiarrhythmic, arrhythmia, diarrhoea, dysrhythmia, endorheic, gonorrhoea, hemorrhea, rheology, rheostat, rheum, rheumatic, rheumatism, rheumatoid, rheumatology, rhythm
rhig- chill Greek ῥῖγος (rhîgos) rhigosaurus
rhin- nose, snout Greek ῥίς, ῥινός (rhís, rhinós) haplorhine, rhinoceros, rhinophyma, rhinoplasty, strepsirrhine
rhiz- root Greek ῥίζα (rhíza), ῥιζοῦν (rhizoûn), ῥίζωμα (rhízōma) ectomycorrhiza, rhizoid, rhizome, rhizomorph, Rhizopogon, Rhizopus
rhod- rose Greek ῥόδον (rhódon) rhododendron
rhomb- spinning top Greek ῥόμβος (rhómbos) orthorhombic, rhomb, rhombic, rhomboid, rhombus, rhumb
rhynch- snout Greek ῥύγχος (rhúnchos) Rhynchobatus, rhynchophore
rid-, ris- laugh Latin ridere "to laugh" (past participle risus) deride, derision, ridicule, ridiculous, risible
robor- oak, strength Latin roborare "to strengthen", from robur, robus "strength" corroborate, corroboration, robust
rod-, ros- gnaw Latin rodere, rosus corrode, erosion, rodent
rog- ask Latin rogare abrogate, arrogant, arrogate, derogate, derogation, derogatory, interrogation, prerogative, prorogue, rogation, rogue, surrogate
rostr- beak, prow Latin rostrum rostral, rostriform, rostrum
rot- wheel Latin rota, rotare rotation, rotunda
ruber-, rubr- red Latin ruber rubric, ruby
rudi- unskilled, rough, unlearned Latin rudis erudite, erudition, rude, rudimentary
rug- wrinkle Latin ruga, rugare corrugation
rumin- throat Latin rumen, ruminis rumination
rump-, rupt- break Latin rumpere, ruptus abrupt, corruptible, disrupt, erupt, eruption, interrupt, rupture
rur- country Latin rus, ruris rural


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
sacchar- sugar Greek σάκχαρον (sakcharon) saccharin
sacr-, -secr- sacred Latin sacrare, from sacer (genitive sacri) consecrate, desecrate, sacrament, sacred, sacrosanct
sagac- wise Latin sagax, sagacis sagacious, sagacity
sagitt- arrow Latin sagitta sagittal plane, Sagittaria
sal- salt Latin sal, salis, salere salinity
sali-, -sili-, salt- jump Latin salire, saltus desultory, resilient, salient, saltus
salic- willow Latin salix, salicis salicin
salu- health, welfare Latin salus salubrious, salubrity, salutary, salute
salv- save Latin salvus, salvare salvage, salvation, salve
san- healthy Latin sanus insane, insanity, sanatorium, sane, sanitarian, sanitarium, sanitary, sanitation, sanity
sanc- holy Latin sancire (past participle sanctus) sacrosanct, saint, sanctify, sanction, sanctuary
sanguin- blood Latin sanguis, sanguinis consanguinity, sanguinary, sanguine
sapi-, -sipi- taste, wise Latin sapere "to have a taste, be wise", related to sapor "taste, flavor" insipid, insipience, sapient
sapon- soap Latin sapo, saponis saponification
sarc- flesh Greek σάρξ, σαρκός (sarx, sarkos) sarcophagus
sarc- tailor Latin sartor "tailor", from sarcire "to mend" consarcination, sartor, sartorial, sartorius
sati- enough Latin satis asset, sate, satiate, satiety, satisfy, saturate
saur- lizard, reptile Greek σαῦρος (sauros) dinosaur
sax- rock Latin saxum saxatile, saxicavous, saxicoline, saxifrage, saxifragous
scab- scratch Latin scabere scabies
scal- ladder, stairs Latin scala scalar, scale
scalen- uneven Greek σκαληνός (skalēnos) scalene muscles, scalene triangle
scand-, -scend-, scans-, -scens- climb Latin scandere ascend, ascendency, ascendent, ascension, ascent, condescend, condescendence, condescension, descend, descendent, descension, descent, scansion, transcend, transcendence, transcendent, transcendental
scaph- anything hollow, bowl, ship Greek σκάφη, σκάφος scaphoid bone
scel- leg, thigh Greek σκέλος, σκέλεος (skelos) isosceles
schem- plan Greek σχῆμα (schēma) schematic
schis- split, cleft Greek σχίζω, σχίσμα (schisma) schism, schismatic
sci- know Latin scire conscience, conscious, conscientious, omniscious, omniscient, prescient, science, scienter
scind-, sciss- split Latin scindere rescind, scissors
scler- hard Greek σκληρός (sklēros) scleroderma, sclerosis, sclerotic
scoli- crooked Greek σκολιός (skolios) scoliosis
scop-, scept- look at, examine, view, observe Greek σκέπτομαι, σκοπός (skopos) horoscope, kaleidoscope, microscope, periscope, scope, stethoscope, telescope, skeptic or sceptic
scrib-, script- write Latin scribere, scriptus describe, inscribe, manuscript, prescribe, scribble, scribe, script, scripture, subscribe
scrupl- uneasiness Latin scrupus "sharp stone" scruple, scrupulous, unscrupulous
sculp- carve Latin sculpere, sculptus sculpture
scut- shield Latin scutum scute
scyph- cup Greek σκύφος (skyphos) Scyphozoa
se-, sed- apart Latin se secede, sedition, seditious, seduce
seb- tallow Latin sebum sebaceous, sebum
sec-, sect-, seg- cut Latin secare secant, section, segment
sed- settle, calm Latin sedare, sedatus sedative
sed-, -sid-, sess- sit Latin sedere, sessus assiduous, insidious, obsession, possess, preside, president, reside, resident, sedentary, sediment, sedimentary, sedulity, sedulous, session, subside, supersede
sedec- sixteen Latin sedecim sedecimal
seget- in cornfields Latin segetum
sei- shake Greek σείειν (seíein), σεισμός (seismós) aseismic, microseism, microseismic, paleoseismology, seism, seismic, seismogram, seismograph, seismology, seismometer, seismonasty, teleseism, teleseismic
selen- moon Greek σελήνη (selēnē) Selene, selenium
sell- saddle, seat Latin sella sella turcica
sema- sign Greek σῆμα (sēma) semantics, semaphore
semi- half Latin semis semiannual, semicolon, semiconductor, semiconscious, semifinal, seminatural
semin- seed Latin semen, seminis insemination
sen- old man Latin senex, senis senator, senescent, senile, senility, senior
sen- six each Latin seni senary
senti-, sens- feel Latin sentire, sensus assent, consensus, consent, dissent, resent, scent, sensation, sense, sensible, sensitive, sensory, sentence, sentient, sentience, sentiment
sept- fence, partition, enclosure Latin saeptum transept
sept- seven Latin septem septennial
