List of heavyweight boxing champions
This is a chronological list of world heavyweight boxing champions since the introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry rules in about 1884. It does not include fights fought under Jack Broughton's rules or the London Prize Ring Rules.
Champions were recognized by public acclamation. A champion in that era was a fighter who had a notable win over another fighter and kept winning afterward. Retirements or disputed results could lead to a championship being split among several men for periods of time. With only minor exceptions, the heavyweight division remained free from dual title-holders until the 1960s. For an early example, see the 1896 World Heavyweight Championship.
Sanctioning Organizations: 1910-present
Gradually, the role of recognizing champions in the division evolved into a more formal affair, with public acclamation being supplemented (or in some cases, contradicted) by recognition by one or more athletic commissions, sanctioning organizations, or a combination of them. The most notable examples with respect to the heavyweight division have included:
- The International Boxing Union (IBU), which was formed in Paris in 1910. The organization would become the European Boxing Union in 1946, but would recognize "world" champions in various divisions until it subordinated itself in that area to the World Boxing Council.
- The New York State Athletic Commission (NYSAC). A governmental entity initially formed for the purpose of regulating boxing in the State of New York, thanks to New York's place as the epicenter of boxing from the 1930s through 1950s, the NYSAC expanded its reach to sanctioning championship bouts. This practice continued until, like the IBU, the NYSAC became a member of the World Boxing Council (WBC).
- The World Boxing Association (NBA) was organized in 1921. In 1962, the organization was renamed the World Boxing Association (WBA).
- The World Boxing Council (WBC) was organized in 1963.
- The International Boxing Federation (IBF), which was founded in 1983 by the members of the United States Boxing Association after the USBA withdrew from membership in the WBA.
- The World Boxing Organization (WBO), which was founded in 1989 by disgruntled members of the World Boxing Council.
Other bodies also recognize world champions, with varying degrees of legitimacy bestowed upon such recognition by the public at large. Current examples of such groups include the International Boxing Council, International Boxing Organization, World Boxing Federation and World Boxing Union.
List of champions
|Champion||Nationality||Recognition||Reign Began||Reign Ended||Notes|
|John L. Sullivan||United States||Universal||August 29, 1885||September 7, 1892||4|
|James J. Corbett||United States||Universal||September 7, 1892||March 17, 1897||5|
|Bob Fitzsimmons||United Kingdom, United States||Universal||March 17, 1897||June 9, 1899|
|James J. Jeffries||United States||Universal||June 9, 1899||May 13, 1905||2,6|
|Marvin Hart||United States||Universal||July 3, 1905||February 23, 1906||1|
|Tommy Burns||Canada||Universal||February 23, 1906||December 26, 1908|
|Jack Johnson||United States||Universal||December 26, 1908||April 5, 1915||7|
|Jess Willard||United States||Universal||April 5, 1915||July 4, 1919|
|Jack Dempsey||United States||Universal||July 4, 1919||September 23, 1926|
|Gene Tunney||United States||Universal||September 23, 1926||July 31, 1928||2|
|Max Schmeling||Germany||Universal||June 12, 1930||January 7, 1931||8|
|Max Schmeling||Germany||NBA and IBU||January 7, 1931||June 21, 1932|
|Jack Sharkey||United States||Universal||June 21, 1932||June 29, 1933|
|Primo Carnera||Italy||Universal||June 29, 1933||June 14, 1934|
|Max Baer||United States||Universal||June 14, 1934||June 13, 1935||9|
|James J. Braddock||United States||Universal||June 13, 1935||June 22, 1937|
|Joe Louis||United States||Universal||June 22, 1937||March 1, 1949||2|
|Ezzard Charles||United States||NBA||June 22, 1949||September 27, 1950||1,10|
