List of Greek and Latin roots in English/A–G

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The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes commonly used in the English language from A to G. See also the lists from H to O and from P to Z.

Some of those used in medicine and medical technology are not listed here but instead in the entry for List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes.


Note that root groups such as "ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, am-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-" are collated under the head item (first item listed), which is sometimes followed by alternative roots that might have collated earlier in the table had they been listed separately (in this example, "a-" and "ac-").

Roots A-G[edit]

Lists of Greek and Latin roots in English beginning with other letters:


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ab-, a-, abs-, au-[1] away from, down, off Latin ab abdication, abduction, aberrant, abnormal, abrasion, absent, absorb, abstain, abstemious, abstraction, aversion, avulsion
abac-[2] slab Greek ἄβαξ, ἄβακος (ábax, ábakos), ἀβακίσκος (abakískos) abaciscus, abacus, abax
ac-, acm-, acr-[3] point Greek ἀκή (akḗ), ἀκίς, ἀκίδος (akís, akídos), ἀκόνη (akónē), ἄκρος (ákros), ἄκρον (ákron), ἄκρα acidanthera, acme, acmeism, acmesthesia, acmic, acne
ac-, ace-[4] cure Greek ἀκεῖσθαι (akeîsthai), ἀκή (akḗ), ἄκος, ἄκεος (ákos, ákeos) aceology, autacoid, panacea
academ- Akademos Greek Ἀκάδημος (Akádēmos) academe, academia, academic, academy
acanth- thorn Greek ἀκή, ἄκανθα (ákantha) Acanthaster, acanthion, acanthite, Acanthocephala, acanthocephaliasis, acanthocyte, Acanthomintha, Acanthosaura, Acanthus, Metriacanthosaurus, neuroacanthocytosis
acar-[5] mite Greek ἀκαρί (akarí) acariasis, acarid, acariphagous, acaroid, acarology, acarophobia, acarus
accipitr- hawk Latin accipiter Accipiter, accipitrine
acer-, acri- bitter, sharp, sour Latin ācer, ācris, acerbus, acere acerbic, acrid, acrimonious, acrimony, exacerbate
acet- sour, vinegar Latin acētum acetabulum, acetate, acetic, acetone, acetum, triacetate
acid- acidic, sour Latin acidus acidiferous, acidity, acidosis, acidulation, acidulous
acr- height, summit, tip, top Greek ἀκή (akḗ), ἄκρος (ákros) "high", "extreme", ἄκρον (ákron) acrobat, acrobatics, acrochordon, acromegalia, acromegaly, acromion, acronym, acrophobia, acropolis, acrostic, acroterion, acrotomophilia
actin-[6] beam, ray Greek ἀκτίς, ἀκτῖνος (aktís, aktînos) actinic, actinism, actinium, actinocerid, actinodrome, actinoid, actinomere, actinometer, actinomorphic, actinomyces, actinophryid, actinopod, Actinopterygii, actinotherapy, actinozoa
acu-, acut- sharp, pointed Latin acutus, past participle of acuere "to sharpen", from acus "needle" acerose, acupuncture, acumen, acute, acutifoliate
ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, am-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-[7] movement to or toward; in addition to Latin ad "to", "toward" accept, accurate, adapt, addition, address, adept, adherent, adhesive, adjust, admit, admonish, advertisement, affect, agglomerate, aggregate, aggression, allege, allude, ammunition, annectent, approximate, arreption, arride, arrogant, ascend, assault, assimilate, attend, attract
aden-[8] gland Greek ἀδήν, ἀδένος (adḗn, adénos) adenocarcinoma, adenoid, adenoidectomy, adenology, adenoma, adenomyosis, adenosis
adip- fat Latin adeps, adipis "fat" adipocellular, adipose
aer- (ΑΕΡ)[9] lift, raise Greek ἀείρειν (aeírein), ἀορτή (aortḗ), αἰρόμενον, ἀϝείρω aorta, aortic, endaortitis, meteor, meteorology
aer-, aero-[10] air, atmosphere Greek ἀήρ, ἀέρος (aḗr, aéros) "air" aerobic, aerodynamic, aeronautics, aeroplane, aerorrhachia, aerosol, aerotitis
aesth- feeling, sensation Greek αἰσθητός (aisthētós), αἰσθητικός (aisthētikós) "of sense perception" from αἰσθάνεσθαι (aisthánesthai) "to perceive" aesthesia, aesthesis, aesthete, aesthetics, anaesthetic, synesthesia
aether-, ether- upper pure, bright air Greek αἴθειν (aíthein), αἰθήρ (aithḗr) ether, ethereal, etheric, hypaethros
aev-, ev- age Latin aevum age, coeval, eon, eternal, longevity, medieval, primeval
ag-, -ig-, act- do, go, move Latin agere, actus act, action, activation, activity, actor, agenda, agent, agile, agitate, ambiguous, castigate, cogent, cogitate, cogitation, deactivate, excogitate, mitigate, navigate, proactive, react, transaction
ag-[11] lead Greek ἄγειν (ágein) (cognate with Latin agere), ἀγωγός (agōgós) agony, antagonist, antagonize, demagogue, pedagogue, pedagogy, strategy, synagogue
agap-[12] love Greek ἀγάπη (agápē) agape
agr-[13] field Greek ἀγρός, ἀγροῦ (agrós, agroû) agronomist, agronomy
agri-, -egri- field Latin ager, agris "field, country" agriculture, peregrine
ailur-[14] cat Greek αἴλουρος (aílouros) Ailuroedus, ailuromancy, ailurophile, ailurophilia, ailurophobia
alac- cheerful Latin alacer alacrity, allegro
alb- dull white Latin albus albedo, albino, albumen
alcyon-[15] kingfisher Greek ἀλκυών, ἀλκυόνος (alkuṓn, alkuónos) Halcyon, halcyon
ale-[16] (ΑΛ) wheat flour Greek ἀλέω, ἄλευρον (áleuron), ἀλείατα aleuromancy, aleurone, aleuronic
alg-[17] pain Greek ἄλγος (álgos), ἀλγεινός, ἀλγεῖν (algeîn), ἄλγησις (álgēsis) analgesic, arthralgia, neuralgia, nostalgia
ali-, alter- other Latin alius "another", alter "other" alias, alibi, alien, alter, alternate, altruism
all-[18] other Greek ἄλλος (állos) allegory, allogenic, allograph, allophone, parallactic, parallax
allel-[19] one another Greek ἀλλήλων (allḗlōn) allele, allelomorph, allelotaxis, parallel, parallelism, parallelogon, parallelogram
alph-[20] A, a Greek Α, α, ἄλφα (álpha) alphabet, alphabetic, analphabetic, panalphabetic, polyalphabetic
alphit- barley Greek ἀλφός (alphós), ἄλφιτον, ἀλφίτου (álphiton, alphítou) alphitomancy
alt- high, deep Latin altus, altitudo altimeter, altitude, alto, altocumulus, contralto, exalt
am-, amat- love, liking Latin amāre, amatus, amor amateur, amatory, amenity, amorous, enamoured
am-, amic-, -imic- friend Latin amicus amiable, amicable, amity, enemy, enmity, inimical
amath- sand Greek ἄμαθος (amathos) amathophobia
ambi-, am-, amb-, ambo-, an- both, on both sides Latin ambi ambidexterity, ambient, ambiguous, ambit, ambition, ambivalent, amboceptor, amputation, ancipital, andante
ambly-[21] dull Greek ἀμβλύς (amblús) amblygeustia, amblygonite, amblyopia, Amblypoda
ambul- walk Latin ambulare ambulance, ambulatory, amble, perambulate, preamble, somnambulist
amm-[22] sand Greek ἄμμος (ámmos), ἄμαθος (ámathos) amathophobia, Ammophila
amn-[23] lamb Greek ἀμνός (amnós), ἀμνεῖος, ἀμνειός, ἀμνίον (amníon) amniocentesis, amnion, amnioscope, amniote, amniotic, anamniote
amph-, amphi-[24] both, on both sides of, both kinds Greek ἀμφί (amphí) "on both sides" amphibian, amphibious, amphibole, amphibolic, amphimacer, Amphipoda, amphistyly, amphitheatre, amphoterism
ampl- ample, abundant, bountiful, large Latin amplus ample, amplify, amplitude
amygdal-[25] almond Greek ἀμυγδάλη (amugdálē), ἀμύγδαλον (amúgdalon) almond, amygdala, amygdale, amygdalin, amygdaloid, amygdule
an-, a-, am-, ar- not, without Greek Greek ἀν-/ἀ- "not" ambrosia, anaerobic, anarchy, anemia, anesthesia, anhydrous, anonymous, apathy, aphasia, arrhythmia, atheism, atypical
ana-, am-, an-[26] again, against, back, up Greek ἀνά (aná) anagram, anabaptist, anaphylaxis, anarrhexis, anion, anode
andr-[27] (ΑΝΕΡ) male, masculine Greek ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός (anḗr, andrós), ἀνδρότης Andrew, Alexander, androcentric, androcentrism, androgen, androgenous, androgyne, androgynous, androgyny, android, andrology, androphobia, androspore, diandry, misandry, monandry, philander, polyandrous, polyandry, protandry, pseudandry, synandrous
anem-[28] (ΑΝ) wind Greek ἄνεμος (ánemos) anemograph, anemometer, anemometric, anemone, anemophilous, anemophily, anemophobia, anemoscope, anemotropism
anim- breath, life, soul, spirit Latin anima "breath", "soul" animal, animation, anime, animism, animus, inanimate, equanimity
ann-, -enn- year, yearly Latin annus "year" anniversary, annual, centennial, millennium, perennial
ant-, anti-[29] against, opposed to, preventive Greek ἀντί (antí) "against" antagonist, antagonize, antibiotic, antibody, antichrist, antidepressant antidote, antifreeze, antifungal, antigen, antinomies, antipathy, antipodes, antirrhinum, antiseptic, antisocial, antithesis
ante-, anti-[30] before, in front of, prior to; old Latin ante "before", "against"; see also antiquus "old" antebellum, antecedent, antedate, antediluvian, anteroom, anticipate, antiquarian, antiquate, antique, antiquity
anth-[31] flower Greek ἀνθεῖν (antheîn), ἄνθος (ánthos), ἄνθησις (ánthēsis), ἄνθημα (ánthēma), ἀνθηρός (anthērós) anther, anthesis, Anthocoridae, anthodite, anthology, anthophobia, anthophore, Anthozoa, chrysanthemum, dianthus, enanthem, enanthema, exanthem, exanthematic, hydranth, hypanthium, perianth, zoanthid
anthrac- coal Greek ἄνθραξ, ἄνθρακος (ánthrax, ánthrakos) anthracite, anthracnose, anthracycline, anthrax
anthrop- human Greek ἄνθρωπος (ánthrōpos) "man" anthropology, anthroposophy, anthropomorphic, misanthrope, philanthropy
ap-, apo-[32] off, away from, separate, at the farthest point Greek ἀπό (apó) "from, away, un-, quite", sometimes "changed, switched" aphelion, apocrine, apocryphal, apogee, aporrhinosis, apostasy, apostate
aper- open Latin aperire aperient, apéritif, aperitive, aperture, overt, overture, pert
aphrod- Aphrodite Greek Ἀφροδίτη (Aphrodítē), Ἀφροδίσιος (Aphrodísios), ἀφροδισιακόν (aphrodisiakón) aphrodisiac, pseudohermaphroditism
api- bee Latin apis apian, apiary, apicula, apium; Petrus Apianus
aqu- water Latin aqua acquacotta, akvavit, aqua vitae, aquaculture, aquamarine, aquarelle, aquarium, Aquarius, aquatic, aquatile, aqueduct, aqueous, aquifer, aquiferous, aquiform, gouache, semiaquatic
ara- plow, till Latin ărāre arability, arable, aration, aratory, exarate, exaration, inarable, nonarable
arachn- spider Greek ἀράχνης, ἀράχνη (arákhnē) Arachne, arachnid, arachnodactyly, arachnoid, arachnology, arachnophobia
arbit- judge Latin arbiter (from ad "to" + baetere "to come, go") arbiter, arbitrage, arbitrary, arbitration
arcan- box Latin arcanus arcane, arcanum
arch-, arche-, archi- ruler Greek ἄρχειν (árkhein), ἄρχων (árkhōn), ἀρχή (arkhḗ) "rule" (in compounds: ἀρχε-, ἀρχι-) anarchism, anarchist, anarchy, andrarchy, antarchy, archangel, archetype, architect, archon, autarch, autarchism, autarchy, eparch, eparchy, exarch, gynarchy, monarch, monarchism, monarchist, monarchy, navarch, octarchy, oligarchy, patriarchy, plutarchy, polyarchy, synarchism, synarchy, tetrarchy, triarchy, trierarch