septen- seven each Latin septeni septenary
septim- seventh Latin septimus septimal, septime
septuagen- seventy each Latin septuageni septuagenary
septuagesim- seventieth Latin septuagesimus septuagesima, septuagesimal
septuagint- seventy Latin septuaginta Septuagint
sequ-, secut- follow Latin sequere, from sequi, see also secutus consecutive, consequence, ensue, non sequitur, obsequious, prosecute, pursue, second, sequel, sequence, subsequent
ser- sow Latin serere, satus disseminate, dissemination, insemination, postseason, preseason, sation, sative, season, seasonable, seasonal, semen, semenuria, seminal, seminar, seminarian, seminary, semination, seminiferous
ser- attach, join Latin serere, sertus assert, assertion, assertive, curviserial, desert, desertion, desertrix, dissert, dissertation, dissertator, exert, exertion, insert, insertion, multiseriate, reassert, reassertion, rectiserial, semidesert, serial, seriate, seriatim, series, sermon, uniseriate
ser- whey Latin serum serac, serosa, serous, subserous
ser- late Latin sērus serein, serotine, serotiny, soiree
serp- crawl, creep Latin serpere, serptus serpent
serr- saw, saw-toothed Latin serra, serrare serration
serv- save, protect, serve Latin servare conserve, deserve, observe, preserve, reserve, servant, service, servile, servitude, subservient
sesqui- one and a half Latin sesqui sesquialteral, sesquicentennial, sesquipedal, sesquiplicate, sesquitertian
set- bristle, hair Latin saeta seta, setose
sever- stern, strict, serious Latin severus perseverance, perseveration, persevere, severe, severity
sex-, se- six Latin sex semester, sexangle, sexangular, sexavalent, sexennial, sexennium, sexireme, sexpartite, sexradiate, sexivalent, sextain
sexagen- sixty each Latin sexageni sexagenarian, sexagenary
sexagesim- sixtieth Latin sexagesimus Sexagesima, sexagesimal
sext- sixth Latin sextus sextant
sibil- hiss Latin sibilus, sibilare sibilance
sicc- dry Latin siccare "to dry", from siccus "dry, thirsty" desiccate, desiccation, sec, siccative
sider- star Latin sidus, sideris sidereal
sign- sign Latin signum design, designate, insignia, signal, signature, significant
sil- quiet or still Latin silere silence
silv- forest Latin silva silviculture
simi- ape, monkey Latin simia simian
simil-, simul- likeness, imitating Latin simulare "to emulate", from similis "alike" assimilate, dissimilate, dissemble, ensemble, resemble, semblance, similar, similarity, simile, similitude, simulacrum, simular, simulate, simulation, simulator, simultaneous, verisimilar, verisimilitude
singul- one each Latin singulus singular
sinistr- left Latin sinister, sinistri sinistral
sinu- (to draw) a line Latin sinuare insinuate
sinus- hollow, bay Latin sinus sinusoidal
siph- tube Greek σίφων (siphōn) siphon
sist- cause to stand Latin sistere assist, consist, desist, exist, insist, persist, resist, solstice, subsist
sit- food, grain, wheat Greek σῖτος (sitos) sitology
soci- group Latin socius, sociare associate, association, associative, consociate, consociation, consociational, disassociate, disassociation, dissociable, dissocial, dissociate, dissociation, dissociative, interassociation, nonassociative, sociability, sociable, social, sociality, societal, society
sol- sun Latin sol, solis circumsolar, extrasolar, insolate, insolation, solar, solarium, soliform, soliscence, solstice, subsolar
sol- comfort, soothe Latin solari consolation, console, solace
sol- alone, only Latin solus desolate, desolation, desolatory, saudade, sole, soliloquy, solitaire, solitary, solitude, solitudinarian, solitudinous, solivagous, solo, sullen
sole- accustomed Latin solere "be accustomed" insolence, insolent, obsolescence, obsolescent, obsolete
solen- pipe, channel Greek σωλήν (sōlēn) solenoid
solv-, solut- loosen, set free Latin solvere, solutus absolute, absolve, dissolute, dissolve, resolute, resolve, soluble, solute, solution, solve, solvent
soma- body Greek σῶμα, σώματος (sōma, sōmatos) somatic
somn- sleep Latin somnus insomnia, somnambulist, somnifacient, somniferous, somnific, somniloquy, somnolent
somni- dream Latin somnium somnial
son- sound Latin sonus absonant, ambisonic, assonance, assonant, assonate, consonance, consonant, consonous, dissonance, dissonant, inconsonance, inconsonant, infrasonic, infrasound, magnisonant, resonance, resonant, resonate, resound, sonance, sonant, sonata, sondage, sonnet, sonorant, sonority, soun, sound, subsonic, supersonic, triconsonantal, ultrasonic, ultrasound
soph- wise Greek σοφός (sophos) philosophy, sophism, sophist, sophisticate, sophomore, sophomoric
sopor- deep sleep Latin sopor sopor, soporific
sorb-, sorpt- suck Latin sorbere absorb, absorption
sord- dirt Latin sordes, sordere sordid
soror- sister Latin soror cousin, sororal, sororate, sororicide, sorority
spars-, -spers- scatter, sprinkle Latin spargere asperse, aspersion, disperse, intersperse, sparse
spati- space Latin spatium interspace, interspatial, space, spatial, spatiate, subspace
spec-, -spic-, spect- look Latin specere, spectare, speculari aspect, conspicuous, expect, inspect, introspective, prospect, respect, retrospective, species, specific, specimen, specious, spectacle, spectator, speculate
spend-, spond- Greek σπένδειν (spéndein), σπονδή, σπονδάς (spondḗ), σπονδεῖος, σπονδικός spondaic, Sponde, spondee
sper- hope Latin spes, sperare despair, desperado, desperate, desperation, esperance, prosper, prosperity, prosperous
sperm- seed Greek σπέρμα, σπέρματος (spérma, spérmatos) angiosperm, perisperm, sperm, spermatid, spermatocyte, spermatogenesis, spermatozoon
sphen- wedge Greek σφήν (sphēn) sphenoid
spher- ball Greek σφαῖρα (sphaira) hemisphere, sphere, spheroid, stratosphere
sphing-, sphinct- strangle Greek σφίγγω sphingein, wikt:Σφίγξ#Ancient GreekΣφίγξ sphinga sphincter
spic- spike Latin spica spica, spicate, spicose, spicosity, spicular, spiculate, spicule, spiculiform