|Lee Savold||United States||IBU||June 6, 1950||June 16, 1951||1,10|
|Ezzard Charles||United States||NBA & NYSAC||September 27, 1950||June 16, 1951||1,10|
|Ezzard Charles||United States||Universal||June 16, 1951||July 18, 1951|
|Jersey Joe Walcott||United States||Universal||July 18, 1951||September 23, 1952|
|Rocky Marciano||United States||Universal||September 23, 1952||April 27, 1956||2|
|Floyd Patterson||United States||Universal||November 30, 1956||June 26, 1959||1,11|
|Ingemar Johansson||Sweden||Universal||June 26, 1959||June 20, 1960|
|Floyd Patterson (Second reign)||United States||Universal||June 20, 1960||September 25, 1962|
|Sonny Liston||United States||Universal||September 25, 1962||February 25, 1964|
|Cassius Clay "Muhammad Ali"||United States||Universal||February 25, 1964||June 19, 1964||12|
|Cassius Clay "Muhammad Ali"||United States||WBC||June 19, 1964||February 6, 1967|
|Ernie Terrell||United States||NYSAC & WBA||March 5, 1965||February 6, 1967||1|
|Cassius Clay "Muhammad Ali"||United States||Universal||February 6, 1967||April 29, 1967||Unified NYSAC, WBA and WBC titles.13|
|Joe Frazier||United States||NYSAC||March 4, 1968||February 16, 1970||1,14|
|Jimmy Ellis||United States||WBA||April 27, 1968||February 16, 1970||1,14|
|Joe Frazier||United States||Universal||February 16, 1970||January 22, 1973||Unified NYSAC, WBA and WBC titles.15|
|George Foreman||United States||Universal||January 22, 1973||October 30, 1974|
|Muhammad Ali (Second reign)||United States||Universal||October 30, 1974||February 15, 1978|
|Leon Spinks||United States||Universal||February 15, 1978||March 18, 1978||3|
|Leon Spinks||United States||WBA||March 18, 1978||September 15, 1978|
|Ken Norton||United States||WBC||March 18, 1978||June 9, 1978||16|
|Larry Holmes||United States||WBC||June 9, 1978||December 11, 1983||2|
|Muhammad Ali (Third reign)||United States||WBA||September 15, 1978||April 27, 1979||2|
|John Tate||United States||WBA||October 20, 1979||March 31, 1980||1|
|Mike Weaver||United States||WBA||March 31, 1980||December 10, 1982|
|Michael Dokes||United States||WBA||December 10, 1982||September 23, 1983|
|Gerrie Coetzee||South Africa||WBA||September 23, 1983||December 1, 1984|
|Larry Holmes||United States||IBF||December 11, 1983||September 21, 1985||17|
|Tim Witherspoon||United States||WBC||March 9, 1984||August 31, 1984||1|
|Pinklon Thomas||United States||WBC||August 31, 1984||March 22, 1986|
|Greg Page||United States||WBA||December 1, 1984||April 29, 1985|
|Tony Tubbs||United States||WBA||April 29, 1985||January 17, 1986|
|Michael Spinks||United States||IBF||September 21, 1985||February 19, 1987||3|
|Tim Witherspoon (Second reign)||United States||WBA||January 17, 1986||December 12, 1986|
|Trevor Berbick||Jamaica, Canada||WBC||March 22, 1985||November 22, 1986|
|Mike Tyson||United States||WBC||November 22, 1986||March 7, 1987|
|James "Bonecrusher" Smith||United States||WBA||December 12, 1986||March 7, 1987|
|Mike Tyson||United States||WBA and WBC||March 7, 1987||August 1, 1987||Unified WBA and WBC titles.|
|Tony Tucker||United States||IBF||May 30, 1987||August 1, 1987||1|
|Mike Tyson||United States||IBF, WBA and WBC||August 1, 1987||February 11, 1990||Unified IBF, WBA and WBC titles.|
|Francesco Damiani||Italy||WBO||May 6, 1989||January 11, 1991||1|
|James "Buster" Douglas||United States||IBF, WBA and WBC||February 11, 1990||October 25, 1990|
|Evander Holyfield||United States||IBF, WBA and WBC||October 25, 1990||November 13, 1992|
|Ray Mercer||United States||WBO||January 11, 1991||December 24, 1991||2|
|Michael Moorer||United States||WBO||May 15, 1992||February 3, 1993||2|
|Riddick Bowe||United States||IBF, WBA and WBC||November 13, 1992||December 14, 1992||3|
|Riddick Bowe||United States||IBF and WBA||December 14, 1992||November 6, 1993|
|Lennox Lewis||United Kingdom||WBC||December 14, 1992||September 24, 1994||18|
|Tommy Morrison||United States||WBO||June 7, 1993||October 29, 1993||1|
|Michael Bentt||United States||WBO||October 29, 1993||March 19, 1994|
|Herbie Hide||United Kingdom||WBO||March 19, 1994||March 11, 1995|
