List of Hebrew Bible manuscripts

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Leningrad Codex text sample, portions of Exodus 15:21-16:3

A Hebrew Bible manuscript is a handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) made on papyrus, parchment, or paper, and written in the Hebrew language. (Some of the Biblical text and notations may be in Aramaic.) The oldest manuscripts were written in a form of scroll, the medieval manuscripts usually were written in a form of codex. The late manuscripts written after the 9th century use the Masoretic Text. The important manuscripts are associated with Aaron ben Asher (especially Codex Leningradensis).[1]

The earliest sources (whether oral or written) of the Hebrew Bible disappeared over time, because of the fragility of media, wars, (especially the destruction of the First and Second Temples), and other intentional destructions.[2] As a result, the lapse of time between the original manuscripts and their surviving copies is much longer than in the case of the New Testament manuscripts.

The first list of the Old Testament manuscripts in Hebrew, made by Benjamin Kennicott (1776–1780) and published by Oxford, listed 615 manuscripts from libraries in England and on the Continent.[3] Giovanni de Rossi (1784–1788) published a list of 731 manuscripts.[4] The main manuscript discoveries in modern times are those of the Cairo Geniza (c. 1890) and the Dead Sea Scrolls (1947). In the old synagogue in Cairo were discovered 260,000 Hebrew manuscripts, 10,000 of which are biblical manuscripts.[5][6] There are more than 200 biblical manuscripts among the Dead Sea Scrolls, some of them were written in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet. They were written before the year 70 AD. 14 scroll manuscripts were discovered in Masada in 1963–1965.[7]

The largest organized collection of Hebrew Old Testament manuscripts in the world is housed in the Russian National Library ("Second Firkovitch Collection") in Saint Petersburg.[4]

Codex Leningradensis is the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible in Hebrew. Manuscripts earlier than the 13th century are very rare. The majority of the manuscripts have survived in a fragmentary condition.

Masorah manuscripts[edit]

  • Severus Scroll (named for the Roman Emperor who restored this scroll, reportedly seized from the Temple in Jerusalem, to the Jewish community in 220), a lost manuscript of early 1st century AD, only a few sentences are preserved by Rabbinic literature
  • Codex Hilleli, a lost manuscript of circa 600 AD, destroyed in 1197 in Spain, only a few sentences are preserved by Rabbinic literature[8]
  • Codex Muggeh (or Muga)(="corrected"), lost, cited as a source in Masoretic notations.
  • Codex Orientales 4445, also known as "London Codex",[9] dated 920-950 AD;[10] the manuscript contains Genesis-Deuteronomy 1:33 (less Numbers 7:47–73 and Numbers 9:12–10:18).[11]
  • Codex Cairensis, (Prophets) pointed by Moses Ben Asher, dated by a colophon 895 AD (the oldest manuscript bearing the date of its writing), (was in Cairo, now in Jerusalem)
  • Codex Babylonicus Petropolitanus, (Latter Prophets) dated 916 AD, Russian National Library
  • Aleppo Codex, 930 AD, Israel Museum, (was complete, supposedly pointed by Aaron Ben Asher, partly destroyed in 1947); this manuscript is the basis of the Jerusalem Crown bible.
  • Codex Leningradensis, (complete) copied from a Ben Asher manuscript, dated 1008 AD, Russian National Library; this manuscript is the basis of the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia and other editions.
  • Michigan Codex, (Torah) 10th century[12]
  • Damascus Keter (Damascus Pentateuch), 10th century[13]
  • Codex Reuchlinanus (Prophets), dated 1105 AD.
  • Codex Yerushalmi, lost, reportedly used in Spain (circa 1010) by Jonah ibn Janah.
  • Erfurt Codices (complete, Berlin), E1 circa 14th century, E2 possibly 13th century, E3 possibly 11th century
  • Scroll 2, dated AD 1155-1255, University of Bologna Library
  • Codex Jericho, (Pentateuch) lost, cited in the notes to a Massoretic manuscript written circa 1310.
  • Cloisters Hebrew Bible; AD 1300-1350, before 1366; earliest owner named David ha-Kohen Coutinh[o] on Rosh Hashanah in 1366; owned by Zaradel Synagogue in Egypt. Acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2018 under the The Cloisters Collection. [14]
  • Codex Ezra, lost, C.D. Ginsburg owned a manuscript written in 1474 which purported to have been copied from this.
  • Codex Sinai, mentioned in Massoretic notes and reportedly used by Elia Levita (circa 1540).
  • Codex Sanbuki (named for Zambuqi, on the Tigris River), lost, frequently quoted in Massoretic annotations and apparently seen (circa 1600) by Menahem Lonzano.
  • Codex Great Mahzor, lost, mentioned in Massoretic notes (the title suggests that this codex contained only the Pentateuch and those selections from the Prophets that were read during the liturgical year)
  • Ben Asher Manuscripts.