spin- thorn Latin spina infraspinate, infraspinatus, interspinal, spinal, spine, spinel, spinescent, spiniferous, spiniform, spinose, spinous
spir- breathe Latin spirare aspire, conspire, expire, inspire, perspire, respiration, spirit
spond-, spons- a surety, guarantee; give assurance, promise solemnly Latin spondere, sponsus respond
spondyl- vertebra Greek σπόνδυλος (spondylos) spondylosis
spu-, sput- spew, spit Latin spuere sputum
squal- scaly, dirty, filthy Latin squalere squalid, squalor
squam- scale Latin squama squamous
squarros- spreading at tips Latin squarrosus squarrose
st- cause to stand Greek ἵστημι histēmi, histánai antistatic, ecstatic, stasis, static, systasis, system
st- stand Latin stare "to stand", also causative form statuere "to enact, set", from status "condition, position" circumstance, consist, constant, constitute, distant, extant, instant, obstacle, presto, stable, stamen, stamina, stance, stanchion, stanza, state, station, stationary, statistic, statue, status, staunch, stay, substance, substitute, superstition
stagn- pool of standing water Latin stagnare stagnant
stala- dripping, trickling Greek σταλακτός (stalaktos) and σταλαγμός (stalagmos), both from σταλάζειν (stallassein) "to drip" stalactite, stalagmite
stann- tin Latin stannum stannous
stasi- standing, discord Greek στάσις (stasis) static
statu-, -stitu- stand Latin statuere institution, statute
stear- fat, tallow Greek στέαρ, στέατος (stear, steatos) stearic acid
steg- covering Greek στέγη (stegē), στεγανός (steganos) steganography, Stegosaurus
stell- star Latin stella constellation, stellar
stell- send Greek στέλλω (stellein) apostle, epistle, stole
sten- stand Greek στεναί (stenai) apostasy, apostate
sten- narrow Greek στενός (stenos) stenography, stenosis
stere- solid Greek στερεός (stereos) stereometry
stern-, strat- spread, strew Latin sternere, stratus consternation, prostrate, stratify, stratum, stratus, street
stern- breastbone Greek στέρνον (sternon) sternum
stich- line, row Greek στίχος (stichos) distich
stigmat- mark, puncture Greek στίγμα (stigma) astigmatic, stigma
still- drip Latin stilla, stillare distillation, instill
stimul- goad, rouse, excite Latin stimulus stimulate
stin- stand Latin stinare destination, obstinate
stingu-, stinct- apart Latin stinguere distinction, distinguish
stoch- aim Greek στόχος (stóchos), στοχαστικός (stochastikós), στόχασμα stochastic
stom- mouth Greek στόμα (stoma) stomatoplasty
streper- noise Latin strepere obstreperous
streph-, stroph- turn Greek στρέφειν (stréphein), στρεπτός (streptós), στροφή (strophḗ) anastrophe, antistrophe, apostrophe, boustrophedon, catastrophe, catastrophic, catastrophism, epistrophe, monostrophe, monostrophic, strophe, strophic
strept- twisted Greek στρέφειν, στρεπτός (streptós), στρεψίς (strepsís) Strepsiptera, strepsirrhine, streptococcus
strig- compress Latin strix, strigis strigogyps
strigos- having stiff bristles Latin strigosus from striga strigose
string-, strict- tight, upright, stiff Latin stringere, strictus astringent, constrain, constrict, constringe, restrict, strain, strict, stringent
stru-, struct- to make up, build Latin struere, structus construct, construction, construe, destroy, destruct, instruct, obstruct, structure
stud- dedication Latin studere étude, student
stup- wonder Latin stupere stupid, stupor
styl- column, pillar Greek στῦλος (stulos) Stylites
su-, sut- sew Latin suere, sutus couture, suture
suad-, suas- urge Latin suadere, suasus persuasion
suav- sweet Latin suavis assuage, suave, suavity
sub-, su-, suf-, sug-, sup-, sus- below Latin sub submarine, submerge, suffix, suggest, support
subter- under Latin subter subterfuge
sucr- sugar Latin succarum sucrose
sud- sweat Latin sudare exudate, exude, sudarium, sudoriferous, transudate
sui- self Latin sui sui generis, suicide
sulc- furrow Latin sulcus sulcus
sum- sum Latin summare "to sum up", from summa "sum" consummate, consummation, sum, summa cum laude, summary, summation
sum-, sumpt- take Latin sumere, sumptus assume, assumption, consume, consumption, presumption, subsume
super- above, over Latin super insuperable, soprano, sovereign, summit, superable, superb, supercilious, supercomputer, superficial, superfluous, superimpose, superior, superlative, supermarket, supernal, supernatural, supernova, superposition, superpower, superscript, supersede, supersonic, superstition, supervene, supervise, supreme, supremum, surname, surplus, surround, survive
supin- lying back Latin supinus supination, supine
supra- above, over Latin supra supranationalism
surd- deaf Latin surdus absurdity
surg- rise Latin surgere insurgent, insurrection, resurgent, resurrection
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym- with Greek σύν (sun) symbol, symmetry, sympathy, synchronous, synonym, system
syring- pipe Greek σύριγξ, σύριγγος (syrinx, sýringos) syringe


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
tac-, -tic- be silent Latin tacere, tacitus reticent, reticence, tacit, taciturn
tach- swift Greek ταχύς (tachús), τάχος (táchos) tachometer, tachycardia, tachyrhythmia, tachytelic
taeni- ribbon Greek τείνειν (teínein), ταινία (tainía), ταινίδιον (tainídion) diplotene, leptotene, pachytene, taenia, taenidia, taenidium, taeniodont, Taeniolabis, zygotene
tag- (ΤΑΓ[56]) arrange, order Greek τάσσειν (tássein), τακτός (taktós), τακτικός (taktikós), τάξις (táxis), τάγμα (tágma) ataxia, chemotaxis, epitaxis, eutaxy, hypotaxis, magnetotaxis, metasyntactic, parataxis, phonotactic, phonotactics, phototaxis, rheotaxis, syntactic, syntagma, syntagmatic, syntax, tactic, tagma, taxis, taxonomy, thermotaxis
tal- ankle Latin talus talus bone
tang-, -ting-, tact-, tag- touch Latin tangere (past participle tactus) attain, contact, contagious, contingent, contingency, contiguous, intact, tactile, tangent, tangible