archae-, arche- ancient Greek ἀρχαῖος (arkhaîos) "ancient" from ἀρχή (arkhḗ) "rule" Archaea, archaeoastronomy, archaeology, archaic, archaism, archegonium, archeology
arct- Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to cold Greek ἄρκτος (árktos) "bear", ἀρκτικός (arktikós) Antarctic, arctic, Arctic Ocean, palearctic
ard- heat, glow, passion Latin ardere "to burn", arsus ardent, ardor, arson
ardu- difficult Latin arduus "high, steep" arduous
aret- virtue Greek ἀρετή, ἀρετῆς (aretḗ, aretês) aretaic, arete
argent- silver Latin argentum argent, Argentina
arid- be dry Latin ārēre "be dry or parched" arid
arist- excellence Greek ἄριστος (áristos) aristocracy, aristocrat
arithm- count, number Greek ἀριθμός (arithmós), ἀριθμέω, ἀριθμητικός (arithmētikós) antilogarithm, arithmetic, arithmomania, logarithm, logarithmic
arm- weapon Latin arma armament, armistice, armor, armory, arms, army, disarm, rearm
arsen-[33] male Greek ἄρσην, ἄρσενος (ársēn, ársenos), ἀρσενικός (arsenikós) arsenic, arsenopyrite
art- art, skill Latin ars, artis artifact, artifice, artificial, artificiality, artisan
arthr- joint Greek ἄρθρον (árthron) anarthria, arthritic, arthritis, arthrogryposis, arthropathy, arthroplasty, arthropod, arthroscope, arthroscopic, arthroscopy, arthrosis, dysarthria, osteoarthritis, spondyloarthropathy
arti- even Greek ἄρτιος (ártios), ἀρτιότης "evenness", ἀρτιάκις artiodactyl, artiodactylous
asc-[34] bag Greek ἀσκός (askós), ἀσκίδιον (askídion) ascidium, ascites, ascitic, ascocarp, ascoma, ascomycete, Ascomycota, ascospore, ascus
asin- donkey, ass Latin asinus asinine, ass, easel
asper- rough Latin asper "rough" asperity, exasperate
aspr-[35] white Greek ἄσπρος (áspros) diaper
aster-, astr- star, star-shaped Greek ἀστήρ, ἀστέρος (astḗr, astéros), ἄστρον (ástron) "star" aster, asterisk, asteroid, astrology, astronomy, astronaut, diasterism geaster, monaster
asthen- weak Greek ἀσθενής (asthenḗs) asthenopia, asthenosphere, asthenozoospermia
ather-[36] gruel Greek ἀθάρη (athárē) atherogenic, atheroma, atherosclerosis
athl- contest Greek ἆθλος (âthlos) "contest, feat", ἄεθλος athlete, athletic, decathlon, pentathlon, triathlon
-athroid- gathered or lumped together Greek ἀθροίζειν (athroízein) "to gather together" epiathroid, hypoathroid
audac- daring Latin audax "brave, bold, daring", from audere "to dare" audacious, audacity
aud- hearing, listening, sound Latin audire "to hear" audible, audience, audio, audiobook, audiology, audiovisual, audit, audition, auditorium, auditory
aug-, auct- grow, increase Latin augēre, auctus "to increase" auction, augend, augment, augmentation, augur, augury, august, author, auxiliary, inauguration
aul- flute, tube Greek ἄημι (ἄϝημι), αὐλός (aulós), αὐλέω, αὔλησις, αὐλητής (aulētḗs) aulete, aulos, hydraulic, hydraulus
aur- relating to gold, or gold-colored Latin aurum "gold" aureate, aureole
auri-, aus- relating to the ear Latin auris "ear" aural, auricle, aurinasal, auscultate, auscultation
aut-, auto-[37] self; directed from within Greek αὐτός (autós) "self", "same" autarchism, autarchy, autarky, authentic, autism, autistic, autobiography, autocracy, autograph, autoimmune, automatic, automaton, automobile, autonomy, autopilot
aux-[38] increase Greek αὔξειν (aúxein), αὐξάνειν auxánein, αὔξησις (aúxēsis), αὐξητικός (auxētikós) auxanogram, auxanography, auxanology, auxanometer, auxesis, auxetic, auxin, auxochrome, auxology, auxotroph, auxotrophy
av- desire Latin avere "crave, long for" avarice, avaricious, avarous, ave, avid, avidity
avi-, au- bird Latin avis auspice, auspicious, avian, aviary, aviation, aviator
axi-[39] merit, worth Greek ἄξιος (áxios) "worth" axiology, axiom, axiomatic
axi- axis Latin axis axion, axis, axisymmetry
axon-[40] axis, axle Greek ἄξων, ἄξονος (áxōn, áxonos) axon, axonography, axonometric, axonotmesis
Lists of Greek and Latin roots in English beginning with other letters:


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
Greek βαίνειν (baínein), βατός (batós),
βάσις (básis), βῆμα, βήματος (bêma, bḗmatos), βάτης (bátēs), βάθρον (báthron), βατεῖν
acrobat, acrobatic, adiabatic, aerobatic, anabasis, anabatic, antiparabema, base, basic, basidiocarp, basidioma, basidiomycete, basidiospore, basidium, basion, basionym, basis, basophilic, bema, catabasis, catabatic, diabase, diabatic, diabetes, diabetic, dibasic, hyperbaton, hypobasis, katabasis, katabatic, monobasic, polybasic, stereobate, stylobate, tribasic
bac- rod-shaped Latin baculum baculiform, baculum, bacteria
bal-, bel-, bol-
throw Greek βάλλειν (bállein), βολή (bolḗ), βλῆμα (blêma) ametabolic, ametabolism, amphibole, amphibolic, amphibolite, amphibolous, amphiboly, anabolic, anabolism, astrobleme, ball, ballism, ballista, ballistic, ballistospore, belomancy, belonephobia, bolide, bolometer, catabolic, catabolism, devil, diabolic, emblem, emblematic, embolic, embolism, embolismic, embolize, embolon, embolus, emboly, hemiballismus, holometabolism, hyperbola, hyperbole, hyperbolic, hyperboloid, metabolic, metabolism, metabolite, metabolize, palaver, parable, parabola, parabolic, paraboloid, parle, parley, parol, parole, problem, problematic, symbol, symbolic, symbolism, symbolist, symbolize, symbology, taurobolium, thromboembolism
dip Greek βάπτειν (báptein), βάμμα (bámma) abaptiston, Anabaptist, baptism, baptize
bar-[45] weight, pressure Greek βαρύς (barús), βάρος (báros) abarognosis, antibaryon, baresthesia, bariatric, baritone, barognosis, barogram, barograph, barometer, barometric, barophobia, barostat, barycentre, barycentric, baryogenesis, baryon, barysphere, baryton, barytone, hyperbaric, hypobaric, isobar, isobaric
bas- step Greek βάσις
bath- deep, depth Greek βαθύς (bathús), βάθος (báthos) batholith, bathophobia, bathos, bathymetry, bathyscaphe, bathysphere, isobathic
be-, beat- bless Latin beare, beatus beatification
bell-, belli- war Latin bellum, belli antebellum, bellicose, belligerent, rebellion
ben- good, well Latin bene (adverb) beneficence, benefit, benevolent, benign, benignant, benignity
bet- B, b Greek beta alphabet, alphabetic, analphabetic, panalphabetic, polyalphabetic
bi-, bin-, bis- two Latin bis, "twice"; bini, "in twos" bicycle, biennial, bifocal, bisexual, bigamy, binary, binoculars, biscotti
bib- drink Latin bibere, bibitus bib, beer, beverage, imbibe
bibl-[46] book Greek βίβλος (bíblos), βιβλίον (biblíon) "book" bible, biblioclasm, biblioclast, bibliogony, bibliographic, bibliography, biblioklept, bibliomancy, bibliomania, bibliophile, bibliophilia, bibliophobe, bibliophobia, bibliotaph
bio-, bi-[47] life Greek βιοῦν (bioûn), βίος (bíos) "life", βιωτός (biōtós), βιωτικός (biōtikós), βίωσις (bíōsis) abiogenesis, abiotic, aerobiology, anhydrobiosis, anoxybiosis, antibiotic, astrobiology, autobiography, biocentrism, biochron, biocoenosis, biogenesis, biographic, biography, biologism, biologist, biology, biome, biometric, biomorph, biomorphism, biophilia, biophysicist, biophysics, biopoiesis, biopolymer, biopsy, biorhythm, biosemiotic, biosphere, biostasis, biosynthesis, biota, biotic, biotin, biotope, biotype, biozone, chemobiosis, cryobiosis, cryptobiosis, ectosymbiosis, endosymbiont, endosymbiosis, enterobiasis, exobiology, macrobiotic, microbiology, osmobiosis, probiotic, symbiogenesis, symbiology, symbiont, symbiosis, symbiotic
blast-[48] germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleus Greek βλαστάνειν (blastánein), "to sprout, bud", βλαστός (blastós), βλάστημα (blástēma) blastema, blastochyle, blastocoel, blastocoele, blastocyst, blastoderm, blastoma, blastula, cytotrophoblast, diploblasty, ectoblast, endoblast, entoblast, fibroblast, osteoblast, sideroblast
blenn- slime Greek βλέννος (blénnos) blennadenitis, blennophobia, blennosperma, blennorrhagia
bol- throw Greek
bol-[49] clod, lump Greek βῶλος (bôlos) bole, bolus, embolism
bomb-[50] boom Greek βομβεῖν, βόμβος, βόμβησις bomb, bound
bon- good Latin bonus bonify, bonitary
bore- north Latin from Greek borealis "northern" from Βορέας (Boréas) "the north wind" borealis
botan- plant Greek βοτάνη, βότανον (botánē, bótanon), βοτανικός botanic, botanist, botanology, botany
bov-, bu- cow, ox Latin bos (genitive bovis) "ox, cow" beef, boor, bovine, bucinator muscle
brachi-, brachio- arm Latin from Greek bracchium brachiferous, brachial artery, brachiocubital
brachi-, brachio-, brachion-, brachioni- arm Greek βραχίων (brakhíōn) brachialgia, brachionerysipelas, brachionigraph, brachiorrhachidian, brachiosaurus
brachy-[51] short Greek βραχύς (brakhús) amphibrach, brachistochrone, brachycephaly, brachydactyly, brachyury, dibrach, tribrach
brady-, bradys-[52] slow Greek βραδύς (bradús), βράδος (brádos) bradycardia, bradysuria, bradytelic
branchi- gill Greek βράγχιον (bránkhion) branchiopneustic, branchiopod, nudibranch
broc- rain, wet Greek ἐμβροχή (embrokhḗ) embrocation, embrocate
brev- brief, short (time) Latin brevis, breviare abbreviate, brevextensor, brevicaudate, brevity, brief
bromat-, bromato-, broma-, bromo- food Greek βρῶμα (brôma) bromatium, bromateccrisis, bromatherapy, bromatology, bromography
brom-[53] oats Greek βρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, brómē) "oats" brome, Bromus, Bromus ramosus
brom- stench Greek βρῶμος (brômos) "stench, clangor" bromate, bromide, bromine, bromoderma, organobromine
bronch-[54] windpipe Greek βρόγχος (brónkhos), βρόγχια (brónkhia) bronchia, bronchiole, bronchion, bronchitis, bronchomalacia, bronchopneumonia, bronchus, tracheobronchomalacia
bront-[55] thunder Greek βροντή (brontḗ) brontology, brontophobia, Brontosaurus
brot-[56] mortal Greek βροτός (brotós) ambrosia, ambrotype
bucc- cheek, mouth, cavity Latin bucca buccal, buccilingual, buccolingual
bulb- bulbous Latin bulbus bulbiform, bulbiparous, bulboartrial, bulborrhexis, bulbous, bulbule
bull- bubble, flask Latin bullire, bulla bullectomy, bulliferous, ebullient, ebullism
burs- pouch, purse Latin bursa bursa, bursalogy, bursar, bursary, bursectomy, bursiform, disburse
butyr-[57] butter Greek βούτυρον (boúturon) butyric
byss-[58] bottom Greek βυσσός, βυσσοῦ (bussós, bussoû) abyss, abyssopelagic, hypabyssal
byss-[59] flax Greek βύσσος (bússos) byssus
Lists of Greek and Latin roots in English beginning with other letters:


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