Modern discoveries[edit]

  • Nash Papyrus, dated to the 2nd BC – 1st AD
  • Cairo Geniza fragments contains portions of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Aramaic, discovered in Cairo synagogue, which date from about 4th century AD

Dead Sea Scrolls[edit]

Dated Between 250 BC and 70 AD.[15]

Qumran Cave 1[edit]

Fragment or Scroll Identifier Fragment or Scroll Name Alternative Identifier English Bible Association Language Date/Script Description Reference

Qumran Cave 1

1QIsaa Great Isaiah Scroll Isaiah 1:1–31; 2:1–22; 3:1-5:30; 6:1–13; 7:1–25; 8:1–23; 9:1–20; 10:1–34; 11:1-45:25; 46:1-66:24 Hebrew 356-103 BCE/150-100 BCE Contains all 66 chapters with occasional lacunae and some missing words at the bottom of some columns [16][17]
IQIsab Isaiah cf. 1Q8 The Book of Isaiah Hebrew Hasmonean/Herodian A second copy of portions of the Book of Isaiah [18][19]
1QS Serekh ha-Yahad or "Community Rule" Hebrew cf. 4QSa-j = 4Q255-64, 5Q11 [20]
1QpHab Pesher on Habakkuk Habakkuk 1-2 Hebrew Later half of the 1st century BC Commentary on Habakkuk 1:2-17; 2:1-20 [21][22]
1QM Milhamah or War Scroll Hebrew cf. 4Q491, 4Q493; 11Q14?
1QHa Hodayot or Thanksgiving Hymns Hebrew Some parts are also preserved in 1QHb and 4QHa-f [23]
1QapGen Genesis Apocryphon Genesis 12:18-15:4 Aramaic 25 BCE-50 CE [24]
CTLevi Cairo Geniza or Testament of Levi Aramaic
1QGen Genesis 1Q1 Genesis 1:18-21; 3:11-14; 22:13-15; 23:17-19; 24:22-24 Hebrew Herodian [25]
1QExod Exodus 1Q2 Exodus 16:12-16; 19:24-20:2, 20:5-6; 20:25-21:1; 21:4-5 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [26]
1QpaleoLev Leviticus - Numbers 1Q3 Leviticus 11:10-11; 19:30-34; 20:20-24; 21:24-22:6; 23:4-8 and Numbers 1:48-50 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman; Palaeo-Hebrew script [27]
1QDeuta Deuteronomy 1Q4 Deuteronomy 1:22–25; 4:47–49; 8:18–19; 9:27–28; 11:27–30; 13:1–6, 13–14; 14:21, 24–25; 16:4, 6–7 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [28][29]
1QDeutb 1Q5 Deuteronomy 1:9–13; 8:8–9; 9:10; 11:30–31; 15:14-15; 17:16; 21:8–9; 24:10–16; 25:13–18; 28:44–48; 29:9–20; 30:19–20; 31:1–10, 12–13; 32:17–29; 33:12–24 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [28][30]
1QJudg Judges 1Q6 Judges 6:20–22; 8:1(?); 9:2–6, 28–31, 40–43, 48–49 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [31]
1QSam Samuel 1Q7 2 Samuel 18:17–18; 2 Samuel 20:6–10; 21:16–18; 23:9–12 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [32]
IQIsab Isaiah Parts of 1QIsab as 1Q8 Isaiah 7:22–25; 8:1; 10:17–19; 12:3–6; 13:1–8, 16–19; 15:3–9; 16:1–2, 7–11; 19:7–17, 20–25; 20:1; 22:11–18, 24–25; 23:1–4; 24:18–23; 25:1–8; 26:1–5; 28:15–20; 29:1–8; 30:10–14, 21–26; 35:4–5; 37:8–12; 38:12–22; 39:1–8; 40:2–3; 41:3–23; 43:1–13, 23–27; 44:21–28; 45:1–13; 46:3–13; 47:1–14; 48:17–22; 49:1–15; 50:7–11; 51:1–10; 52:7–15; 53:1–12; 54:1–6; 55:2–13; 56:1–12; 57:1–4, 17–21; 58:1–14; 59:1–8, 20–21; 60:1–22; 61:1–2; 62:2–12; 63:1–19; 64:1, 6–8; 65:17–25; 66:1–24 Hebrew Herodian [18]
1QEzek Ezekiel Parts of 1QIsab as 1Q9 Ezekiel 4:16–17; 5:1 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [33]