tapet- carpet Latin tapete, tapetis tapestry, tapetum, tapis
tarac- (ΤΑΡΑΧ[57]) stir Greek ταράσσειν (tarássein), ταρακτός, ταρακτικός, τάραγμα, θράσσω ataractic, ataraxia
tard- slow Latin tardus retard, tardigrade, tardy
tars- ankle Greek ταρσός (tarsós, "a flat basket") metatarsus, tarsal, tarsoclasis, tarsometatarsus, tarsus
taur- bull Greek ταῦρος (taûros) Minotaur, taurobolium, taurocholic, tauromachy
taur- bull Latin taurus Taurus
tec- (ΤΑΚ[58]) melt Greek τήκειν eutectic, eutectoid
tec-, toc- (ΤΕΚ[59]) childbirth Greek τίκτειν, τόκος (tókos) ditokous, dystocia, embiotocid, monotocous, teknonymous, teknonymy, tokophobia
techn- (ΤΕΚ[60]) art, skill Greek τίκτειν (tíktein), τέχνη (téchnē), τέκτων, τέκτονος (téktōn), τεκτονικός (tektonikós) architect, polytechnic, techne, technique, technocracy, technocrat, technogaianism, technology, technophilia, technophobia, tectonic
tecn- (ΤΕΚ[61]) child Greek τίκτω, τέκνον, τέκνου (téknon) teknonymous, teknonymy
teg-, tect- cover Latin tegere, tectus integument, protection
tele- far, end Greek τῆλε (tēle) telegram, telegraph, telemetry, telepathy, telephone, telescope, television
tele- complete Greek τέλος, τέλεος (télos, téleos), τέλεσις (télesis) atelectasis, ateleiosis, atelophobia, teleology, telesis, toll
temn-, tom- (ΤΕΜ[62][63]) cut Greek τέμνειν (témnein), τομός (tomós), τόμος (tómos), τομή (tomḗ), τμῆσις (tmēsis) acrotomophilia, anatomy, apotemnophilia, atom, atomic, autotomy, diatom, dichotomous, dichotomy, ectomy, entomology, entomomancy, entomophagous, entomophilous, epitome, monatomic, pentatomic, polyatomic, polytomy, Temnospondyli, tmesis, tome, tomogram, tomography, trichotomous, trichotomy
tempor- time Latin tempus, temporis contemporaneous, contemporary, extemporaneous, tempo, temporal, temporary
ten-, -tin-, tent- hold, keep Latin tenere, tentus abstain, abstention, abstinence, abstinent, appertain, appertinent, appurtenance, appurtenant, contain, containment, content, contentive, contentment, continence, continent, continental, continual, continuance, continuant, continuation, continuative, continue, continuity, continuous, continuum, contratenor, countenance, detain, detainder, detainee, detainer, detainment, detention, detinue, discontent, discontentment, discontinuance, discontinuation, discontinue, discontinuity, discontinuous, entertain, entertainment, equicontinuity, equicontinuous, impertinence, impertinent, incontinence, incontinent, intenible, intercontinental, irretentive, lieutenant, maintain, maintenance, malcontent, obtain, obtainment, obtention, pertain, pertinacious, pertinacity, pertinence, pertinent, purtenance, reobtain, retain, retainer, retainment, retention, retentive, retinue, se-tenant, sustenance, sustentacular, sustentaculum, sustentation, sustention, tenable, tenace, tenacious, tenacity, tenancy, tenant, tenet, tenor, tenure, tenurial, tenuto, transcontinental
tend-, tens- stretch, strain Latin tendere (past participle tensus) ambitendency, attempt, attend, attendee, attent, attention, attentive, coextend, coextension, coextensive, contend, contention, contentious, detent, détente, distend, distension, distent, distention, entendre, entente, extend, extensible, extension, extensional, extensionality, extensive, extensivity, extensor, extent, inattention, inattentive, inextensible, intend, intense, intensification, intension, intensional, intensity, intensive, intent, obtend, obtension, ostensible, ostension, ostensive, ostensory, ostent, ostentation, ostentatious, portend, portension, portent, portentous, pretend, pretense, pretension, subtend, subtense, superintend, superintendency, superintendent, tempt, temptation, tend, tendency, tendential, tendentious, tender, tense, tensible, tensile, tensility, tension, tensure, tent, tentacle, tentacular, tentage, tentation, tentative, tentiginous, tentorium
tenu- slender, thin Latin tenuare "make thin", from tenuis "thin" attenuate, extenuate, tenuous
tep- be warm Latin tepere subtepid, tepefaction, tepid, tepidarium, tepidity, tepor
ter-, trit- rub, wear Latin terere, tritus attrition, contrite, contrition, detriment, detrimental, detrital, detrition, detritivore, detritivorous, detritus, retriment, tribulation, trite, triturate, trituration, triture
tere- guard Greek τηρεῖν (tēreîn), τήρησις (tḗrēsis) synteresis
teret- rounded Latin teres, teretis subterete, teretial
terg-, ters- wipe Latin tergere, tersus absterge, abstergent, abstersion, abstersive, deterge, detergency, detergent, terse
termin- boundary, limit, end Latin terminus determine, interminable, terminal, termination
tern- three each Latin terni ternary, ternion
terr- earth Latin terra inter, subterranean, terrace, terracotta, terrain, terrarium, terrestrial, territory
terti- third Latin tertius tertian, tertiary
test- witness Latin testis attest, contest, detest, protest, testament, testify, testimony
tetart- [64] fourth Greek τέταρτος (tétartos) tetartanopsia, tetartohedric
tetr- four Greek τέτϝαρες, τέσσαρες, τεσσάρων (téssares) diatessaron, tetragon, tetrahedron, tetralogy, tetrameter, tetraphobia, tetrapod, tetrode
teuch- make Greek τεύχειν (teúchein), τυγχάνω, τευκτός, τευκτικός, τεῦξις (teûxis), τεῦγμα (teûgma), τεῦχος, τεύχεος (teûchos), τύχη (túchē), τυκτός (tuktós) Heptateuch, octateuch, Pentateuch
tex-, text- weave Latin texere, textus context, subtle, pretext, text, textile, texture
thalam- chamber, bed Greek θάλαμος (thálamos) epithalamion, hypothalamus, prothalamion, thalamotomy, thalamus
thalass- sea Greek θάλασσα (thálassa) Panthalassa, thalassemia, thalassic, thalassophobia
than- (ΘΑΝ[65][66]) death Greek θνήσκειν, θάνατος (thánatos) euthanasia, thanatocoenosis, thanatoid, thanatology, thanatophobia, thanatophoric, thanatopsis
the-, thus- god Greek θεός (theós) atheism, atheistic, ditheism, enthusiasm, monotheism, Pantheon, polytheism, Thea, theobromine, theocracy, theodicy, Theodore, theogony, theology, theophobia, Timothy, tritheism