|Michael Moorer (Second reign)||United States||IBF and WBA||April 22, 1994||November 5, 1994|
|Oliver McCall||United States||WBC||September 24, 1994||September 2, 1995|
|George Foreman (Second reign)||United States||IBF and WBA||November 5, 1994||March 4, 1995||3|
|George Foreman||United States||IBF||March 4, 1995||June 28, 1995||3|
|Riddick Bowe (Second reign)||United States||WBO||March 11, 1995||May 1, 1996||2|
|Bruce Seldon||United States||WBA||April 8, 1995||September 7, 1996||1|
|Frank Bruno||United Kingdom||WBC||September 2, 1995||March 16, 1996|
|Mike Tyson (Second reign)||United States||WBC||March 16, 1996||September 7, 1996|
|Michael Moorer (Third reign)||United States||IBF||June 22, 1996||November 8, 1997||19|
|Henry Akinwande||United Kingdom||WBO||June 29, 1996||February 17, 1997||1,2|
|Mike Tyson||United States||WBA and WBC||September 7, 1996||September 24, 1996||2|
|Mike Tyson||United States||WBA||September 24, 1996||November 9, 1996|
|Evander Holyfield (Second reign)||United States||WBA||November 9, 1996||November 8, 1997|
|Lennox Lewis (Second reign)||United Kingdom||WBC||February 7, 1997||November 13, 1999||1|
|Herbie Hide (Second reign)||United Kingdom||WBO||June 28, 1997||June 26, 1999||1|
|Evander Holyfield||United States||IBF and WBA||November 8, 1997||November 13, 1999||Unified IBF and WBA titles.|
|Vitali Klitschko||Ukraine||WBO||June 26, 1999||April 1, 2000|
|Lennox Lewis||United Kingdom||IBF, WBA and WBC||November 13, 1999||April 29, 2000||Unified IBF, WBA and WBC titles.|
|Chris Byrd||United States||WBO||April 1, 2000||October 14, 2000|
|Lennox Lewis||United Kingdom||IBF and WBC||April 29, 2000||April 22, 2001|
|Evander Holyfield (Third reign)||United States||WBA||August 12, 2000||March 3, 2001||1|
|Wladimir Klitschko||Ukraine||WBO||October 14, 2000||March 8, 2003|
|John Ruiz||United States||WBA||March 3, 2001||March 1, 2003|
|Hasim Rahman||United States||IBF and WBC||April 22, 2001||November 17, 2001|
|Lennox Lewis (Third reign)||United Kingdom||IBF and WBC||November 17, 2001||September 5, 2002||2|
|Lennox Lewis||United Kingdom||WBC||September 5, 2002||February 6, 2004||2|
|Chris Byrd (Second reign)||United States||IBF||December 14, 2002||April 22, 2006||1|
|Roy Jones, Jr.||United States||WBA||March 1, 2003||February 20, 2004|
|Corrie Sanders||South Africa||WBO||March 8, 2003||October 9, 2003||2|
|John Ruiz (Second reign)||United States||WBA||February 20, 2004||December 17, 2005||20|
|Lamon Brewster||United States||WBO||April 10, 2004||April 1, 2006||1|
|Vitali Klitschko (Second reign)||Ukraine||WBC||April 24, 2004||November 9, 2005|
|Hasim Rahman (Second reign)||United States||WBC||November 9, 2005||August 12, 2006||21|
|Nikolai Valuev||Russia||WBA||December 17, 2005||April 14, 2007|
|Siarhei Liakhovich||Belarus||WBO||April 1, 2006||November 4, 2006|
|Wladimir Klitschko (Second reign)||Ukraine||IBF||April 22, 2006||February 23, 2008|
|Oleg Maskaev||Russia||WBC||August 12, 2006||March 8, 2008|
|Shannon Briggs||United States||WBO||November 4, 2006||June 2, 2007|
|Ruslan Chagaev||Uzbekistan||WBA||April 14, 2007||June 20, 2009||22|
|Sultan Ibragimov||Russia||WBO||June 2, 2007||February 23, 2008|
|Wladimir Klitschko||Ukraine||IBF and WBO||February 23, 2008||July 2, 2011||Unified IBF and WBO titles.|
|Samuel Peter||Nigeria||WBC||March 8, 2008||October 11, 2008|
|Nikolai Valuev (Second reign)||Russia||WBA||August 30, 2008||November 7, 2009||22|
|Vitali Klitschko (Third reign)||Ukraine||WBC||October 11, 2008||December 15, 2013||2|
|David Haye||United Kingdom||WBA||November 7, 2009||July 2, 2011|
|Wladimir Klitschko||Ukraine||IBF, WBA "Super" and WBO||July 2, 2011||November 28, 2015||Unified IBF, WBA and WBO titles.|
|Alexander Povetkin||Russia||WBA "Regular"||August 27, 2011||October 5, 2013||23|
|Bermane Siverne||Canada||WBC||May 10, 2014||January 17, 2015||1|
|Ruslan Chagaev (Second reign)||Uzbekistan||WBA "Regular"||July 6, 2014||March 5, 2016||1|
|Deontay Wilder||United States||WBC||January 17, 2015||Present|