1QPsa Psalms 1Q10 Psalm 86:5–8; 92:12–14; 94:16; 95:11–96:2; 119:31–34, 43–48, 77–79 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [34]
1QPsb 1Q11 Psalm 126:6; 127:1–5; 128:3 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [35]
1QPsc 1Q12 Psalm 44:3–5, 7, 9, 23–25 Hebrew Herodian [36]
1QPhyl Phylactery 1Q13 Deuteronomy 5:23-27; 11:8-11 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman 58 fragments from a Phylactery [28][37]
1QpMic Pesher on Micah 1Q14 Hebrew Herodian [38]
1QpZeph Pesher on Zephaniah 1Q15 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [39]
1QpPs Pesher on Psalms 1Q16 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [40]
1QJuba Jubilees 1Q17 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman Jubilees [41]
1QJubb 1Q18 Hebrew Hasmonean Jubilees [42]
1QNoah Book of Noah 1Q19 Hebrew Herodian Parts of the lost Book of Noah [43]
1QapGen Fragments of the "Genesis Apocryphon" 1Q20 Aramaic Herodian [44]
1QTLevi / 1QALD Testament of Levi 1Q21 Aramaic Hasmonean Aramaic Levi Document [45]
1QDM "Dibrê Moshe" or "Words of Moses" 1Q22 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [46]
1QEnGiantsa Book of Giants 1Q23 Aramaic Hasmonean Enoch [47]
1QEnGiantsb Book of Giants 1Q24 Aramaic Hellenistic-Roman Enoch [48]
1Q Apocr.Prophecy "Apocryphal Prophecy" 1Q25 Hebrew Herodian [49]
1Q Instruction "Instruction" 1Q26 Hebrew Hasmonean [50]
1QMyst "The Book of Mysteries" 1Q27 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [51]
1QS or 1QSa "Rule of the Congregation" 1Q28 (1Q28a) Hebrew Hasmonean Fragment from "Community Rule" [52]
1QSb "Rule of the Blessing" or "Rule of the Benedictions" 1Q28b Hebrew Hasmonean [53]
1QapocrMoses B Apocryphon of Moses 1Q29 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman "Liturgy of the Three Tongues of Fire" [54]
1Q Liturgical Text(?) A "Liturgical Text 1" 1Q30 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [55]
1Q Liturgical Text(?) B "Liturgical Text 2" 1Q31 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [56]
1QNJ(?) "New Jerusalem" 1Q32 Aramaic Herodian cf. 11Q18 [57]
1QM Fragment of the 1QM or "War Scroll" or "Milhamah" 1Q33 Deuteronomy 20:2-5; Numbers 10:9, 24:17-19; Isaiah 31:8 Hebrew 30-1 BCE

Early Herodian

[28]
1QPrFetes / 1QLitPr "Liturgical Prayers" or "Festival Prayers" 1Q34 Hebrew Herodian [58]
1QHb "Hodayot" or "Thanksgiving Hymns" 1Q35 Hebrew Herodian [59]
1Q Hymns "Hymns" 1Q36 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [60]
1Q Hymnic Composition(?) "Hymnic Composition" 1Q37 Hebrew Herodian [61]
1Q Hymnic Composition(?) "Hymnic Composition" 1Q38 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [62]
1Q Hymnic Composition(?) "Hymnic Composition" 1Q39 Hebrew Herodian [63]
1Q Hymnic Composition(?) "Hymnic Composition" 1Q40 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [64]
1Q41-70 1Q41-70 Hebrew Unclassified Fragments [65]
1QDana Daniel 1Q71 Daniel 1:10–17; 2:2–6 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [66]
1QDanb 1Q72 Daniel 3:22–30 Aramaic Hellenistic-Roman [67]