cac-, kak-[60] bad Greek κακός (kakós), κάκιστος (kákistos) cachexia, cacistocracy, cacodemon, cacoepy, cacography, cacophobia, cacophobe, cacophobic, cacophonous, cacophony, cacorrhacitis, kakistocracy, kakistocrat
cad-, -cid-, cas- fall Latin cadere, casus accidence, accident, accidental, cadaver, cadaverine, cadaverous, cadence, cadency, cadent, cadential, cadenza, caducity, caducous, cascade, case, casual, casualty, casuistry, chance, cheat, chute, coincide, coincidence, coincident, coincidental, decadence, decadent, decay, decidua, decidual, deciduate, deciduation, deciduous, demicadence, escheat, escheatable, escheatage, escheatment, escheator, incidence, incident, incidental, nonaccidental, nondeciduous, nonincidental, parachute, postaccident, procidentia, recidivous, semelincident
caed-, -cid-, caes-, -cis- cut, kill Latin caedere, caesus caespitose, caesura, cement, cementation, cementitious, cementum, cespitose, chisel, circumcise, circumcision, concise, concision, decidability, decidable, decide, decision, decisive, deciso, excide, excise, excision, excisional, germicide, genocide, homicide, imprecise, imprecision, incise, incision, incisive, incisor, incisory, incisure, indecision, indecisive, occision, pesticide, précis, precise, precision, scissors, semidecidable, succise, succision, suicide
cal-, call- beautiful Greek καλός (kalós) "beautiful"; κάλλος (kállos) "beauty", κάλλιστος (kállistos) calisthenics, calligraphy, Callista, Callisto, calophyllous, kaleidoscope
cal- call Latin calare calendar, claim, class, conciliate, conciliatory, council, intercalate, nomenclature
cal- heat Latin calere, calor "heat" caldarium, caldera, calefacient, calefaction, calefactive, calefactory, calenture, calescent, calid, calor, calore, caloric, calorie, calorifacient, calorific, calorigenic, calorimeter, caudle, cauldron, chafe, chafery, chalder, chaldron, chaud-froid, chauffer, chauffeur, chauffeuse, decalescence, decalescent, nonchalance, nonchalant, recalescence, scald
calc- calcium ,stone Latin and Greek from Latin calx (genitive calcis) "lime", from Greek χάλιξ (khálix) "pebble", "limestone" calcite, calcitrant, calcium, calculate, calculus, chalicothere, chalk, recalcitrant
calv-, calum- trick, lie, deceive Latin calumnia "slander, trickery", from calvi "to trick, deceive" calumnious, calumny, cavil, challenge
calyp-[61] cover Greek καλύπτειν (kalúptein), καλυπτός (kaluptós), κάλυξ, κάλυκος (kálux, kálukos) apocalypse, apocalyptic, apocalypticism, calyce, calyptra, Calyptrogyne, calyx, epicalyx, eucalypt, eucalyptus
cameria- vault Latin camera antechamber, bicameral, camaraderie, camber, camera, chamber, chamberlain, comrade, concamerate, concameration, multicamera, tricameral, unicameral
camiso- shirt Latin camisia camisade, camisado, Camisard, camisole, chemise
camp- field Latin campus "field", "level ground" camp, campaign, campesino, campestral, campicolous, campimetry, campo, campsite, campus, champertous, champerty, champignon, champion, decamp, decampment, encamp, encampment
can- dog Latin canis canaille, canary, canicular, canicule, canid, canine, Canis, Canis Major, postcanine
can- reed, rod Latin κάννα (kánna), κανών (kanṓn) cane, canister, canon, canonic
can-, -cin-, cant-, -cent- sing Latin canere, cantus accent, accentual, accentuate, accentuation, canción, canorous, cant, cantabile, cantata, cantation, cantatory, cantatrice, canticle, canticum, cantiga, cantilena, cantillate, cantillation, cantion, canto, cantor, cantus, canzona, canzone, Carmen, chanson, chansonnier, chant, chanteur, chanteuse, chanticleer, charm, concent, descant, discant, discantus, disenchant, disenchantment, disencharm, disincentive, enchant, enchantment, enchantress, incantation, incantational, incentive, plainchant, precentor, recant, recantation, succentor, vaticinate, vaticination, vaticinator
cand-, cend- glowing, iridescent Latin candere "to be white or glisten" candela, candid, candidate, candle, candor, incandescent, incendiary, incense
cap-, -cip-, capt-, -cept- hold, take Latin capere, captus "take or hold" (vowel changes from a to i in compounds) capable, capacious, captive, caption, captivate, capture, conception, except, forceps, incipient, intercept, recipient
capit-, -cipit- head Latin caput, capitis achievable, achieve, achievement, ancipital, ancipitous, biceps, bicipital, cabotage, cad, caddie, cadet, cape, capital, capitular, capitulate, capitulation, captain, chapter, chaptrel, chattel, chef, chief, chieftain, co-captain, co-captaincy, decapitate, decapitation, occipital, occiput, precipitation, precipitous, quadriceps, recap, recapitulate, sincipital, sinciput, sous-chef, subcaptain, triceps, tricipital, unicipital, vice-captain, vice-captaincy
capn-[62] smoke Greek καπνός (kapnós), καπνόομαι capnogram, capnograph, capnography, capnolagnia, capnomancy, capnometer, capnometry, capnomor, capnophile, hypercapnia, hypocapnia
capr- goat Latin caper (genitive capri) "goat", also capreolus "wild goat" cab, caper, caprice, Capricorn, caprine
caps- box, case Latin capsa capsule
carbon- coal Latin carbo, carbonis bicarbonate, carbon, carbonara, carbonate, carbonation, Carboniferous, carbuncle, radiocarbon
carcer- jail Latin carcer, carcerare, cancelli chancel, chancellery, chancellor, chancery, incarcerate, incarceration, subchancel
carcin- cancer (disease) Latin from Greek Latin from Greek καρκίνος (karkínos) "crab" carcinogenic, carcinoma
cardi-[63] heart Greek καρδιά (kardiá) cardiac, cardialgia, cardiograph, cardioid, cardiologist, cardiology, cardiomegaly, cardiomyopathy, cardioplegia, cardioplegic, cardiospasm, electrocardiogram, electrocardiography, endocardium, epicardium, hemicardia, myocardium, neurocardiology, pericardium
cardin- hinge Latin cardo, cardinis cardinal, cardinality, kern
carn- flesh Latin caro, carnis carnage, carnal, carnality, carnary, carnate, carnation, carneous, carnival, carnivore, carnose, carnosity, carrion, caruncle, carunculate, charcuterie, charnel, discarnate, incarnadine, incarnate, incarnation, reincarnate, reincarnation
carp-[64] fruit Greek καρπός (karpós) acarpous, acrocarpous, amphicarpous, angiocarpous, anisocarpic, Carpo, carpogonium, carpology, carpophagous, carpophore, carpospore, cystocarp, dipterocarp, endocarp, epicarp, exocarp, Karpos, mericarp, mesocarp, monocarpic, pericarp, polycarpic, procarp, pseudocarp
carp-[65] wrist Greek καρπός (karpós) carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome, carpus, metacarpus
cast- pure, cut Latin castrare and castus, from kes- (to cut) caste, castigate, castrate, chaste, chastity, incest
cata-, cat- down, against, back Greek κατά (katá) "down, against, back" catabolic, catacomb, catalyst, catarrhine, catastrophe, catatonia, cathode, cation
caten- chain Latin catena catenary, concatenation
cathar-[66] pure Greek καθαρός (katharós) catharsis, cathartic
caud- tail Latin cauda caudal, coda
caus-, -cus- cause or motive Latin causa accuse, because, causal, causative, cause, excuse
caust-, caut- burn Greek καίειν (kaíein), καυστός, καυτός (kaustós, kautós), καυστικός (kaustikós), καῦσις (kaûsis), καῦμα (kaûma) calm, catacaustic, causalgia, causalgic, caustic, cauter, cauterize, cautery, diacaustic, encaustic, holocaust, hypocaust
cav- hollow Latin cavus cave, cavity, excavation, cavern, cavernous, concave
ced-, cess- move, yield, go, surrender Latin cedere, cessus accede, cede, concede, precede, procedure, proceed, procession, recede, secede, succeed, success
cel- hide Latin celare "to hide" ceiling, clandestine, conceal, occult
celer- quick Latin celer, celerare acceleration, celerity
cen-, caen-[67] new Greek καινός (kainós) caenogastropod, caenogenesis, Cenozoic
cen- empty Greek κενός (kenós) cenotaph, kenosis
cen-, coen-[68] common Greek κοινός (koinós) cenobite, coenesthesia, coenocyte, epicene, epicœne, koinonos, koinophilia
cens- to assess Latin censere censure, census
cent- hundred Latin centum cent, centennial, centurion, percent, century
centen- hundred each Latin centeni centenarian, centenary
centesim- hundredth Latin centesimus centesimal, centesimation
centr- center Greek κεντεῖν, κέντησις, κέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur", κεντρικός, κεντρισμός acentric, acrocentric, amniocentesis, anthropocentric, anthropocentrism, barycenter, biocentric, biocentrism, centaur, centauromachy, centesis, centre, centric, centrism, centrist, centroid, centromere, centromeric, centrosphere, centrosymmetric, centrosymmetry, centrum, eccentric, eccentrism, eccentrist, ecocentric, ecocentrism, ecocentrist, egocentric, egocentrism, enterocentesis, epicentre, holocentric, metacentric, monocentric, neocentromere, orthocenter, orthocentric, paracentesis, pericardiocentesis, technocentric, technocentrism, telocentric, thoracentesis, thoracocentesis
centri- center Latin centrum central, center, concentrate, concentric, centrifugal, centripetal
cephal- head Greek κεφαλή (kephalḗ) acephalic, acephaly, anencephaly, autocephaly, brachiocephalic, brachycephalic, cephalic, cephalomancy, cephalometry, cephalon, cephalopagus, cephalopod, diencephalon, dolichocephalic, encephalitis, encephalogram, encephalopathy, holoprosencephaly, hydrocephalus, macrocephaly, mesaticephalic, mesencephalic, mesocephalic, metencephalon, microcephaly, myelencephalon, neencephalon, paleencephalon, prosencephalon, rhombencephalon, rhombencephalosynapsis, syncephalus, telencephalon
ceram- clay Greek κέραμος (kéramos) ceramic
cerat- horn Greek κέρας (kéras), κέρατος (kératos) keratin, triceratops
cern-, cer- sift Latin cernere "to sift, separate" ascertain, certain, concern, concert, decree, discern, excrement, secern, secret
cervic- relating to the neck, relating to the cervix Latin cervix, cervicis "neck" cervix, cervical
ceter- other Latin ceterus et cetera
chaet-[69] hair, bristle, or seta Greek χαίτη (khaítē) "long hair" chaetophobia, chaetophorous, Chaetomium, Chaetomorpha, Oligochaeta, Polychaeta, polychaete, spirochaete, spirochete
chir-[70] of the hand or hands Greek χείρ (kheír) "hand" chiral, chiropractic, chiroptera, chirurgy, enchiridion, Haplocheirus
chelon- relating to a turtle Greek χελώνη (khelṓnē) "tortoise" Archelon, chelonia
chlor-[71] green Greek χλωρός (khlōrós) chloranthy, chlorine, chlorophobia, chlorophyll, chloroplast, pyrochlore
chondr- cartilage Greek χόνδρος (khóndros) hypochondriasis, osteochondritis