|Tyson Fury||United Kingdom||IBF, WBA "Super" and WBO||November 28, 2015||December 8, 2015||3|
|Tyson Fury||United Kingdom||WBA "Super" and WBO||December 8, 2015||October 12, 2016||2|
|Charles Martin||United States||IBF||January 16, 2016||April 9, 2016||1|
|Lucas Browne||Australia||WBA "Regular"||March 5, 2016||May 12, 2016||1,24|
|Ruslan Chagaev (Third reign)||Uzbekistan||WBA "Regular"||May 21, 2016||July 28, 2016||1,2|
|Anthony Joshua||United Kingdom||IBF||April 9, 2016||Present|
|Joseph Parker||New Zealand||WBO||December 10, 2016||Present|
- Won vacant championship title.
- Voluntarily relinquished championship title.
- Championship recognition withdrawn by sanctioning organization upon his refusal to fight an opponent of the organization's designation.
- In 1882, Sullivan defeated Paddy Ryan to win the bare-knuckle championship of America. A lack of legitimate challengers elsewhere gradually resulted in Sullivan earning worldwide recognition. On August 29, 1885, he defeated Dominick McCaffrey in a bout described as "the Marquess of Queensberry glove contest for the championship of the world."
- Corbett announced his retirement from boxing in 1895, nominating Steve O'Donnell as his successor. As tradition demanded the title be won in the ring, O'Donnell was matched against Peter Maher on November 11, 1895 at Maspeth, New York. Maher won via first-round knockout, but the public generally didn't accept Maher and Maher himself expressed a desire to fight Corbett for the "real" title. In Maher's next bout, Bob Fitzsimmons would defeat him via first-round knockout on February 21, 1896. Fitzimmons in turn would be defeated by Tom Sharkey of Dundalk on December 2, 1896 in a contest billed as for the heavyweight title. Corbett would announce his return to the ring shortly thereafter, at which time the championship claims of Maher, Fitzsimmons and Sharkey were for the most part dismissed.
- Jeffries announced his retirement, relinquishing the title and promoting a match between Marvin Hart and Jack Root for the championship. Jeffries would return to the ring to challenge Jack Johnson.
- The British National Sporting Club withdrew its recognition of Johnson as champion when he refused to defend his title against the British champion William "Iron" Hague. The NSC matched Hague with Canadian Sam Langford for its title on May 24, 1909. Langford won via fourth-round knockout, but never pursued a championship claim.
- Schmeling earned championship recognition by defeating Jack Sharkey by controversial disqualification. The New York State Athletic Commission would withdraw its recognition of Schmeling when he refused to grant Sharkey an immediate rematch. The NYSAC would not recognize a champion until Sharkey defeated Schmeling in 1932.
- In late 1934 the International Boxing Union ordered Baer to defend his title against European champion Pierre Charles of Belgium. When Baer refused, the IBU sanctioned a bout between Charles and American George Godfrey for their title on October 2, 1935. Godfrey won via fifteen round decision, but never pursued a championship claim. The IBU ultimately recognized Baer's successor James J. Braddock as champion.
- Two months after Louis' retirement announcement, the International Boxing Union sanctioned a bout between British champion Bruce Woodcock and American Lee Savold for its version of the title. The bout would not be staged until June 1950 however, due to delays caused by injuries suffered by Woodcock in an automobile accident. Meanwhile, Ezzard Charles defeated Jersey Joe Walcott to win the vacant National Boxing Association championship title. Savold would defeat Woodcock in four rounds to win the IBU title, while Charles would gain New York State Athletic Commission recognition and wide public acclaim as champion upon defeating former champion Joe Louis in September 1950. On June 15, 1951, Joe Louis would defeat Savold via sixth-round knockout, after which the IBU withdrew its recognition of Savold and proclaimed Ezzard Charles as champion.