Qumran Cave 2[edit]

Fragment or Scroll Identifier Fragment or Scroll Name Alternative Identifier English Bible Association Language Date/Script Description Reference

Qumran Cave 2

2QGen Genesis 2Q1 Genesis 19:27–28; 36:6, 35–37 Hebrew Herodian [68][69]
2QExoda Exodus 2Q2 Exodus 1:11–14; 7:1–4; 9:27–29; 11:3–7; 12:32–41; 21:18–20(?); 26:11–13; 30:21(?), 23–25; 32:32–34 [68][70]
2QExodb 2Q3 Exodus 4:31; 12:26–27(?); 18:21–22; 21:37-22:2, 15–19; 27:17–19; 31:16–17; 19:9; 34:10 [68][71]
2QExodc 2Q4 Exodus 5:3–5 Hellenistic-Roman [68][72]
2QpaleoLev Leviticus 2Q5 Leviticus 11:22-29 Hasmonean; Palaeo-Hebrew script [68][73]
2QNuma Numbers 2Q6 Numbers 3:38–41, 51- 4:3 Hebrew Herodian [68][74]
2QNumb 2Q7 Numbers 33:47–53 [68][75]
2QNumc 2Q8 Numbers 7:88 [68][76]
2QNumd? 2Q9 Numbers 18:8–9 Hellenistic-Roman This fragment may belong to 2Q7; possibly = Leviticus 23:1-3 [68][77]
2QDeuta Deuteronomy 2Q10 Deuteronomy 1:7–9 Hebrew 50-25 BCE

Late Hasmonean or Early Herodian

[68][28]
2QDeutb 2Q11 Deuteronomy 17:12–15 Hebrew 30 BCE - 68 CE

Herodian

[68][28]
2QDeutc 2Q12 Deuteronomy 10:8-12 Hebrew 1-68 CE

Late Herodian

[68][28]
2QJer Jeremiah 2Q13 Jeremiah 42:7–11, 14; 43:8–11; 44:1–3, 12–14; 46:27–47:7; 48:7, 25–39, 43–45; 49:10 Hebrew Herodian Doubtfully identified fragments: 13:22; 32:24-25; 48:2-4, 41-42 [78][79]
2QPs Psalms 2Q14 Psalm 103:2–11; 104:6–11 [78][80]
2QJob Job 2Q15 Job 33:28-30 [78][81]
2QRutha Ruth 2Q16 Ruth 2:13–23; 3:1–8; 4:3–4 Hebrew Herodian [78][82]
2QRuthb 2Q17 Ruth 3:13–18 Hasmonean [78][83]
2QSir "Wisdom of Sirach" or "Ecclesiasticus" 2Q18 Sir 6:14-15 (or 1:19-20); 6:20-31 Hebrew Herodian Ben Sira [78][84]
2QJuba Book of Jubilees 2Q19 Genesis 25:7-9 Hebrew Herodian Jub 23:7-8 [78][85]
2QJubb Book of Jubilees 2Q20 Exodus 1:7; Genesis 50:26, 22 (different order) Jub 46:1-3 [86]
2QapMoses /2QapocrMoses(?) "Apocryphon of Moses" 2Q21 Hebrew Herodian Aprocryphal writing about Moses [78][87]
2QapDavid /2QapocrDavid "Apocryphon of David" 2Q22 Hebrew Herodian Apocryphal writing about David [88][89]
2QapProph /2Qapocr.Prophecy "Apocryphal Prophecy" 2Q23 Hebrew Herodian Apocryphal prophetic text in six tiny fragments. [90][91]
2QNJ "New Jerusalem" 2Q24 Aramaic Herodian Description of the New Jerusalem. cf. 1Q32 ar, 11Q18 ar [90][92]
2Q Juridical Text "Juridical Text" 2Q25 Hebrew Herodian A juridical text [90][93]
2QEnGiants "Book of Giants" from "Enoch" 2Q26 Aramaic Herodian Now known as part of the "Book of Giants". cf. 6Q8 [94]
2Q27

2Q28 2Q29

2Q30 2Q31

2Q32 2Q33

2Q27

2Q28 2Q29

2Q30 2Q31

2Q32 2Q33

Unidentified Texts [65][90]
2QX1 2QX1 Debris in a box [90]