chore- relating to dance Greek χορεία (khoreía) "dancing in unison" from χορός (khorós) "chorus" chorea, choree, choreia, choreography, chorus, hemichorea
chord-[72] cord Latin and Greek chorda "rope" from χορδή (khordḗ) chordata, cord, hexachord, monochord, polychord, tetrachord
chres- use Greek χράω, χρῆσθαι (khrêsthai), χρηστός (khrēstós), χρήστης, χρῆσις (khrêsis), χρήσιμος chresard, chresonym, chrestomathic, chrestomathy, heterochresonym, heterochresonymy, orthochresonym, orthochresonymy
chro-, chrom- color Greek χρῶμα (khrôma) achromat, achromatic, achromatism, achromatopsia, achromatopsic, amphichroic, apochromat, auxochrome, chroma, chromatic, chromatid, chromatophore, chrome, chromium, chromogen, chromolithography, chromophobia, chromophore, chromosome, dichroic, dichroism, dichromatic, heliochrome, heterochromatic, heterochromatin, microchromosome, monochromatic, monochrome, photochromism, pleochroism, polychromatic, polychrome, trichroism, trichromatic, trichromic
chron-[73] time Greek χρόνος (khrónos) anachronism, asynchronous, biochronology, chronaxie, chronic, chronicle, chronogram, chronograph, chronology, chronometer, chronometry, chronophobia, chronophotography, chronostasis, geochronology, heterochrony, hydrochronometer, isochron, protochronism, synchronic, synchronism, synchronize, synchronous, tautochrone
chrys-[74] gold Greek χρυσός (khrusós), χρύσεος "golden" chrysalis, chryselephantine, chrysolite, chrysophobia, chrysoprase
cili- eyelash Latin cilium cilia, supercilious
ciner- ash Latin cinis, cineris incineration
cing-, cinct- gird Latin cingere, cinctus succinct
circ- circle, ring Latin circulus, circus circle, circular, circulate, circus
circum- around Latin circum circumcise, circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate, circumscribe
cirr-[75] orange Greek κιρρός (kirrhós) cirrhosis
cirr- curl, tentacle Latin cirrus cirrus
cis- on this side of, on the side nearer to the speaker (as opposed to trans-) Latin cis cisalpine, cisandine, cisatlantic, cisgangetic, cisgender, cisjurane, cisleithan, cislunar, cismontane, cispadane, cispontine, cisrhenane
cit- call, start Latin citare, frequentative of ciere citation, cite, excite, incite, solicit, solicitous
civ- citizen Latin civis civic, civil, civilian, civility, civilization
clad-[76] branch Greek κλάδος (kládos) clade, cladistics, cladogenesis, cladogram, heterocladic
clam- cry out Latin clamare acclaim, claim, clamor, exclamation, proclamation, reclamation
clar- clear Latin clarus, clarare clarity, clear, declaration
clast- broken Greek κλᾶν, κλαστός (klastós), κλάσις, κλάσμα anorthoclase, antanaclasis, clastic, iconoclast, orthoclase, osteoclast, plagioclase, pyroclastic, synclastic
claud-, -clud-, claus-, -clus- close, shut Latin claudere, clausus clause, claustrophobia, conclude, exclude, exclusive, include, occlusion, occult, recluse, seclude
clav- key Greek κλείς (kleís) "key" from κλείειν, (kleíein) "to close" clavichord, clavicle, conclave
cleist- closed Greek κλείειν, κλειστός (kleistós), κλεῖσμα cleistogamy, cleistothecium, enterocleisis, kleisma
cleithr- bar, key Greek κλεῖθρον (kleîthron) Clathrus, cleithrophobia, cleithrum
cle-[77] call Greek ἐκκλησίᾱ, κλῆσις, κλητός (ekklēsíā, klêsis, klētós) ecclesia, Ecclesiastes, ecclesiastic, ecclesiology, ecclesiophobia, epiclesis, paraclete
clin- bed Greek κλίνη (klínē) clinic
clin- lean, recline Latin -clinare decline, declination, incline, inclination, recline
cochl-[78] snail, spiral shell Greek κόχλος (kókhlos) cochlea
coel- hollow Greek κοῖλος (koîlos) blastocoel, coelom, coelomate, coelomic, enterocoely, pseudocoelomate, sarcocele, schizocoelomate, schizocoely, spongocoel
col- strain Latin colare, cōlum colander, coulee, coulis, coulisse, couloir, cullender, cullis, percolate, percolation, percolator, piña colada, portcullis
col-, cult- cultivate, till, inhabit Latin colere, cultus acculturate, acculturation, agriculture, apiculture, bicultural, colonial, colony, countercultural, counterculture, cult, cultivable, cultivate, cultivation, cultivator, cultural, culturati, culture, deculturate, deculturation, incult, inculturation, inquiline, inquilinity, inquilinous, intercultural, multicultural, postcolonial, precolonial, subcultural, subculture
coll- hill Latin collis colliculus
coll- neck Latin collum accolade, col, collar, decollate, decollation, décolletage, encollar
color- color Latin color bicolor, Colorado, coloration, coloratura, concolorous, decolor, discolor, discoloration, encolor, multicolor, quadricolor, recolor, tricolor, unicolor, versicolor
com- friendly, kind Latin cōmis "courteous, kind" comity
con-, co-, col-, com-, cor-[79] with, together Latin cum coagulate, collide, compress, connect, connote, contain, contribute, consult, constitution, corrode, quondam
con-[80] cone Greek κῶνος (kônos), κωνικός (kōnikós) conic, conical, conicoid, conodont, conoid, conoscope, orthocone, orthoconic, polyconic
condi- season Latin condire condiment
contra- against Latin contra contraband, contraception, contradict, contraindicate, contrast, contravene
copi- plenty Latin copia copious, copy, cornucopia
copr-[81] dung Greek κόπρος (kópros) copremia, coprographia, coprolagnia, coprolalia, coprolite, coprolith, coprology, coprophagia, coprophagy, coprophilia, copropraxia, encopresis, encopretic
copul- bond Latin copula "that which binds" copula, copulation, couple
cor-, cord- heart Latin cor, cordis accord, accordance, accordant, accordatura, concord, concordance, concordant, concordat, corcle, cordate, cordial, cordiality, cordiform, core, courage, courageous, discord, discordance, discordant, discourage, discouragement, encourage, encouragement, misericord, nonaccordant, obcordate, record, scordatura
corac-[82] raven Greek κόραξ, κόρακος (kórax, kórakos) coracoid
cori- hide, leather Latin corium, corii coriaceous, corious, corium, cuirass, cuirassier, cuirie, excoriate, excoriation
corn- horn Latin cornū bicorn, bicorne, Capricorn, cornea, corneal, corneous, corner, cornicle, corniculate, corniferous, cornification, corniform, cornucopia, quadricorn, quadricornous, tricorn, tricorne, tricornigerous, tricornute, unicorn, unicornous
coron- crown Latin corona, coronare corona, coronation, coronavirus, coroner, coronet, coroniform, Coronilla, crown, incoronate
corpor- body Latin corpus, corporis accorporate, bicorporal, concorporate, concorporation, corporal, corporality, corporate, corporation, corporative, corporature, corporeal, corporeality, corporeity, corps, corpse, corpulence, corpulent, corpus, corpuscle, corpuscular, disincorporate, disincorporation, extracorporeal, incorporal, incorporality, incorporate, incorporation, incorporeal, incorporeality, incorporeity, tricorporal
cortic- bark Latin cortex, corticis cortical, corticate, corticiform, corticifugal, corticipetal, decorticate, decortication, decorticator
cosm-[83] universe Greek κόσμος (kósmos) cosmic, cosmogeny, cosmogony, cosmology, cosmonaut, cosmopolitan, cosmopolite, cosmos, microcosm
cosmet- the art of dress and ornament Greek κοσμεῖν (kosmeîn), κοσμητική (kosmētikḗ) from κόσμος (kósmos) cosmesis, cosmetics, cosmetologist, cosmetology
cost- rib Latin costa accost, bicostate, coast, coastal, costa, costal, costate, curvicostate, entrecôte, infracostal, intercostal, intracoastal, multicostate, quadricostate, supracostal, tricostate, unicostate
cotyl-[84] cup Greek κοτύλη (kotúlē) cotyledon, dicotyledon, dicotyledonous, eudicotyledon, monocotyledon, monocotyledonous, tricotyledonous
-cracy, -crat government, rule, authority Greek κράτος (krátos), κρατία (kratía) acrasia, akrasia, akratic, anocracy, aristocracy, autocracy, autocrat, autocratic, bureaucracy, democracy, democratic, pancratium, plutocracy, technocracy, technocrat, theocracy
crani-[85] skull Greek κρανίον (kraníon) craniologist, craniometry, craniosynostosis, cranium, hemicrania, megrim, migraine
crass- thick Latin crassus crass, crassitude, crassulaceous
crea- make Latin creare, creatus creation, creative, creator, creature, creole, procreation, recreation
cred- believe, trust Latin credere, creditus accreditation, credence, credentials, credibility, credible, credit, creditor, credo, credulity, credulous, creed, discredit, incredible, incredulous, miscreant, recreant
crepid-[86] boot, shoe Greek κρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpís, krēpídos), κρηπίδιον, κρηπίδωμα crepidoma
cresc- grow, rise Latin crescere accresce, accrescence, accrescent, accrete, accretion, accrue, concrete, crescendo, crescent, crew, decrease, increase, recruit, recruitment, surcrew
cribr- sieve Latin cribrum, cribrare cribble, cribellate, cribellum, cribrate, cribriform, garble
cric-[87] ring Greek κρίκος (kríkos), κρικοειδής (krikoeidḗs) cricoid, cricoidectomy, Cricosaurus, cricothyroid, cricothyrotomy, cricotomy
crisp- curled Latin crispus crape, crepe, crêpe, crisp, crispate, crispation
crist- crest Latin crista crease, crest, cristate
crit-, crisi-[88] judge, separate Greek κρίνειν (krínein), κρίσις (krísis), κρίμα (kríma) apocrine, crisis, criterion, critic, critical, criticaster, criticise, criticism, critique, diacritic, eccrine, eccrinology, eccrisis, eccritic, endocrine, endocrinology, exocrine, heterocrine, holocrine, hypercriticism, hypocrisy, hypocrite, kritarchy, Kritosaurus, merocrine, syncrisis
cross-[89] fringe, tassel Greek κροσσός (krossós) crossopterygii
cruc- cross Latin crux, crucis cross, crucial, cruciate, crucifer, cruciferous, crucifix, crucifixion, cruciform, crucify, crucigerous, cruise, crusade, cruzeiro, discruciate, excruciate, intercross, recross
crur- leg, shank Latin crus, cruris bicrural, crural, crus, equicrural
-cry wail, shriek Latin critare, from quiritare cry, decry, descry
crypt-[90] hide, hidden Greek κρύπτειν (krúptein) "to hide", κρυπτός (kruptós) apocrypha, apocryphal, archaeocryptography, crypt, cryptanalysis, crypteia, cryptic, cryptobiosis, cryptobiotic, cryptochrome, cryptogam, cryptogenic, cryptography, cryptology, cryptomonad, cryptophyte, cryptosystem, grot, grotesque, grotto
cten-[91] comb Greek κτείς, κτενός (kteís, ktenós) ctenidium, ctenoid, ctenophore
cub-[92] cube Greek κύβος (kúbos) cubic, cuboctahedron, cuboid, hemicube, hypercube
cub- lie Latin cubare incubation, succuba
culin- kitchen Latin culīna culinarian, culinary, kiln
culp- blame, fault Latin culpa culpability, culpable, culprit, exculpate, exculpatory, inculpable, inculpate, inculpatory, mea culpa
cune- wedge Latin cuneus coign, coigne, coin, cuneate, cuneiform, cuneus, encoignure, obcuneate, precuneus, quoin, sconcheon, scuncheon