the- (ΘΕ[67]) put Greek τιθέναι (tithénai), θετός (thetós), θετικός (thetikós), θέσις (thésis), θέμα (théma), θήκη (thḗkē) anathema, anathematic, antithesis, antithetic, apothecium, athematic, Bibliotheca, bodega, boutique, deem, doom, enthesis, enthetic, epenthesis, epenthetic, epitheca, epithet, hypothec, hypothesis, monothematic, nomothetic, oligosynthetic, parenthesis, parenthetic, polysynthetic, prosthesis, prosthetic, prothesis, prothetic, pseudothecium, synthesis, synthetic, theca, thecium, thematic, theme, Themis, thesaurus, thesis, treasure
thea- view Greek θεᾶσθαι (theâsthai), θέατρον (théatron) amphitheatre, metatheatre, theatre, theatric
thel- nipple Greek θηλή (thēlḗ) athelia, endothelium, epithelium, mesothelioma, mesothelium, thelium, thelial
theori- speculation Greek θεωρητικός (theōrētikós), θεώρημα (theṓrēma), θεωρία (theōría) theorem, theoretic, theorist, theorize, theory
ther- beast, animal Greek θήρ, θηρός (thḗr, thērós) therianthropy, theroid, theropod, theropsid
therap- serve Greek θεράπων (therápōn), θεραπεύειν (therapeúein), θεραπευτός, θεραπευτικός (therapeutikós), θεραπεία (therapeía) therapeutic, therapist, therapy
therm- heat, warm Greek θέρεσθαι (théresthai), θέρμη (thérmē), θερμός (thermós) thermal, athermancy, diathermancy, ectotherm, endotherm, endothermic, exothermic, geothermic, homeothermy, hyperthermia, hypothermia, isotherm, poikilotherm, thermobaric, thermochromism, thermodynamic, thermolysis, thermometer, thermophilic, thermophobia, thermoplastic, thermoplegia, thermos, thermosphere, thermostat, thermostatic
thig- (ΘΙΓ[68]) touch Greek θιγγάνειν (thingánein), θίξις (thíxis), θίγημα (thígēma) antithixotropic, thigmonasty, thigmotaxis, thixotropic, thixotropy
thorac- chest Greek θώραξ, θώρακος (thṓrax, thṓrakos) hemothorax, pneumothorax, thoracic, thorax
thym- mood Greek θυμός (thumos) dysthymia
thyr- door Greek θύρα (thura) thyratron
thyre- large shield Greek θυρεός (thureos) Thyreophora, thyroid, thyrotropin, thyroxine
tim- be afraid Latin timere timid, timorous
ting-, tinct- (TING[69]) dye, moisten Latin tingere, tinctus aquatint, distain, mezzotint, tinct, tinctorial, tincture, tinge, tingent, tint
tom- cut Greek τομή (tome), τόμος (tomos) anatomy, appendectomy, atom, dichotomy, ectomy, embolectomy, tome, tonsillectomy, vasectomy
ton- (ΤΑΝ[70]) stretch Greek τείνειν (teínein), τόνος (tónos), τονικός (tonikós) isotonic, monotone, tone
top- [71] place Greek τόπος (tópos) atopic, atopy, dystopia, ectopia, ectopic, entopic, epitope, eutopia, isotope, nomotopic, polytope, topiary, topic, topography, topology, toponomastics, toponym, toponymy, topos, utopia, zonotope
torn- [72] turn, rotate Latin from Greek tornare < τόρνος (tórnos) tornado, tournament, turn
torpe- be numb Latin torpere torpent, torpid, torpor
torqu-, tort- twist Latin torquere, tortus contort, distort, extort, extortion, retort, torque, torsion, tortuous, torture
tot- all, whole Latin totus subtotal, total, totality
tox- [73] arrow, bow, poison Greek τόξον (tóxon) anatoxin, antitoxin, autotoxin, exotoxin, intoxicate, neurotoxin, psychotoxic, toxic, toxin, toxoid, toxology, toxoplasmosis
trab- beam Latin trabs, trabis trabeculae
trach- [74] rough Greek τραχύς (trachús) trachea, tracheids, tracheitis, tracheophyte, tracheostomy, tracheotomy, trachoma
trag- [75] he-goat Greek τράγος (trágos) tragedy, tragic, tragus
trah-, tract- draw, pull Latin tractare, frequentative of trahere, tractus attract, contract, detract, retract, subtract, subtrahend, tractable, traction, tractor
trans-, tra-, tran- across Latin trans intransigent, tradition, transact, transcend, transient, transitory, transparent, transport
trapez- [76] four-legged, table Greek τράπεζα (trápeza), τραπέζιον, (trapézion) trapeze, trapezium, trapezius, trapezohedron, trapezoid
traum- [77] wound Greek τραῦμα, τραῦματος (traûma) trauma, traumatic, traumatize, traumatophobia
trecent- three hundred Latin trecenti trecentennial, trecentillion
tredec- thirteen Latin tredecim tredecimal
treiskaidek- thirteen Greek τρεισκαίδεκα (treiskaideka) triskaidekaphobia
trem- tremble Latin tremere tremor
trema- hole Greek τρῆμα (trēma) monotreme, trematode
trepid- tremble Latin trepidare "to tremble, hurry", from trepidus "alarmed, scared" intrepid, trepid, trepidation
tri- three Greek τρεῖς, τρία (treis, tria) triad, trigon, triode, tripod
tri- three Latin trēs triangle, triumvirate, trivia
trib- rub Greek τρίβειν (tribein) diatribe, tribology
tribu- pay Latin tribuere "to pay", from tribus attribute, contribute, retribution, tribe, tribulation, tribunal, tribune, tributary, tribute
tricen- thirty each Latin triceni tricenary
tricesim-, trigesim- thirtieth Latin tricesimus trigesimal
trich- hair Greek θρίξ, τριχός (thrix, trichos) peritrichous, trichopathophobia, Trichoptera
trin- three each Latin trini trinary, trine, trinity
trit- third Greek τρίτος (tritos) tritagonist
tritic- wheat Latin triticum triticale
troch- wheel Greek τροχός (trochos) trochlea
trop- turning Greek τρόπος (tropos) contrive, heliotropism, isotrope, psychotropic, retrieve, trope, tropic, tropism, troposphere, troubadour, trove
troph- feed, grow Greek τροφή, τροφός (trophos) dystrophy, pogonotrophy, trophic
truc- fierce Latin trux, trucis truculent
trud-, trus- thrust Latin trudere, trusus abstrude, abstruse, abstrusion, abstrusity, detrude, detrusion, detrusor, extrude, extrusible, extrusion, extrusive, inobtrusive, intrude, intrusion, intrusive, nonintrusive, obtrude, obtrusion, obtrusive, protrude, protrudent, protrusile, protrusion, protrusive, retrude, retruse, retrusion, retrusive
trunc- cut off Latin truncare "to maim, mutilate", from truncus "mutilated, cut off" trench, trenchant, truncate, truncheon, trunk
tryp- bore Greek τρυπᾶν (trupân), τρύπανον (trúpanon) trepan, trypanophobia, trypanosome