Qumran Cave 3[edit]

Fragment or Scroll Identifier Fragment or Scroll Name Alternative Identifier English Bible Association Language Date/Script Description Reference

Qumran Cave 3

3QEzek Ezekiel 3Q1 Ezekiel 16:31-33 Hebrew Herodian [90][95]
3QPs Psalms 3Q2 Psalm 2:6-7 Hebrew [96][97]
3QLam Lamentations 3Q3 Lamentations 1:10–12; 3:53–62 Hebrew [96][98]
3QpIsa Pesher on Isaiah 3Q4 Isaiah 1:1 Hebrew Herodian [96][99]
3QJub Jubilees 3Q5 Hebrew Herodian Jubilees 23:6-7,12-13,23 [96][100]
3QHymn Unidentified Hymn 3Q6 Hebrew Herodian Hymn of Praise [96][101]
3QTJud(?) Testament of Judah(?) 3Q7 Hebrew Herodian cf. 4Q484, 4Q538 [96][102]
3Q Text Mentioning Angel of Peace 3Q8 Hebrew Herodian Text about an Angel of Peace [96][103]
3QSectarian text 3Q9 Hebrew Herodian Possible unidentified Sectarian text [96][104]
3QUnc Unidentified 3Q10

3Q11

Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman Unclassified fragments [96]
3QUncA-B Unclassified fragments 3Q12

3Q13

Aramaic Hellenistic-Roman Unclassified fragments [105]
3QUncC Unidentified 3Q14 Hebrew? Hellenistic-Roman 21 unclassified fragments [106][107]
3QCopScr The Copper Scroll 3Q15 Hebrew Roman Copper plaque mentioning buried treasures [106][108]

Qumran Cave 4[edit]

Qumran Cave 5[edit]

Fragment or Scroll Identifier Fragment or Scroll Name Alternative Identifier English Bible Association Language Date/Script Description Reference

Qumran Cave 5

5QDeut Deuteronomy 5Q1 Deuteronomy 7:15-24; 8:5-9:2 Hebrew Early Hellenistic [28][337][338]
5QKgs Kings 5Q2 1 Kings 1:1,16-17,27-37 Hebrew Hasmonean [339][340]
5QIsa Isaiah 5Q3 Isaiah 40:16,18-19 Hebrew Herodian [339][341]
5QAmos Amos 5Q4 Amos 1:2-5 Hebrew [339]
5QPs Psalms 5Q5 Psalm 119:99-101,104,113-20,138-42 Hebrew Herodian [339][342]
5QLama Lamentations 5Q6 Lamentations 4:5-8,11-16,19-22; 5:1-13,16-17 Hebrew Herodian [339][343]
5QLamb 5Q7 Lamentations 4:17-20 Hebrew Herodian [339][344]
5QPhyl Phylactery 5Q8 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman Phylactery in its unopened case [339][345]
5QapocrJosh or 5QToponyms Toponyms 5Q9 Hebrew Herodian Seven fragments with names of places [339][346]
5QapocrMal Apocryphon of Malachi 5Q10 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman Apocryphon of Malachi [339][347]
5QS Rule of Community (Serek ha-Yahad) 5Q11 Hebrew Herodian [339][348]
5QD Damascus Document 5Q12 Hebrew Herodian Damascus Document [339][349]
5QRule or 5QRégle Rule of Community 5Q13 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman Fragments related to 1QS [350][351]
5QCurses Curses 5Q14 Hebrew Herodian Liturgical compositions with curses [350][352]
5QNJ New Jerusalem Scroll 5Q15 Aramaic Hellenistic-Roman Description of the New Jerusalem [350][353]
5QUnid Unidentified 5Q16-5Q24 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman Unidentified fragments [350]
5QUnc Unclassified 5Q25 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman Unclassified fragments [350][354]

Qumran Cave 6[edit]

Fragment or Scroll Identifier Fragment or Scroll Name Alternative Identifier English Bible Association Language Date/Script Description Reference