cur- care for Latin cūra, curare accuracy, accurate, assecure, assurance, assure, curability, curable, curacy, curate, curative, curator, cure, curettage, curette, curio, curiosity, curious, ensure, inaccuracy, inaccurate, incurable, insecure, insecurity, insurability, insurable, insurance, insure, manicure, pedicure, pococurante, proctor, proctour, proctorage, proctorial, procurable, procuracy, procuration, procurator, procure, procurement, proxy, reassurance, reassure, reinsurance, reinsure, scour, scourage, secure, security, sinecural, sinecure, sure, surety
curr-, curs- run, course Latin currere, cursus concur, concurrent, corridor, courier, course, currency, current, cursive, cursor, cursory, discourse, excursion, incur, occur, recur, recursion, recursive, succor
curv- bent Latin curvus "crooked, curved", from curvare "to bend" cavort, curb, curvaceous, curvate, curvation, curvature, curve, curviform, curvilinear, curvity, incurvate, incurvature, incurve, recurvate, recurve, recurvous
cuspid- lance, point Latin cuspis, cuspidis bicuspid, bicuspidate, cusp, quadricuspid, tricuspid
cut- hide, skin Latin cutis cutaneous, cuticle, cuticolor, cuticular, cutin, cutis, cutisector, intracutaneous, subcutaneous
cyan-[93] blue Greek κυανός (kuanós) cyanic, cyanide, cyanogen, cyanophobia, cyanophore, cyanosis, cyanotic, isocyanic
cycl-[94] circle Greek κύκλος (kúklos), κυκλικός (kuklikós) acyclic, anticyclone, anticyclonic, bicycle, cycle, cyclic, cyclide, cycloid, cyclone, cyclops, cyclosis, cyclotomic, dicyclic, eccyclema, epicycle, epicycloid, hemicycle, hemicyclium, heterocyclic, homocyclic, hypercycle, hypocycloid, isocyclic, mesocyclone, monocyclic, polycyclic, pseudocyclosis, tetracyclic, tricycle, tricyclic, unicycle
cylind-[95] roll Greek κυλίνδειν (kulíndein), κύλινδρος (kúlindros) cylinder, cylindric, cylindroid, cylindroma, pseudocylindric
cyn-[96] dog Greek κύων, κυνός (kúōn, kunós) cynic, cynicism, cynodont, cynology, cynophagy, cynophilia, cynophobia, Cynosaurus, cynosure, eucynodont
cyst-[97] capsule Greek κύστις (kústis) cysteine, cystic, cysticercus, cystine, cystolith, cystoma, oocyst, polycystic
cyt-[98] cell Greek κύτος (kútos) astrocyte, cnidocyte, cytapheresis, cytaster, cytokine, cytokinesis, cytokinin, cytology, cytoplasm, cytostasis, cytostatic, exocytosis, gonocyte, hypercytosis, leukocyte, leukocytosis, monocyte, monocytopoiesis, pancytopenia, phagocytosis, polycythaemia, polycythemia, syncytium
Lists of Greek and Latin roots in English beginning with other letters:


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
da-, dida-[99] (ΔΑ) learn Greek δάω autodidact, Didache, didact, didactic, didacticism
dacry-[100] tear Greek δάκρυον, δακρύειν, δάκρυμα (dákruma) dacryoadenitis, Dacryphilia
dactyl-[101] digit, finger, toe Greek δάκτυλος (dáktulos) anisodactyly, antidactylus, arachnodactyly, artiodactyl, brachydactyly, clinodactyly, dactyl, dactylic, dactylology, dactylomancy, dactylomegaly, dactylus, dactyly, date, didactyly, ectrodactyly, heterodactylous, heterodactyly, leptodactylous, monodactyly, oligodactyly, pamprodactyly, pentadactyl, pentadactylous, pentadactyly, perissodactyl, polydactyly, pterodactyl, schizodactyly, syndactylous, syndactyly, tetradactylous, tetradactyly, tridactyly, zygodactyly
dam-[102] (ΔΑΜ) tame Greek δάμασις (dámasis), ἀδάμας (adámas) "untameable, invincible" adamant, adamantine, adamantinoma, Damian
damn-, -demn- to inflict loss upon Latin damnum, damnāre condemn, condemnation, damage, damnation, indemnify, indemnity
de-[103] bind Greek δεῖν (deîn), δετός, δέσις (detós, désis), δέμα (déma), δεσμός (desmós), δέσμα (désma) arthrodesis, asyndeton, desmid, desmitis, desmoid, desmoplasia, desmosome, diadem, plasmodesma, polysyndeton, syndesis, syndesmosis, syndetic, syndeton
de- down, away from, removing Latin decay, decide, declare, decline, decompose, dedicate, deduce, defend, deletion, delineate, delude, demarcate, dementia, depress, derogatory, desecrate, descend, destroy, detract
deb- owe Latin debere, debitus debit, debt
dec-[104] ten Latin from Greek δέκα (déka) "ten", δεκάς, δεκάδος (dekás, dekádos), δεκάκις (dekákis) "ten times", δεκαπλάσιος (dekaplásios) "ten-fold" decem, "ten" decies, "ten times" decumo, "tenfold" decad, decade, decagon, decagram, decahedron, Decalogue, decamer, decamerous, decameter, decapod, decathlon
decim- tenth part Latin decimus, tenth; from decem, ten decimal, decimate, decimation, decimator, decuman, dime
decor- ornament Latin decorus "fit, proper" and decorare "to decorate", from decor "beauty, ornament" and decus "ornament" decor, décor, decorament, decorate, decoration, decorative, decorator, decorous, decorum, redecorate
del- erase Latin delere (from + linere) delete, deletion, indelible
delt-[105] D, d Greek Δ, δ, δέλτα (délta) delta, deltoid, deltahedron
dem-, dom-[106] build Greek δέμειν (démein), δῶμα, δῶματος, δομή, δόμος (dómos), δέμας (démas) apodeme, monodomy, opisthodomos, polydomy
dem-[107] people Greek δῆμος (dêmos) Damocles, demagogue, deme, democracy, demographic, demography, demonym, demophobia, demotic, ecdemic, endemic, epidemic, epidemiology, pandemic
den- ten each Latin dēnī denar, denarian, denarius, denary, denier, dinar, dinero, dinheiro
dendr-[108] tree Greek δένδρον (déndron); akin to δρύς (drús) "tree" dendric, dendrite, dendrochronology, dendrogram, dendromancy, Epidendrum, rhododendron
dens- thick Latin densus condensable, condensate, condensation, condensational, condensative, condense, dense, density, nondense, superdense
dent- tooth Latin dens, dentis bident, bidental, dandelion, dental, dentary, dentate, dentation, dentelle, denticity, denticle, denticulate, dentiferous, dentiform, dentifrice, dentigerous, dentil, dentin, dentinal, dentine, dentition, denture, indent, indentation, indenture, interdental, interdentil, intradental, multidentate, quadridentate, trident, tridentate
der-[109] skin Greek δέρειν (dérein), δέρμα, δέρματος (dérma, dérmatos) Dermaptera, dermatology, dermis, ectoderm, endoderm, epidermis, hypodermic, mesoderm, scleroderma, taxidermy, xeroderma
despot-[110] master Greek δεσπότης, δεσπότου, δεσποτικός, δεσποτεία, δεσποτίσκος despot, despotic, despotism
deuter-[111] second Greek δεύτερος (deúteros) deuteragonist, deuteranomaly, deuteranopia, deuteride, deuterium, deuterogamist, deuterogamy, Deuteromycota, deuteron, Deuteronomy, deuterostome
dexi-[112] right Greek δεξιός (dexiós) Dexiarchia
dexter- right Latin dexter ambidexterity, ambidextrous, dexter, dexterity, dexterous, dextral, dextrality, dextrin, dextrorse, dextrose
di- two Greek δι- (di-) diatomic, dicot, digamy, diode, dipole
dia-[113] apart, through Greek διά (diá) deacon, diagram, dialysis, diameter
div-, diff- different Latin diversum different, divergence, diversity, divide, diffeomorphism
diacosi-[114] two hundred Greek διακόσιοι (diakósioi), διακοσιάκις "two hundred times" diacosigon, diacosipentecontaheptagon
dic-, dict- say, speak, proclaim Latin dīcere, dictus, dictare benediction, condition, contradict, dictate, dictation, dictator, diction, dictionary, dictum, edict, indictment, interdiction, malediction, predict, prediction, valediction, verdict
dida- teach Greek διδάσκειν (didáskein) autodidact, Didache, didact, didactic
digit- finger Latin digitus bidigitate, digit, digital, digitate, digitiform, digitigrade, multidigit, multidigitate
din-[115] terrible, fearfully great Greek δεινός (deinós) dinosaur
dipl-[116] twofold Greek διπλόος (diplóos), δίπλωσις (díplōsis), δίπλωμα (díplōma) diploblasty, diploid, diploidy, diploma, diplomacy, diplomat, diplomatic, diplomatics, diplonema, diplophase, diplopia, diplosis, diplotene, haplodiploid, haplodiploidy
do-[117] (ΔΟ[118]) give Greek διδόναι (didónai), δοτός, (dotós,), δόσις (dósis), δόμα, δόματος (dóma, dómatos) δῶρον, διδόμενον anecdote, antidoron, antidote, apodosis, dose
doc-, doct- teach Latin docere, doctus docile, doctor, doctrine, document, indoctrinate, indoctrination
dodec-[119] twelve Greek δώδεκα (dṓdeka) dodecagon, dodecahedron, Dodecanese, dodecaphony, dodecastyle, dodecasyllabic, hemidodecahedron
dog-, dox- opinion, tenet Greek δοκεῖν (dokeîn) "to appear, seem, think", δόξα (dóxa) "opinion", δόγμα (dógma) dogma, dogmatic, dogmatism, doxology, heterodox, orthodox, paradox
dol- pain Latin dolere "to grieve", also dolus "grief" and dolor "pain" condolence, dol, doleful, dolorous, indolence
dom- house Latin domus dame, domal, dome, domestic, domesticate, domestication, domesticity, domestique, domicile, domiciliary, major-domo, semidome
domin- master Latin dominus "master"; (from domus "house") beldam, beldame, belladonna, codomain, codominance, codominant, condominium, dam, dame, damsel, danger, demesne, demoiselle, domain, dominance, dominant, dominate, domination, dominative, dominator, dominatrix, domine, domineer, dominicide, dominion, dominium, domino, duenna, dungeon, madam, madame, mademoiselle, madonna, predominance, predominant, predominate, quasidominance, semidominance, subdominant, superdominant
domit- tame Latin domitare, frequentative of domare daunt, domitable, indomitable
don- give Latin dōnum, donare condonation, condone, donate, donation, donative, donator, donatory, donor, pardon, pardonable
dorm- sleep Latin dormire dormant, dormitory
dors- back Latin dorsum disendorse, dorsal, dorsiferous, dorsiflexion, dorsiflexor, dorsigrade, dorsiventral, dorsum, dossier, endorse, endorsee, endorsement, indorse, indorsement, reredos
dra-[120] do Greek δρᾶν (drân), δραστικός (drastikós), δρᾶσις (drâsis), δρᾶμα, δράματος (drâma, drámatos), δραματικός (dramatikós) dramatic, dramaturgy, drastic, melodramatic, monodrama
drac- dragon Latin draco Draco, draconian
drach-[121] grasp Greek δράσσεσθαι (drássesthai), δράγμα (drágma), δραχμή (drakhmḗ) didrachm, drachm, drachma, dram, tetradrachm
dram-, drom- (ΔΡΑΜ) run Greek δραμεῖν (drameîn), δρόμος (drómos) aerodrome, anadromous, antidromic, catadromous, diadromous, dromaeosaurid, heterodromous, hippodrome, loxodrome, monodromy, palindrome, syndrome
dros-[122] dew Greek δρόσος, δρόσου (drósos, drósou) drosometer, Drosophila
dry-[123] tree Greek δρῦς, δρυός (drûs, druós), Δρυάς dryad, dryadic, hamadryad
du- two Latin duo deuce, doubt, dual, duality, duet, duo, duplex, duplicity, duumvirate, duumviri, nonduality
dub- doubtful Latin dubius doubt, dubiety, dubious