- Following Marciano's retirement, Patterson was matched against Tommy "Hurricane" Jackson in a championship eliminator on June 8, 1956. Winning via controversial split decision, Patterson then faced light heavyweight titleholder Archie Moore for the vacant title. Upon defeating Moore, Patterson would fight (and defeat) Jackson a second time on July 29, 1957.
- The World Boxing Association and New York State Athletic Commission withdrew their championship recognition of Clay (by then known as Muhammad Ali) upon agreeing to an immediate rematch against former champion Sonny Liston, in violation of WBA rules. The newly founded World Boxing Council and other sanctioning groups continued to recognize Ali as champion.
- The World Boxing Association, World Boxing Council, New York State Athletic Commission and others withdrew their championship recognition of Ali following his refusal to be inducted into the United States Army subsequent to his conscription.
- To fill its vacant championship title, the World Boxing Association organized a single-elimination tournament involving eight of their ranked contenders (Joe Frazier, who was ranked #2, declined to participate): Oscar Bonavena, Jimmy Ellis, Leotis Martin, Karl Mildenberger, two-time former champion Floyd Patterson, Jerry Quarry, Thad Spencer, and former WBA champion Ernie Terrell. In first round matches, Ellis defeated Martin, Quarry defeated Patterson, Spencer defeated Terrell, and Bonavena defeated Mildenberger. In the semi-finals, Ellis defeated Bonavena while Quarry defeated Spencer; and Ellis defeated Quarry for the championship title. Frazier, meanwhile, would be matched against Buster Mathis for a championship recognized by the New York State Athletic Commission together with the commissions of Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Similar "world" championship recognition would be bestowed upon him by the Texas Athletic Commission following a victory over Dave Zyglewicz on April 22, 1969.
- Frazier defeated Ellis to unify the heavyweight championship, but would not gain universal public acclaim as champion until defeating Muhammad Ali on March 8, 1971.
- In an unprecedented move, upon withdrawing its recognition of Leon Spinks as champion, the World Boxing Council immediately recognized Ken Norton as champion, based on an earlier victory over Jimmy Young. As a condition of being named champion, Norton was ordered to face the WBC's new mandatory challenger, Larry Holmes within 120 days.
- Holmes relinquished his World Boxing Council championship and accepted championship recognition bestowed by the newly organized International Boxing Federation.
- Following its 1978 precedent, upon withdrawing championship recognition from Riddick Bowe, the World Boxing Council immediately awarded championship recognition to Lennox Lewis, on the basis of his victory in an October 31, 1992 "championship eliminator" over Donovan Ruddock.
- Following its withdrawal of recognition from George Foreman, the International Boxing Federation sanctioned a December 9, 1995 match between Francois Botha and Axel Schulz for its championship. Botha won the bout by split decision, but the bout result and Botha's championship title would be vacated after Botha's post-fight drug test revealed he had taken illegal anabolic steroids. A subsequent bout between Schulz and Michael Moorer was sanctioned for the IBF championship.
- Upon defeating John Ruiz, Roy Jones, Jr. simultaneously held the World Boxing Association's heavyweight and light heavyweight titles. At his request, the WBA suspended its rule prohibiting simultaneous titleholding. It would later declare Jones its "Champion in Recess," and sanctioned a December 13, 2003 bout between Ruiz and Hasim Rahman for its "interim" championship. Ruiz would win the bout. On February 20, 2004, Jones relinquished his heavyweight title to resume boxing as a light heavyweight, at which point Ruiz was elevated to full championship recognition. On April 30, 2005, Ruiz would be defeated by James Toney in a championship defense, but post-fight drug testing determined Toney had taken Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid. The bout's result was subsequently changed to a "no contest," whereupon the WBA reinstated Ruiz as champion.
- Following repeated injuries to champion Vitali Klitschko, the World Boxing Council sanctioned an August 13, 2005 bout between Hasim Rahman and Monte Barrett for its "interim" championship. Rahman won the bout, and when Klitschko relinquished his title three months later, the WBC elevated Rahman to full championship recognition.