tum- to swell up Latin tumere contumely, contumacious, detumescence, detumescent, intumescence, tumefacient, tumefaction, tumesce, tumescence, tumescent, tumid, tumidity, tumor, tumorous, tumular, tumulose, tumulous, tumult, tumultuary, tumultuous, tumulus, tumble
turb- disturb Latin turba disturb, perturb, turbid, turbine, turbulent,
tuss- cough Latin tussis, tussire pertussis
tympan- drum Greek τύμπανον (túmpanon) tympani, tympanum
typ- (ΤΥΠ[78]) stamp, model Greek τύπτειν (túptein), τύπος (túpos), τυπικός (tupikós), τύμπανον (túmpanon) archetype, ectype, holotype, logotype, monotypic, phenotype, prototype, type, typical, typify, typography, typology
typh- smoke Greek τύφειν (túphein), τῦφος (tûphos), τυφώδης typhoid, typhous, typhus
tyrann- terrible, tyrant Greek τύραννος (túrannos) tyrannize, tyrannosaurus rex, tyranny, tyrant


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
uber- fruitful, udder Latin ūber, uberare exuberance, exuberant, exuberate, uberous, uberty
uligin- in marshes Latin uligo, uliginis uliginous
ulo- wooly Greek οὖλος (oulos) Ulotrichi
ultim- farthest Latin ultimus ultimate, ultimatum
ultra- beyond Latin ultra ultrasonic
umbilic- navel Latin umbilicus umbilical
umbr- shade, shadow Latin umbra adumbrate, penumbra, umbrage, umbrella
un- one Latin ūnus, unius adunation, biunique, coadunate, coadunation, disunite, disunity, malunion, nonuniform, nonuniformity, nonunion, nonunique, nonunity, onion, reunification, reunion, reunite, triune, unanimous, unary, unate, unicorn, unific, unification, uniform, uniformity, unify, union, unique, unite, unity, universal, universe, university
unc- hook Latin uncus adunc, aduncity, aduncous, unciform, Uncinaria, uncinate, Uncinia
unci- ounce, twelfth Latin uncia inch, ounce, quincuncial, semiuncial, uncial
und- wave Latin unda abound, abundance, abundant, inundant, inundate, inundation, redound, redundancy, redundant, superabound, superabundance, superabundant, surround, undine, undulant, undulate, undulation, undulatory, undulatus, undulose
undecim- eleventh Latin undecimus undecimal
unden- eleven each Latin ūndēni undenary
ungu- claw, nail Latin unguis ungual, unguiferous, unguiform
ungul- claw, hoof Latin ungula ungular, ungulate, unguligrade
ur- tail Greek οὐρά (oura) uroid, uroborus
ur- urine Greek οὖρον (ouron) urology
urb- city Latin urbanus "belonging to a city", from urbs (genitive urbis) "city" suburbanite, urban, urbane, urbanism, urbanize
urg- work Latin urgere urgent
urs- bear Latin ursus Ursa Major, ursine, Ursus
ut-, us- use Latin uti, usus abuse, use, usual, utilitarian, utility, utilize
uv- grape Latin uva uvea
uxor- wife Latin uxor uxoricide


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
vac- empty Latin vacare evacuate, vacancy, vacant, vacate, vacation, vacuous, vacuum
vacc- cow Latin vacca vaccary, vaccination, vaccine
vacil- waver Latin vacillare "sway, be untrustworthy" vacillate, vacillation
vad-, vas- go Latin vadere evade, pervasive
vag- wander Latin vagus, vagare vagabond, vague
val- strength, worth Latin valere ambivalence, avail, equivalent, evaluate, prevail, valence, valiant, valid, valor, value
van- empty, vain, idle Latin vanus "empty", also vanescere "vanish" evanescent, vain, vanish, vanity
vap- lack (of) Latin vapor evaporate, evaporation, evaporative, evaporator, evaporite, nonevaporative, vapid, vapidity, vapor, vaporescence, vaporescent, vaporific, vaporous
vari- vary Latin variare bivariate, covariate, covariation, intervarietal, invariable, invariance, invariant, variable, variance, variant, variate, variation, variegate, varietal, variety, variola, variolation, variorum, various, vary
varic- straddle Latin varicare "to straddle", from varus "bowlegged" prevaricate
veh-, vect- carry Latin vehere "to carry", vectus invective, inveigh, vector, vehement, vehicle
vel- veil Latin velum revelation, velate
vell-, vuls- pull Latin vellere, vulsus convulsion
veloc- quick Latin velox, velocis velocity
ven- vein Latin vena intravenous, venosity, venule
ven- hunt Latin venari venison
ven-, vent- come Latin venire advent, adventure, avenue, circumvent, contravene, convene, convenient, convention, event, intervene, intervention, invent, prevent, revenue, souvenir, supervene, venue, venture
vend- sell Latin vendere vend, vendor
vener- respectful Latin venus, veneris venerable, veneration, venereal
vent- wind Latin ventus ventilation, ventilator
ventr- belly Latin venter, ventris ventral
ver- true Latin verus aver, veracious, verdict, verify, verisimilar, verisimilitude, verity, very
verb- word Latin verbum verbal, verbatim, verbosity
verber- whip Latin verber reverberation
verm- worm Latin vermis vermiform, vermin
vern- spring Latin ver, vernus vernal
vers-, vert- turn Latin versus, past participle of vertere adverse, adversity, advertise, anniversary, avert, controversy, controvert, conversant, conversation, converse, convert, diversify, divert, extrovert, introvert, inverse, invert, perverse, pervert, reverse, revert, subvert, tergiversate, transverse, universe, versatile, verse, version, versus, vertex, vertical, vertigo
vesic- bladder Latin vesica vesical
vesper- evening, western Latin vespera vesperal
vest- clothing, garment Latin vestire "to clothe", related to vestis "garment" divest, invest, investiture, transvestite, travesty, vest, vestment
vestig- track Latin vestigium investigate, vestigial
vet- forbid Latin vetare veto
veter- old Latin vetus, veteris inveterate, veteran
vi- way Latin via deviate, obviate, obvious, via
vic- change Latin vicis vicar, vicarious, vice versa, vicissitude
vicen-, vigen- twenty each Latin viceni vicenary
vicesim-, vigesim- twentieth Latin vicesimus vicesimary, vicesimation, vigesimal