duc-, duct- lead Latin ducere, ductus abduce, abduct, adduce, adduct, conduce, deduce, induce, introduce, produce, reduce, seduce, traduce
dulc- sweet Latin dulcis billet-doux, dolce, dolcetto, douce, doux, dulcet, dulcian, dulcify, dulcimer, edulcorant, edulcorate, subdulcid
dur- hard Latin durus, durare dour, dura, durability, durable, durain, dural, duramen, durance, durancy, duration, durative, dure, duress, durity, durous, durum, endurable, endurance, endurant, endure, indurate, induration, nondurable, obduracy, obdurate, obduration, perdurable, perdurance, perdure, subdural
dy-[124] two Greek δύο (dúo), δυάς, δυάδος (duás, duádos) dyad, dyadic
dyna-[125] power Greek δύνασθαι (dúnasthai), δυνατός, δύναμις (dúnamis), δυνάστης (dunástēs) aerodynamic, aerodynamics, antidynastic, autodyne, didynamous, dynamic, dynamism, dynamite, dynamo, dynast, dynastic, dynasty, heterodyne, metadynamics
dys- badly, ill Greek δυσ- (dus-) dysentery, dysphagia, dysphasia, dysplasia, dystrophy
Lists of Greek and Latin roots in English beginning with other letters:


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
ec-[126] out Greek ἐκ (ek) eccentric, ecstasy, ecstatic
ecclesi- assembly, congregation Greek ἐκκλησία (ekklēsía) from ἐκκαλέω (ekkaléō) "I summon" or "I call out" Ecclesiastes, ecclesiastical
ech- sound Greek ἠχή, ἠχώ, ἠχοῦς, ἠχεῖν (ēkheîn), ἤχημα anechoic, catechesis, catechism, catechist, catechize, catechumen, echo, echoic
eco- house Greek οἶκος (oîkos) ecology, economics, economy, ecumenism
ecto-[127] outside Greek ἐκτός (ektós) ectoderm, ectoparasite, ectotherm
ed-, es- eat Latin edere, esus comedo, comestible, edacity, edibility, edible, escarole, esculent, esurience, esurient, inedia, inedible, inescation, inescate, obese, obesity
eg-[128] goat Greek αἴξ, αἰγός (aíx, aigós) egophony
egypt- Egypt, egyptian Greek αἰγυπτος (aigyptos) egyptology
ego-[129] self, I (first person) Latin, Greek ego, ἐγώ (egṓ) egocentric, egocentrism, egoism, egoistic, egomania, egomaniac
eiren- (iren-)[130] peace Greek εἰρήνη (eirḗnē) "peace" irenic (eirenic), irenology
electr-[131] amber Greek ἤλεκτρον (ḗlektron) electric, electricity, electrolysis, electrolyte, electromagnetic, electron, electronic, polyelectrolyte
elem-, alm-[132] pity Greek ἔλεος, ἐλέου (éleos, eléou), ἐλεημοσύνη (eleēmosúnē) almoner, alms, eleemosynary
em-, empt- buy Latin emere, emptus adeem, adempt, ademption, exemption, preempt, redeem
eme-[133] vomit Greek ἐμεῖν (emeîn), ἔμετος (émetos) antiemetic, emesis, emetic, emetine, emetophobia, haematemesis
emul- striving to equal, rivaling Latin aemulus, aemulare emulator
en-, el-, em-[134] in Greek ἐν (en) emphasis, enclitic, enthusiasm, ellipsis, elliptic
enanti-[135] opposite Greek ἐναντίος (enantíos) enantiomer, enantiomerism, enantiomorph, enantiornithine
encephal- brain Greek ἐγκέφαλος (enképhalos) encephalopathy
endo-[136] inside, within Greek ἔνδον (éndon) endocardial, endocerid, endocrine, endocytosis, endogamy, endogenous, endoscopy, endoskeleton, endosperm, endospore
engy-[137] narrow Greek ἐγγύς (engús) Engystomops, hypengyophobia
ennea-[138] nine Greek ἐννέα (ennéa), ἐννεάς, ἐννεάδος (enneás, enneádos) ennead, enneadic, enneagon, enneagram, enneahedron, enneamer, enneastyle, enneasyllabic, enneode
ens- sword Latin ensis ensiferous, ensiform
eo-, eos-[139] dawn, east Greek Ἠώς, Ἕως (Ēṓs, Héōs) Eocene, eohippus, Eosentomon, eosin, eosinophil, eosinophilic, Eozoic
ep-, epi-[140] upon Greek ἐπί (epí) ephedra, ephemeral, ephemeris, epicenter, epidemic, epilog, epiphany, episteme, epistemic, epistemology, epitaph, epitaphios, epithet, epitome, epoch, eponymous
equ-, -iqu- even, equal, level Latin aequus equal, equanimity, equate, Equator, equilibrium, equinox, equipoise, equity, equivalence, equivocal, equivocate, iniquity
equ- horse Latin equus equestrian
ere-[141] row Greek ἐρέσσειν (eréssein), ἐρέτης (erétēs) "rower", ἐρετμόν (eretmón), εἰρεσία trireme, trierarch, hyperetes
erg-, org-, urg-[142] work Greek ϝέργον (wérgon), έργον (érgon), ἐργάτης (ergátēs), ὄργανον (órganon), ὀργανικός (organikós), ὄργια (órgia) allergic, allergy, argon, demiurge, dramaturgy, endoergic, energetic, energy, erg, ergate, ergatocracy, ergodic, ergometer, ergonomics, ergophobia, exoergic, gamergate, georgic, heterorganic, homorganic, liturgy, metallurgy, microorganism, organ, organic, organism, organist, organize, organogenesis, organoid, organoleptic, orgiastic, orgy, parergon, surgeon, synergism, synergy, theurgic, theurgist, theurgy, zymurgy
erot-[143] (sexual) love Greek ἔρως, ἔρωτος (érōs, érōtos) erogenous, erotic, erotomania, erotophilia, erotophobia
err- stray Latin errare aberrance, aberrancy, aberrant, aberration, err, errant, erratic, erratum, erroneous, error, inerrant
erythr-[144] red Greek ἐρυθρός (eruthrós), ἐρύθημα (erúthēma) erythema, Erythraean, erythraemia, erythroblastopenia, erythrocyte, erythrocytosis, erythromelalgia, erythrophobia, erythrophore, erythroprosopalgia
eso-[145] within Greek ἔσω (ésō) esophoria, esoteric, esotericism, esotropia
eth-[146] custom, habit Greek ἐθεῖν (etheîn), ἦθος (êthos) ethic, ethics, ethology, ethos
ethm-[147] sieve, sift Greek ἠθεῖν (ētheîn), ἠθμός (ēthmós); ἤθειν (ḗthein) ethmoid
ethn-[148] people, race, tribe, nation Greek ἔθνος (éthnos), ἐθνικός (ethnikós) ethnarch, ethnarchy, ethnic, ethnoarchaeology, ethnography, ethnomusicology, polyethnic
etym-[149] true Greek ἔτυμος (étumos) etymologic, etymologicon, etymologist, etymologize, etymology, etymon
eu-[150] well, good Greek εὖ () aneuploidy, eudaemon (eudemon), eukaryote, euphony, euphoria, euphoric, euploid, euthanasia
eur-[151] wide Greek εὐρύς (eurús), εὖρος "breadth, width" aneurysm, Europe, eurypterid, microaneurysm
ex-, e-, ef- outside, out of, from, out Latin ex exclude, exist, exit, extend, extrude
exo-[152] outside Greek ἔξω (éxō) exogamy, exoplanet, exoskeleton, exosome, exosphere, exoteric, exothermic, exotic, exoticism, exotropia
extra- outer Latin extra, extraneus and exterus estrange, estrangement, exterior, extra, extraneous, extraordinary, strange
extrem- outermost, utmost Latin extremus extreme, extremity, extremophile
Lists of Greek and Latin roots in English beginning with other letters:


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
fa-, fa (FA)[153] say, speak Latin fārī, see also fatērī affable, bifarious, confess, defamation, fable, fame, fascinate, fate, ineffability, infamy, infancy, infant, infantry, nefarious, preface, profess
fab- bean Latin faba faba bean
fac-, fact-, -fect-, -fic- (FAC)[154] do, make Latin facere, factus affair, affect, affectation, amplify, artifact, artifice, benefactor, benefice, benefit, confection, counterfeit, defeat, defect, disaffect, edifice, effect, effectible, effection, effective, effectivity, effector, effectual, effectuality, effectuate, effectuation, efficacious, efficacity, efficacy, efficiency, efficient, enface, enfacement, facade/façade, face, facet, facette, facial, faciend, facient, facile, facilitate, facilitation, facilitative, facilitator, facilitatory, facility, facinorous, facsimile, fact, faction, factional, factionary, factious, factitious, factor, factorable, factorial, factory, factotum, factual, fake, fashion, feasible, feat, feature, feckless, fiat, forfeit, infect, inofficious, interoffice, laissez-faire, malefaction, manufacture, modify, nonofficial, office, official, officiant, officiary, officiate, officious, olfaction, omnificence, omnificent, parfait, perfect, perfecta, perfectibility, perfectible, perfection, perfective, perfector, pluperfect, prefect, prefectural, prefecture, prequalification, proficiency, proficient, profit, profitability, profitable, profiteer, profiterole, prolific, qualification, quasiperfect, rarefy, refactorable, refashion, refect, refection, refectory, reinfect, remanufacture, resurface, reunification, sacrifice, scientific, semelfactive, suboffice, subprefect, suffice, sufficiency, sufficient, superficial, superficiality, surface, surfeit, surficial, transfection, trifacial, trifecta, uniface, unifacial, unifactorial, unification
falc- sickle Latin falx, falcis defalcation, falcate, falciform, falchion, falcon
fall-, fallac-, fals- false, deceive Latin fallere, falsus, fallāx, fallācis default, fail, fallacious, fallacy, fallible, false, falsetto, falsify, falsity, fault
famili- a close attendant Latin famulus familiarity, family
fasc- bundle Latin fascis fajita, fasciculation, fascism
fatu- foolish, useless Latin fatuus fatuous, infatuation
feder- treaty, agreement, contract, league, pact Latin foederāre, from foedus (genitive foederis); see also fides "faith" confederacy, confederation, federal, federate, federation
fel- cat Latin fēlēs, fēlis Felinae, feline
felic- happy, merry Latin fēlīx, fēlīcis felicity
fell- suck Latin fellāre fellation
femin- women, female Latin fēmina femininity
femor- thigh Latin femur (genitive femoris) femoral, femur
fend-, fens- strike Latin fendere, -fensus defend, fend, offend, offense
fenestr- window Latin fenestra defenestration
fer- to bear, carry Latin ferre aquifer, circumference, confer, conifer, defer, differ, ferry, fertile, infer, Lucifer, offer, prefer, refer, suffer, transfer, vociferous
ferv- boil, glow Latin fervēre ferment, fervent, fervid, fervor, perfervid
feroc- fierce Latin ferōx, ferōcis ferocity
ferr- iron Latin ferrum ferrous
fet- stink Latin fētēre fetid, fetor
fic- fig Latin fīcus Ficus, fig
fid-, fis- faith, trust Latin fidēs "faith, trust", from fidere "to trust" confidante, confidence, confident, diffident, faith, fealty, fidelity, fiduciary, infidel, perfidious, perfidy
fig-, fing-, fict- (FIG)[155] to form, shape Latin fingere "to touch, handle; devise; fabricate, alter, change" configure, disfigure, effigy, feign, fiction, fictitious, figment, figurine, nonfiction, transfigure
fil- thread Latin fīlum defile, filament, file, filigree, fillet, profile
fili- son Latin filius affiliation
fin- end Latin fīnis affinity, confine, define, final, finale, finance, fine, finish, finite, infinite, refine
find-, fiss- (FID)[156] cleave, split Latin findere, fissus fission, fissure
firm- firm, strong Latin firmus, firmāre affirm, confirm, confirmation, firm, firmament, infirm
fistul- hollow, tube Latin fistula fistula
fix- attach Latin fīxāre, frequentative of fīgere affix, fix, fixation, fixture, prefix, suffix, transfix
fl-, fla- (FLA)[157] blow Latin flāre, flātus afflatus, conflate, deflate, flatulence, flatus, flavor, flute, inflate, insufflation, soufflé, sufflate