- Following repeated injuries which prevented him from defending his title, the World Boxing Association designated Chagaev a "Champion in Recess," sanctioning an August 30, 2008 bout between former champions John Ruiz and Nikolai Valuev for its "interim" title; a bout won by Valuev. Upon his recovery however, Chagaev opted to face Wladimir Klitschko rather than Valuev, whereuopn the WBA withdrew championship recognition.
- The World Boxing Association modified its championship structure, creating a new "Super Champion" status to be awarded to champions who hold multiple titles simultaneously. Now subordinated to this was the status of "World Champion," commonly referred to as the "Regular" champion. The organization then sanctioned a bout between Povetkin and former champion Ruslan Chagaev for this "regular" title. Povetkin's reign as the WBA's "regular champion" ended upon a loss to "Super Champion" Wladimir Klitschko, at which point the "regular" title was vacant.
- Browne defeated Ruslan Chagaev for the World Boxing Association's "regular" championship title, but Browne subsequently tested positive for Clenbuterol, a banned substance. Following confirmation of the positive result, the WBA withdrew its recognition of Browne's "regular" championship.
Current Status of Prominent Championship Titles
International Boxing Federation
- Anthony Joshua is the organization's currently recognized champion.
- Joshua is scheduled to participate in a sanctioned defense against Eric Molina on December 10, 2016. Should he win, the organization has sanctioned a proposed bout between Joshua and former champion Wladimir Klitschko for both its title and the WBA's "super" championship.
World Boxing Association
- The organization's "regular" championship title is vacant. A bout between Lucas Browne and former WBO champion Shannon Briggs has been ordered to be held by December 31, 2016 for this title. As of November 26, 2016 however, a contract for the bout has not been signed and Browne has been reported as having failed a drug test for the second time in eight months. The winner of the Browne-Briggs bout would be required to defend the "regular" title against Fres Oquendo within 120 days, the result of a court order issued in the State of New York.
- The organization's "super" championship title is vacant. The WBA has sanctioned a bout between former champion Wladimir Klitschko and current IBF champion Anthony Joshua for this title, pending Joshua defeating Eric Molina in a defense of his IBF title on December 10, 2016.
World Boxing Council
- Deontay Wilder is the organization's currently recognized champion. In his last defense against Chris Arreola, Wilder suffered a torn bicep, an injury for which the WBC has granted special dispensation until he recovers.
- The organization has sanctioned a December 17, 2016 bout between former WBA "regular" champion Alexander Povetkin and former WBC champion Bermane Stiverne for its "interim" championship in the division. Under WBC rules, Wilder would be required to face the winner in his first post-recovery bout in order to retain championship recognition.
World Boxing Organization
- The organization's championship title is vacant. A December 10, 2016 bout between Joseph Parker and Andy Ruiz has been sanctioned by the WBO for its title.
List of combined reigns
As of November 28, 2015. Only Top 10 of them are shown there. This list includes only major titles, and it does not include lineal championships.
- with boldface indicates the current champion and his days as champion
- WHC = officially recognized as World Heavyweight Championship too
|Name||Days as champion||Number of reigns||Title recognition||Cumulative title defenses|
|1.||Wladimir Klitschko||4 382||2||IBF, WBA, WBO||23|
|2.||Joe Louis||4 270||1||NYSAC, NBA||25|
|3.||Vitali Klitschko||2 735||3||WBO, WBC||12|
|4.||Larry Holmes||2 661||1||WBC, IBF||20|
|5.||Jack Dempsey||2 638||1||WHC, NYSAC, NBA||5|
|6.||John L. Sullivan||2 566||1||WHC||4|
|7.||Muhammad Ali||2 363||3||NYSAC, WBC, WBA||19|
|8.||Lennox Lewis||2 346||3||WBC, IBF, WBA||14|
|9.||Jack Johnson||2 291||1||WHC||8|
|10.||Evander Holyfield||2 235||4||WBA, WBC, IBF||7|
- Florio, John; Shapiro, Ouisie (2013). One Punch from the Promised Land: Leon Spinks, Michael Spinks, and the Myth of the Heavyweight Title. Lyons Press. p. 279. ISBN 978-0-7627-8300-7.
- Arnold, Peter (1989). Encyclopedia of Boxing. London: WH Smith Books. ISBN 1-85435-200-8.
- World Title Lineages