vid-, vis- see Latin videre, visus advice, advisable, advise, advisement, advisor, advisory, clairvoyance, clairvoyant, counterview, enviable, envious, envisage, envisagement, envision, envy, evidence, evident, evidential, evidentiality, evidentiary, improvidence, improvident, improvisation, improvisational, improvise, imprudence, imprudent, inadvisable, inevident, interview, interviewee, invidious, invisibility, invisible, nonevidentiary, nonsupervisory, nonvisual, preview, previse, provide, providence, provident, provision, provisional, provisionality, proviso, provisory, prudence, prudent, prudential, purvey, purveyance, purveyor, purview, review, reviewal, revisal, revise, revision, revisionary, revisit, supervise, supervision, supervisor, supervisory, survey, surveyor, surview, survise, videlicet, video, view, vis-à-vis, visa, visage, visibility, visible, vision, visionary, visit, visitation, visor, vista, visual, visuality, voilà, voyeur
vigil- watchful Latin vigil, also vigilare invigilate, reveille, surveillance, vigil, vigilance, vigilant, vigilante
vil- cheap Latin vilis revile, vile, vilify
vill- country house Latin villa villa, village, villain
vill- shaggy hair Latin villus velour, velvet, villiform
vin- wine Latin vinum vine, vinous
vinc-, vict- conquer Latin vincere (past participle victus) convict, conviction, convince, evict, evince, invincible, province, vanquish, vanquishment, victor, victorious, victory
vir- man Latin vir triumvirate, virility
vir- green Latin virere verdure, virid, viridescent, viridian, viridity
visc- thick Latin viscum viscosity
viscer- internal organ Latin viscus, visceris eviscerate, visceral
vit- life Latin vita vital, vitality, vitamin
vitell- yolk Latin vitellus vitellogenesis
viti- fault Latin vitium vice, vitiate, vituperate
vitr- glass Latin vitrum vitreous, vitriol
viv- live Latin vivere "to live", related to vita "life" convivial, revive, survive, viable, victual, vivacious, vivacity, vivid, vivisection
voc- call, voice Latin vocare (to call), from vox "voice" (genitive vocis) advocacy, advocate, advocation, advocator, advocatory, advoke, advowson, avocation, avouch, avow, avowal, avowry, convocate, convocation, convocator, convoke, disavow, disavowal, equivocal, equivocate, equivocation, evocable, evocation, evocative, evocator, evoke, invocable, invocate, invocation, invocative, invocator, invoke, prevocational, provocate, provocateur, provocation, provocative, provocator, provoke, reavow, reinvoke, revocable, revocation, revoke, vocal, vocation, vocational, vociferous, vouch, vouchee, voucher, vouchsafe
vol- fly Latin volare avolation, circumvolant, circumvolation, nonvolatile, volatile, volatility, volitant, volitation
vol- will Latin voluntas "will" from velle "to wish" benevolence, benevolent, involuntary, malevolence, malevolent, omnibenevolence, velleity, volitient, volition, volitional, volitive, voluntary, Voluntaryism, volunteer, voluptuary, voluptuous
volv-, volut- roll Latin volvere, volutus advolution, archivolt, circumvolute, circumvolution, circumvolve, coevolution, coevolutionary, coevolve, convolute, convolution, devolve, evolve, involve, revolve, valve, vault, volte, voluble, volume, voluminous, volva, Volvox, volvulus, voussoir, vulva
vom- discharge Latin vomere vomit, vomition, vomitory, vomitus
vor-, vorac- swallow Latin vorare, vorax carnivore, carnivorous, devoration, devoré, devour, herbivore, herbivorous, locavore, omnivore, omnivorous, voracious, voracity, voraginous
vov-, vot- vow Latin vovere, votus devote, devotee, devotion, devotional, devout, devove, devow, votary, vote, votive, vow
vulg- crowd Latin vulgus divulge, vulgarity, vulgate
vulner- wound Latin vulnus, vulneris vulnerable
vulp- fox Latin vulpēs, vulpis vulpine


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
xanth- yellow Greek ξανθός (xanthos) xanthium, xanthochromia, xanthogenic, xanthophyll
xen- foreign Greek ξένος (xenos) xenoblast, xenogamy, xenophobia, xenon
xer- dry Greek ξηρός (xēros) xeroderma, xerography, xeromorph, xerophagy, xerophile, xerophyte
xiph- sword Greek ξίφος (xiphos) xiphisternum, xiphoid, xiphophyllous
xyl- wood Greek ξύλον (xulon) xylem, xylocarp, xyloid, xylophone


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ze- boil Greek ζεῖν (zeîn), ζεστός (zestós), ζέσις, ζέμα, ζέματος (zéma) eczema, eczematous
zel- jealousy, zeal Greek ζῆλος (zēlos) zeal, zealot, zealous
zete- seek Greek ζητεῖν (zēteîn), ζητητός (zētētós), ζητητικός (zētētikós) zetetic
zo- animal, living being Greek ζῶ, ζῷον (zōion) azoic, azotemia, ectozoon, entozoon, epizoon, Mesozoic, protozoa, zoanthropy, zodiac, zoic, zoo, zoogeography, zooid, zoology, zoomorphism, zoon, zoonosis, zoopoetics, zooxanthella
zon- belt, girdle Greek ζωννύναι (zōnnúnai), ζώνη (zṓnē) zonal, zone
zyg- (ΖΥΓ[79]) yoke Greek ζευγνύναι (zeugnúnai), ζεῦγμα (zeûgma), ζυγωτός (zugōtós), ζυγός, ζυγόν (zugón) azygous, diazeugma, dizygotic, heterozygote, heterozygous, hyperzeuxis, hypozeugma, hypozeuxis, mesozeugma, monozygotic, prozeugma, synezeugmenon, zeugitae, zeugma, zygoma, zygomorphic, zygomorphism, zygomycosis, zygomycota, zygon, Zygoptera, zygote
zym- ferment Greek ζύμη (zúmē) alloenzyme, azyme, azymite, enzyme, lysozyme, microzyme, zymase, zyme, zymogen, zymology, zymolysis, zymosis, zymotic

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, ăb, ā". Retrieved 2015-03-31. 
  2. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, ad". Retrieved 2015-03-31. 