flacc- flabby Latin flaccus, flaccere flaccid
flav- yellow Latin flāvus flavonoid
flect-, flex- bend Latin flectere, flexus circumflex, deflect, flex, flexible, flexile, flexion, flexor, genuflection, inflect, inflection, reflect, reflection, reflex
flig-, flict- strike Latin flīgere, -flīctus afflict, conflict, inflict, profligacy, profligate
flor- flower Latin flōs, flōris floral, florid
flu-, fluv-, flux- flow Latin fluere, fluxus affluent, confluence, effluent, fluctuate, fluctuation, fluency, fluent, fluid, fluidity, flush, fluvial, flux, influence, influx, superfluous
foc- hearth Latin focus bifocal, focal, focus
fod-, foss- dig Latin fodere, fossus fossil
foen- hay Latin foenum Foeniculum
foli- leaf Latin folium defoliant
font- spring Latin fōns, fontis font, fontal, fontanelle
for- bore, drill Latin forāre, forātus foralite, foramen, foraminifer, perforation
form- shape Latin fōrma conform, deform, form, formal, formation, formula, formulate, inform, perform, reform, uniform
formic- ant Latin formīca formaldehyde, formic acid
fornic- vault Latin fornix, fornicis fornication
fort- strong Latin fortis force, fort, forte, fortify, fortitude, fortress
fove- shallow round depression Latin fovea fovea
frag-, frang-, -fring-, fract- break Latin frangere, frāctus defray, diffract, fractal, fraction, fractious, fracture, fragile, fragment, frangible, fray, infraction, infringe, refract, refractory, refrain
frater-, fratr- brother Latin frāter fraternal, fraternity
fric-, frict- rub Latin fricāre, frictus dentifrice, friction
frig- cold Latin frīgere frigid, frigorific
front- forehead Latin frōns, frontis confront, frontage, frontal
fruct-, frug- fruit Latin frūx, frūgis; frū̆ctus fructose, frugivorous
fug-, fugit- flee Latin fugere centrifuge, fugacious, fugitive, refuge
fum- smoke Latin fūmus fume, fumigation
fund- bottom Latin fundāre "to found", from fundus "bottom, foundation" found, founder, foundation, fund, fundament, fundamental, fundamentalism, profound, profundity
fund-, fus- pour Latin fundere, fūsus confound, diffusion, effusion, effusive, found, fusion, infusion, perfusion, profuse, profusion, refund, suffusion, transfusion
fulmin-, fulgur- flash Latin fulmen "lightning flash" fulminant, fulminate, fulmination, fulgurite
fung-, funct- do Latin fungī, fūnctus function, fungibility
fur-, furt- thief, steal Latin fūr (genitive fūris) "thief", fūrāre ferret, furtive
furc- fork Latin furca bifurcation
fusc- dark Latin fuscus fuscous, infuscate, infuscation, obfuscate, obfuscation
Lists of Greek and Latin roots in English beginning with other letters:


Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin) English examples
galact-[158] (ΓΛΑΚ)[159] milk Greek γάλα, γάλακτος (gála, gálaktos) galactagogue, galactic, galactorrhea, lactose, polygala, polygalactia, galaxy
gam-[160] marriage, wedding Greek γάμος (gámos), γαμεῖν (gameîn), γαμέτης (gamétēs), γαμετή (gametḗ) agamic, agamogenesis, agamospermy, agamy, allogamy, anisogamete, anisogamy, apogamy, autogamy, cleistogamous, cleistogamy, cryptogam, deuterogamist, deuterogamy, digamous, digamy, endogamous, endogamy, exogamous, exogamy, gamete, gametic, gametocyte, gametogenesis, gametophyte, geitonogamy, heterogametic, heterogamous, heterogamy, homogametic, karyogamy, misogamy, monogamous, monogamy, oogamy, planogamete, plasmogamy, polygamist, polygamy
gamb- leg Latin gamba gam, gambit, gambol, gammon
gamm-[161] G, g Greek Γ, γ, γάμμα (gámma) gamma
gar- (GAR)[162] chatter Latin garrire gargantuan, gargle, gargoyle, garrulous, jargon
gargal- tickle Greek γαργαλίζειν (gargalízein), γαργαλιζόμενον (gargalizómenon), γαργαλισμός (gargalismós) gargalesis, gargalesthesia, hypergargalesthesia
gargar- gargle Greek γαργαρίζειν (gargarízein), γαργαρισμός (gargarismós), γαργαρεών gargarize
gastr-[163] stomach Greek γαστήρ, γαστρός (gastḗr, gastrós) epigastric, epigastrium, gasteroid, gastric, gastrin, gastritis, gastroenterologist, gastroenterology, gastrolith, gastronomic, gastronomy, gastroparesis, gastropod, gastroptosis, gastroschisis, gastrotrich, mesogastric, Myxogastria
ge-, geo-[164] earth Greek γῆ (), γαῖα, γαίας (gaîa, gaías), γεω- (geō-) apogee, biogeography, epigeous, Gaia, geocentric, geocentrism, geode, geodesy, geodetic, geography, geoid, geology, geomancy, geometry, geomorphology, geophysicist, geophysics, georgic, Georgics, geosphere, geostatic, geostrophic, geosynchronous, geosyncline, hypogeous, hypogeum, Pangea, perigee
geiton-[165] neighbor Greek γείτων, γείτονος (geítōn, geítonos), γειτόνημα geitonogamy
gel- icy cold Latin gelum congeal, congelation, gel, gelati, gelatin, gelatinous, gelation, gelato, gelée, gelid, gelifluction, gelignite, jellification, jelly
gen-, gon-[166] (ΓΕΝ)[167] birth, beget, race, kind Greek γίγνεσθαι (gígnesthai), and related γένος (génos), γενετικός (genetikós), γένεσις (génesis); see also γενεά (geneá) allergen, anagenesis, antigen, autogenesis, autogenous, biogenesis, dysgenic, endogen, endogenous, epigene, epigenesis, epigenetics, epigone, erogenous, Eugene, eugenic, eugenics, exogenous, gametogenesis, gene, genealogy, genesis, genetic, genocide, genotype, genophobia, gonad, heterogeneous, homogenesis, homogenetic, homogeneous, hydrogen, hypogene, hypogenesis, hypogenic, hypogenous, monogenic, oogenesis, paragenesis, pathogen, polygenous, progenesis, pseudogene, spermatogenesis
gen- (GEN)[168] beget Latin gignere, genitus, genus (genitive generis), see also generare congenial, engender, gender, generate, generation, genial, genius, genital, genitive, genteel, gentle, genuine, genus, indigenous, ingenious, ingenuous, primogenitor, progeny
gephyr-[169] bridge Greek γέφυρα (géphura), γεφυρόω gephyrophobia
ger-[170] old Greek γέρων, γέροντος (gérōn, gérontos) "old man", γηράσκω "grow old" erigeron, gerascophobia, geriatric, geriatrics, gerontocracy, gerontology, gerontophile, gerontophilia, gerontophobia, gerontoplast, gerousia, progeria, progeroid
ger-, gest- (GES)[171] bear, carry Latin gerere, gestus agger, congest, digest, gerundive, gestation, register, suggest, vicegerent
geran-[172] crane Greek γέρανος (géranos), γεράνιον (geránion), γερανώδης Geranium
germ- sprout Latin germen, germinis germ, German, germane, germicide, germinal, germinate, germination, nongermane, regerminate
geu-[173] (ΓΕΥΣ)[174] taste Greek γεύειν (geúein), γεύεσθαι (geúesthai), γεῦσις, γευόμενον ageusia, dysgeusia, hypergeusia, hypogeusia, parageusia
glabr- hairless Latin glaber glabella, glabellar, glabrate, glabrescent, glabrous
glaci- ice Latin glacies glacé, glacial, glaciation, glacier, glacious, glacis, glance
gladi- sword Latin gladius gladiator, gladiolus
glauc-[175] gray Greek γλαυκός (glaukós), γλαυκότης, γλαύξ, γλαῦκος glaucophane, Glaucopsyche, glaucophobia
glia-[176] glue Greek γλία (glía) glial, glioblastoma, glioma, gliosis, microglia, neuroglia
glob- sphere Latin globus global, globate, globe, globose, globosity, globular, globule, globulin, inglobate
glori- glory Latin gloria gloriation, glorification, glorify, gloriole, glorious, glory, inglorious, vainglorious, vainglory
gloss-, glot-[177] tongue Greek γλῶσσα (glôssa), γλωττίς (glōttís) aglossia, anthropoglot, aryepiglottic, diglossia, epiglottis, gloss, glossary, glossophobia, glottis, heterogloss, heteroglossia, idioglossia, isogloss, monoglot, monoglottism, polyglot, polyglottism
glut-[178] rump Greek γλουτός (gloutós) gluteus
glutin- glue Latin gluten, glutinis agglutinant, agglutinate, agglutination, agglutinative, glue, glutelin, gluten, glutinosity, glutinous, nonagglutinative
glyc-[179] sweet Greek γλυκύς (glukús) glycogen, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycolipid, glycophyte, glycoprotein, glycoside, glycosidic, hypoglycaemia
glyph-[180] carve Greek γλύφειν (glúphein), γλυφή (gluphḗ), γλυπτός (gluptós), γλυπτικός (gluptikós) aglyphous, anaglyph, ditriglyph, ditriglyphic, glyph, glyptic, Glyptodon, glyptograph, hieroglyph, hieroglyphic, monotriglyph, opisthoglyphous, petroglyph, proteroglyphous, solenoglyphous
gnath-[181] jaw Greek γνάθος (gnáthos), γναθμός Agnatha, agnathous, chilognath, compsognathus, endognathion, epignathous, exognathion, gnathic, gnathophyma, hypognathous, hystricognath, mesognathion, mesognathous, prognathism
gno-[182] (ΓΝΩ)[183] know Greek γιγνώσκειν (gignṓskein), γνῶναι, γνωτός (gnônai, gnōtós), γνωστός (gnōstós), γνωστικός (gnōstikós), γνῶσις (gnôsis), γνῶσμα, γνώμη (gnôsma, gnṓmē), γνώμων (gnṓmōn) agnosia, agnostic, agnosticism, anagnorisis, diagnosis, dysanagnosia, gnomic, gnomon, gnomonic, gnosia, gnosis, Gnostic, gnosticism, pathognomonic, physiognomy, prognosis, telegnosis
gnosc-, -gnit- know Latin gnoscere acquaint, acquaintance, agnition, agnize, cognition, cognitional, cognitive, cognitivity, cognizable, cognizance, cognizant, cognize, cognoscence, cognoscenti, cognoscible, cognovit, connoisseur, ennoble, ennoblement, ignoble, ignorant, ignoscible, incognito, nobiliary, nobilitate, nobilitation, nobility, noble, note, notice, noticeable, notion, notional, notionality, notoriety, notorious, precognition, quaint, reacquaint, recognition, recognize, reconnaissance, reconnoiter, reconnoitre
gon-[184] corner, angle, knee Greek γωνία (gōnía), γόνυ (gónu) goniometer, gonion, gonioscope, gonitis, gonyaulax, gonycampsis, hexagon, pentagon, polygon, trigon, trigonometry
grad-, gred-, gress- (GRAD)[185] walk, step, go Latin gradi, gressus "to step", from gradus "step" aggradation, aggression, antegrade, anterograde, centigrade, degrade, degree, egress, gradation, grade, gradient, gradine, gradual, graduality, graduate, graduation, gree, ingress, multigrade, nongraduate, postgraduate, progradation, prograde, progress, regress, retrogradation, retrograde, saltigrade, tardigrade, transgress
gramm- letter, writing Greek γράφειν (gráphein), γράμμα, γράμματος (grámma, grámmatos), γραμματικός (grammatikós) anagram, anagrammatic, diagram, diagrammatic, engram, epigram, epigrammatic, grammar, grammatic, grammaticist, hologram, lipogram, monogram, pangrammatic, pentagram, program, programmatic, telegram, telegramme, tetragram, tetragrammaton, trigram
gran- grain Latin grānum degranulation, engrain, filigree, garner, garnet, grain, granary, grange, granger, granite, granivore, granivorous, granivory, granola, granular, granularity, granulate, granulation, granule, grenade, grogram, grosgrain, ingrain, multigrain, pomegranate
grand- grand Latin grandis aggrandisement, grandee, grandeur, grandific, grandiloquent, grandiloquous, grandiose, grandiosity, grandioso, grandity