Qumran Cave 6

6QpaleoGen Genesis 6Q1 Genesis 6:13-21 Hebrew Early Hellenistic; Palaeo-Hebrew script [355][356]
6QpaleoLev Leviticus 6Q2 Leviticus 8:12-13 Hebrew Early Hellenistic; Palaeo-Hebrew script [355][357]
pap6QDeut or 6QpapDeut(?) Deuteronomy 6Q3 Deuteronomy 26:19 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman A few letters of Deuteronomy 26:19 on papyrus [355][28][358]
6QpapKgs Kings 6Q4 1 Kings 3:12-14; 12:28-31; 22:28-31; 2 Kings 5:26; 6:32; 7:8-10,20; 8:1-5; 9:1-2; 10:19-21 Hebrew Hasmonean Made up of 94 Fragments. [355][359]
pap6QPs or 6QpapPs(?) Psalms 6Q5 Psalm 78:36-37 Hebrew Herodian [360][361]
6QCant Song of Songs 6Q6 Song of Songs 1:1-7 Hebrew Herodian [360][362]
6QpapDan Daniel 6Q7 Daniel 8:20-21; 10:8-16; 11:33-36,38; 8:16-17 Hebrew Herodian 13 papyrus fragments. [360][363]
6QpapGiants or pap6QEnGiants Book of Giants from Enoch 6Q8 Aramaic Herodian Part of the "Book of Giants" [360][364]
6Qpap apocrSam-Kgs or pap6QapocrSam/Kgs Apocryphon on Samuel-Kings 6Q9 Hebrew Hasmonean Samuel-Kings apocryphon. Written on papyrus. [360][365]
6QpapaProph or pap6QProph Unidentified prophetic fragment 6Q10 Hebrew Hasmonean Prophetic text. Written in papyrus [360][366]
6QAllegory Allegory of the Vine 6Q11 Hebrew Herodian Fragment containing an Allegory mentioning a vine [360][367]
6QapProph An apocryphal prophecy 6Q12 Herodian [360][368]
6QPriestProph Priestly Prophecy 6Q13 Herodian A priestly prophecy [360][369]
6Q Apocalypse Apocalyptic text 6Q14 Aramaic Herodian Two fragments with apocalyptic text [360][370]
6QD Damascus Document 6Q15 Hebrew Herodian Damascus Document 4:19-21; 5:13-14,18-21; 6:1-2,20-21; 7:1 [360][371]
6QpapBened or pap6QBen papBenediction 6Q16 Herodian Blessings related 1QSb. On papyrus [372][373]
6QCalDoc Calendrical Document 6Q17 Herodian Calendric fragment [372][374]
pap6QHymn Hymn 6Q18 Herodian Fragment of a hymn, related to 1QM [372][375]
6Q Text Related to Genesis Genesis 6Q19 Possibly from Genesis Aramaic Herodian Related to Genesis 10:6,20 [372][376]
6QDeut(?) Deuteronomy 6Q20 Possibly from Deuteronomy Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman Related to Deuteronomy 11:10 [372][377]
6QfrgProph or 6Q Prophetic Text Possibly prophetic text 6Q21 Hebrew Herodian Prophetic fragment containing 5 words. [372][378]
pap6QUnidA Unclassified fragments 6Q22 Hebrew Herodian [372][379]
pap6QUnidA ar Unclassified fragments 6Q23 Aramaic Herodian Related to "Words of the Book of Michael" [372][380]
6QUnidB Unclassified fragments 6Q24 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [372][381]
6QUnidB Unclassified fragments 6Q25 Aramaic Herodian [372][382]
6QUnidB or 6QpapAccount or Contract Accounts or contracts 6Q26 Aramaic Hellenistic-Roman [372][383]
6QUnidB Unclassified fragments 6Q27-6Q28 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [372]
6QpapProv Proverbs 6Q30 Proverbs 11:4b-7a,10b Hebrew Roman Single six-line fragment [372][384]
6QUnidB Unclassified fragments 6Q31 Aramaic Herodian [372][385]

Qumran Cave 7[edit]

Fragment or Scroll Identifier Fragment or Scroll Name Alternative Identifier English Bible Association Language Date/Script Description Reference