  3. ^ ἀείρω. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  4. ^ ἀλκυών. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  5. ^ ἀλέω. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  6. ^ ἄλγος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  7. ^ ἄλλος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  8. ^ ἀλλήλων. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  9. ^ ἀμβλύς. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  10. ^ ἄμμος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  11. ^ ἀμνός. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  12. ^ ἀμφί. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  13. ^ ἀνά. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  14. ^ ἀνήρ. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  15. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, ἀνήρ". Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  16. ^ ἀντί. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  17. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, antĕ". Retrieved 2015-03-31. 
  18. ^ βαίνω. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  19. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, βαίνω". 
  20. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, βάλλω". Retrieved 2014-12-10. 
  21. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, βάπτω". Retrieved 2014-11-20. 
  22. ^ βίβλος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  23. ^ βῶλος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  24. ^ βομβέω. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  25. ^ βραχύς. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  26. ^ βραδύς. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  27. ^ βρόμος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  28. ^ βρόγχος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  29. ^ βροντή. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  30. ^ βροτός. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  31. ^ βούτυρον. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  32. ^ βυσσός. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  33. ^ βύσσος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  34. ^ ἔρως. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  35. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, (for)". Retrieved 2015-04-03. 
  36. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, faciō". Retrieved 2015-09-25. 
  37. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, fingō". Retrieved 2015-09-25. 
  38. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, findō". Retrieved 2015-09-25. 
  39. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, flō". Retrieved 2015-09-25. 
  40. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, γάλα". Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  41. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, garriō". Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  42. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, gīgnō". Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  43. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, γίγνομαι". Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  44. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, gerō". Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  45. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, γεύω". Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  46. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, γιγνώσκω". Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  47. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, gradus". Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  48. ^ αἷμα. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  49. ^ ἕνδεκα. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  50. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, maneō". Retrieved 2014-10-23. 
  51. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, mittō". Retrieved 2014-10-23. 
  52. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, ŏb". Retrieved 2015-10-17. 
  53. ^ οἶστρος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  54. ^ ὄπισθεν. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  55. ^ "phalaros" in LSJ
  56. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, τάσσω". Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  57. ^ ταράσσω. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  58. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, τήκω". Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  59. ^ τίκτω. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  60. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, τίκτω". Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  61. ^ τίκτω. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  62. ^ τέμνω. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  63. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, τέμνω". Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  64. ^ τέταρτος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  65. ^ θνήσκω. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  66. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, θνήσκω". Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  67. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, τίθημι". Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  68. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, θιγγάνω". Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  69. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, tingō". Retrieved 2015-09-21. 
  70. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, τείνω". Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  71. ^ τόπος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  72. ^ τόρνος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  73. ^ τόξον. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  74. ^ τραχύς. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  75. ^ τράγος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  76. ^ τράπεζα. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  77. ^ τραῦμα. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  78. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, τύπτω". Retrieved 2015-09-21. 
  79. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, ζεύγνυμι". Retrieved 2014-10-29. 

External links[edit]