graph-[186] draw, write Greek γράφειν (gráphein), γραφικός (graphikós), γραφή (graphḗ), γραφία (graphía), γραφεῖον (grapheîon) allograft, anepigraphic, autograft, autograph, digraph, epigraphic, epigraphy, graft, graph, grapheme, graphemics, graphene, graphic, graphite, graphology, graphomania, graphospasm, heterograph, hexagraph, holography, homograph, isograft, logographic, micrograph, monograph, orthography, paragraph, photograph, photographic, photomicrograph, polygraph, pseudepigraphy, syngraft, telegraph, telegraphy, tetragraph, trigraph
grat- thank, please Latin grātus, see also gratia aggrace, agree, agreeable, agreeance, agreement, congratulant, congratulate, congratulatory, congree, disagree, disagreeable, disagreement, disgrace, grace, graciosity, gracioso, gracious, gratification, gratify, gratis, gratitude, gratuitous, gratuity, gratulant, gratulate, gratulation, gratulatory, grazioso, gree, ingrate, ingratiate, ingratiation, ingratitude, maugre, noncongratulatory, nongratuitous
grav- heavy Latin gravis aggravate, aggravation, aggravative, aggravator, aggrieve, aggrievement, degravation, gravamen, grave, gravid, gravida, gravidity, gravitas, gravitate, gravitation, gravitational, gravity, grief, grieve, grievance, grievant, grievous, ingravescence, ingravescent, multigravida, multigravidity, nongravitational, nulligravida, primigravida, reaggravate, supergravity
greg- flock, herd Latin grex, gregis aggregate, aggregation, aggregator, congregant, congregate, congregation, congregational, desegregate, desegregation, disaggregate, disgregate, disgregation, egregious, gregarian, gregarine, gregarious, intercongregational, segregate, segregation
gryp-[187] hooked Greek γρυπός (grupós), γρυπότης, γρύπωσις (grupótēs, grúpōsis) arthrogryposis, Grypoceras, Gryposaurus
gubern- govern, pilot Latin gubernare gubernatorial
gust- taste Latin gustus disgust, gustatory, gusto, gustoso
gutt- drop Latin gutta gout, gutta, guttate, guttifer, guttiform
guttur- throat Latin guttur goitre, guttural
gymn-[188] nude Greek γυμνός (gumnós) gymnasium, gymnast, gymnastics, gymnophobia, gymnoplast, gymnosophist, gymnosperm, gymnospore
gyn-, gynaec-[189] woman Greek γυνή, γυναικός, (gunḗ, gunaikós) acrogynous, androgyne, androgynous, androgyny, epigyne, epigynous, epigynum, gymnogynous, gynaeceum, gynaecocracy, gynarchy, gyne, gynecocracy, gynecology, gynecomastia, gynodioecious, gynoecium, gynoid, gynophobia, heterogynous, hypogynous, misogynist, monogyny, oligogyny, philogyny, polygynist, polygyny
gyr-[190] ring Greek γῦρος (gûros), γυρός (gurós) agyria, autogyro, gyre, gyrectomy, gyrencephalic, gyrodyne, gyroid, gyromagnetic, gyromancy, gyroscope, gyrosphere, gyrostat, gyrostatic gyrotropic, gyrus, microgyrus, micropolygyria, pachygyria, polygyria, polymicrogyria, ulegyria
gyrin- tadpole Greek γυρός, γυρῖνος (gurós, gurînos), γυρινώδης (gurinṓdēs) Gyrinophilus


  1. ^ ăb, ā. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  2. ^ ἄβαξ in Liddell and Scott
  3. ^ ἀκή in Liddell and Scott
  4. ^ ἀκή in Liddell and Scott
  5. ^ ἀκαρί in Liddell and Scott
  6. ^ ἀκτίς in Liddell and Scott
  7. ^ ad. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  8. ^ ἀδήν in Liddell and Scott
  9. ^ ἀείρω in Liddell and Scott
  10. ^ ἀήρ in Liddell and Scott
  11. ^ ἄγω in Liddell and Scott
  12. ^ ἀγάπη in Liddell and Scott
  13. ^ ἀγρός in Liddell and Scott
  14. ^ αἴλουρος in Liddell and Scott
  15. ^ ἀλκυών in Liddell and Scott
  16. ^ ἀλέω in Liddell and Scott
  17. ^ ἄλγος in Liddell and Scott
  18. ^ ἄλλος in Liddell and Scott
  19. ^ ἀλλήλων in Liddell and Scott
  20. ^ ἄλφα in Liddell and Scott
  21. ^ ἀμβλύς in Liddell and Scott
  22. ^ ἄμμος in Liddell and Scott
  23. ^ ἀμνός in Liddell and Scott
  24. ^ ἀμφί in Liddell and Scott
  25. ^ ἀμυγδάλη in Liddell and Scott
  26. ^ ἀνά in Liddell and Scott
  27. ^ ἀνήρ in Liddell and Scott
  28. ^ ἄνεμος in Liddell and Scott
  29. ^ ἀντί in Liddell and Scott
  30. ^ antĕ. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  31. ^ ἀνθέω in Liddell and Scott
  32. ^ ἀπό in Liddell and Scott
  33. ^ ἄρσην in Liddell and Scott
  34. ^ ἀσκός in Liddell and Scott
  35. ^ ἄσπρος in Liddell and Scott
  36. ^ ἀθάρη in Liddell and Scott
  37. ^ αὐτός in Liddell and Scott
  38. ^ αὔξω in Liddell and Scott
  39. ^ ἀξία in Liddell and Scott
  40. ^ ἄξων in Liddell and Scott
  41. ^ βαίνω in Liddell and Scott
  42. ^ βαίνω in Middle Liddell and Scott
  43. ^ βάλλω in Middle Liddell and Scott
  44. ^ βάπτω in Middle Liddell and Scott
  45. ^ βαρύς in Liddell and Scott
  46. ^ βίβλος in Liddell and Scott
  47. ^ βιόω in Liddell and Scott
  48. ^ βλαστάνω in Liddell and Scott
  49. ^ βῶλος in Liddell and Scott
  50. ^ βομβέω in Liddell and Scott
  51. ^ βραχύς in Liddell and Scott
  52. ^ βραδύς in Liddell and Scott
  53. ^ βρόμος in Liddell and Scott
  54. ^ βρόγχος in Liddell and Scott
  55. ^ βροντή in Liddell and Scott
  56. ^ βροτός in Liddell and Scott
  57. ^ βούτυρον in Liddell and Scott
  58. ^ βυσσός in Liddell and Scott
  59. ^ βύσσος in Liddell and Scott
  60. ^ κακός in Liddell and Scott
  61. ^ καλύπτω in Liddell and Scott
  62. ^ καπνός in Liddell and Scott
  63. ^ καρδία in Liddell and Scott
  64. ^ καρπός in Liddell and Scott
  65. ^ καρπός in Liddell and Scott
  66. ^ καθαρός in Liddell and Scott
  67. ^ καινός in Liddell and Scott
  68. ^ κοινός in Liddell and Scott
  69. ^ χαίτη in Liddell and Scott
  70. ^ χείρ in Liddell and Scott
  71. ^ χλωρός in Liddell and Scott
  72. ^ χορδή in Liddell and Scott
  73. ^ χρόνος in Liddell and Scott
  74. ^ χρυσός in Liddell and Scott
  75. ^ κιρρός in Liddell and Scott
  76. ^ κλάδος in Liddell and Scott
  77. ^ καλέω in Liddell and Scott
  78. ^ κόχλος in Liddell and Scott
  79. ^ cum. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
    "In compounds com- was unchanged before b, p, m, and in comes and its derivatives; m was usu. assimilated before r, sometimes before l, but was usu. dropped before n; before other consonants m became n, but conicio was written for coniicio. Before a vowel (or h) m was dropped."
  80. ^ κῶνος in Liddell and Scott
  81. ^ κόπρος in Liddell and Scott
  82. ^ κόραξ in Liddell and Scott
  83. ^ κόσμος in Liddell and Scott
  84. ^ κοτύλη in Liddell and Scott
  85. ^ κρανίον in Liddell and Scott
  86. ^ κρηπίς in Liddell and Scott
  87. ^ κρίκος in Liddell and Scott
  88. ^ κρίνω in Liddell and Scott
  89. ^ κροσσοί in Liddell and Scott
  90. ^ κρύπτω in Liddell and Scott
  91. ^ κτείς in Liddell and Scott
  92. ^ κύβος in Liddell and Scott
  93. ^ κυανός in Liddell and Scott
  94. ^ κύκλος in Liddell and Scott
  95. ^ κυλίνδω in Liddell and Scott
  96. ^ κύων in Liddell and Scott
  97. ^ κύστις in Liddell and Scott
  98. ^ κύτος in Liddell and Scott
  99. ^ δάω in Liddell and Scott
  100. ^ δάκρυον in Liddell and Scott
  101. ^ δάκτυλος in Liddell and Scott
  102. ^ δαμάζω in Liddell and Scott
  103. ^ δέω in Liddell and Scott
  104. ^ δέκα in Liddell and Scott
  105. ^ δέλτα in Liddell and Scott
  106. ^ δέμω in Liddell and Scott
  107. ^ δῆμος in Liddell and Scott
  108. ^ δένδρον in Liddell and Scott
  109. ^ δέρω in Liddell and Scott
  110. ^ δεσπότης in Liddell and Scott
  111. ^ δεύτερος in Liddell and Scott
  112. ^ δεξιός in Liddell and Scott
  113. ^ διά in Liddell and Scott
  114. ^ διακόσιοι in Liddell and Scott
  115. ^ δεινός in Liddell and Scott
  116. ^ διπλόος in Liddell and Scott
  117. ^ δίδωμι in Liddell and Scott
  118. ^ δίδωμι in Middle Liddell and Scott
  119. ^ δώδεκα in Liddell and Scott
  120. ^ δράω in Liddell and Scott
  121. ^ δράσσομαι in Liddell and Scott
  122. ^ δρόσος in Liddell and Scott
  123. ^ δρῦς in Liddell and Scott
  124. ^ δύο in Liddell and Scott
  125. ^ δύναμαι in Liddell and Scott
  126. ^ ἐκ in Liddell and Scott
  127. ^ ἐκτός in Liddell and Scott
  128. ^ αἴξ in Liddell and Scott
  129. ^ ἐγώ in Liddell and Scott
  130. ^ εἰρήνη in Liddell and Scott
  131. ^ ἤλεκτρον in Liddell and Scott
  132. ^ ἔλεος in Liddell and Scott
  133. ^ ἐμέω in Liddell and Scott
  134. ^ ἐν in Liddell and Scott
  135. ^ ἐναντίος in Liddell and Scott
  136. ^ ἔνδον in Liddell and Scott
  137. ^ ἐγγύς in Liddell and Scott
  138. ^ ἐννέα in Liddell and Scott
  139. ^ ἠώς in Liddell and Scott
  140. ^ ἐπί in Liddell and Scott
  141. ^ ἐρέσσω in Liddell and Scott
  142. ^ ἔργον in Liddell and Scott
  143. ^ ἔρως in Liddell and Scott
  144. ^ ἐρυθρός in Liddell and Scott
  145. ^ ἔσω in Liddell and Scott
  146. ^ ἔθω in Liddell and Scott
  147. ^ ἠθέω in Liddell and Scott
  148. ^ ἔθνος in Liddell and Scott
  149. ^ ἔτυμος in Liddell and Scott
  150. ^ εὖ in Liddell and Scott
  151. ^ εὐρύς in Liddell and Scott
  152. ^ ἔξω in Liddell and Scott
  153. ^ for. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  154. ^ faciō. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  155. ^ fingō. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  156. ^ findō. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  157. ^ flō. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  158. ^ γάλα in Liddell and Scott
  159. ^ γάλα in Middle Liddell and Scott
  160. ^ γάμος in Liddell and Scott
  161. ^ γάμμα in Liddell and Scott
  162. ^ garriō. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  163. ^ γαστήρ in Liddell and Scott
  164. ^ γῆ in Liddell and Scott
  165. ^ γείτων in Liddell and Scott
  166. ^ γίγνομαι in Liddell and Scott
  167. ^ γίγνομαι in Middle Liddell and Scott
  168. ^ gīgnō. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  169. ^ γέφυρα in Liddell and Scott
  170. ^ γέρων in Liddell and Scott
  171. ^ gerō. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  172. ^ γέρανος in Liddell and Scott
  173. ^ γεύω in Liddell and Scott
  174. ^ γεύω in Middle Liddell and Scott
  175. ^ γλαυκός in Liddell and Scott
  176. ^ γλία in Liddell and Scott
  177. ^ γλῶσσα in Liddell and Scott
  178. ^ γλουτός in Liddell and Scott
  179. ^ γλυκύς in Liddell and Scott
  180. ^ γλύφω in Liddell and Scott
  181. ^ γνάθος in Liddell and Scott
  182. ^ γιγνώσκω in Liddell and Scott
  183. ^ γιγνώσκω in Middle Liddell and Scott
  184. ^ γόνυ in Liddell and Scott
  185. ^ gradus. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  186. ^ γράφω in Liddell and Scott
  187. ^ γρυπός in Liddell and Scott
  188. ^ γυμνός in Liddell and Scott
  189. ^ γυνή in Liddell and Scott
  190. ^ γῦρος in Liddell and Scott