Qumran Cave 7

7QpapLXXExod Exodus 7Q1 Exodus 28:4-7 Greek Hasmonean Greek fragment of Exodus [386]
7QpapEpJer Letter of Jeremiah 7Q2 Letter of Jeremiah verses 43-44 Greek Hasmonean Epistle of Jeremiah. On papyrus. [387]
7Q3 Unidentified 7Q3 Greek Herodian Unknown biblical text [388]
7Q4 Unidentified 7Q4 Greek Hasmonean Unknown biblical text [389]
7Q5 Unidentified 7Q5 Greek Herodian Unknown biblical text. Believed by some to be Mark 6:52-53 [390]
7Q6-18 Unidentified 7Q6-18 Greek Hellenistic-Roman; Herodian Very tiny unidentified fragments written on papyrus [65]
7Q papImprint Unidentified 7Q19 Greek Herodian Unidentified papyrus imprint. Very tiny fragments written on papyrus [391]

Qumran Cave 8[edit]

Fragment or Scroll Identifier Fragment or Scroll Name Alternative Identifier English Bible Association Language Date/Script Description Reference

Qumran Cave 8

8QGen Genesis 8Q1 Genesis 17:12-13, 15, 18-19; 18:20-22, 24-25 Hebrew Herodian [65]
8QPs Psalms 8Q2 Psalm 17:5-9, 14; 18:5-12 Hebrew Herodian [65]
8QPhyl Phylacteries 8Q3 Exodus 13:1-16; 12:43-51; 20:11

Deuteronomy 6:4-5; 6:1-3; 10:20-22; 10:12-19; 5:1-14; 10:13; 11:2-3; 10:21-22; 11:1; 11:6-12

Hebrew 1-100 CE

Herodian

Fragments from a "Phylactery" [28]
8QMez Mezuzah 8Q4 Deuteronomy 10:1-11:21 Hebrew 30 BCE-68 CE

Herodian

[28]
8QHymn Unidentified hymn 8Q5 Hebrew Herodian Non-biblical composition. [65]

Qumran Cave 11[edit]

Fragment or Scroll Identifier Fragment or Scroll Name Alternative Identifier English Bible Association Language Date/Script Description Reference

Qumran Cave 11

11QpaleoLeva Paleo-Leviticusa 11Q1 Leviticus 4:24–26; 10:4–7; 11:27–32; 13:3–9; 13:39–43; 14:16–21; 14:52-15:5; 16:2–4; 16:34–17:5; 18:27–19:4; 20:1–6; 21:6–11; 22:21–27; 23:22–29; 24:9–14; 25:28–36; 26:17–26; 27:11–19 Hebrew Herodian/palaeo-Hebrew script [65]
11QLevb Leviticusb 11Q2 Leviticus Hebrew Herodian/palaeo-Hebrew script [65]
11QDeut Deuteronomy 11Q3 Deuteronomy 1:4-5; 2:28-30 Hebrew 50 CE

Late Herodian

[28]
11QEzek Ezekiel 11Q4 Ezekiel Hebrew Herodian [65]
11QPs The Great Psalms Scroll 11Q5 Psalms Hebrew Herodian A unique Psalms scroll with only about a quarter of the Masoretic psalms (in atypical order), three Syriac psalms, one from Ben Sira, and the only known copies of three more unique psalms—Plea for Deliverance, Apostrophe to Zion, and Hymn to the Creator—all of which are unattested by other sources, as well as the short text of David's Compositions. [65]
11QPsa Psalms 11Q5 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11QPsb 11Q6 Psalm 77:18–21; 78:1; 109:3–4; 118:1; 118:15–16; 119:163–165; 133:1–3; 141:10; 144:1–2 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11QPsc 11Q7 Psalm 2:1–8; 9:3–7; 12:5–9; 13:1–6; 14:1–6; 17:9–15; 18:1–12; 19:4–8; 25:2–7 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11QPsd 11Q8 Psalm 6:2–4; 9:3–6; 18:26–29; 18:39–42; 36:13; 37:1–4; 39:13–14; 40:1; 43:1–3; 45:6–8; 59:5–8; 68:1–5; 68:14–18; 78:5–12; 81:4–9; 86:11–14; 115:16–18; 116:1 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11QPse 11Q9 Psalm 50:3–7 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11QtgJob Targum Job 11Q10 Job Aramaic Herodian A unique Aramaic translation of the Book of Job; presents Job somewhat more favourably. [65]
11QapocrPs Apocryphal Psalms 11Q11 Psalm 91 Hebrew Herodian Apocryphal paraphrase of Psalms 91 [65]
11QJub Jubilees 11Q12 Hebrew Herodian Ethiopic text of Jubilees 4:6–11; 4:13–14; 4:16–17; 4:29–31; 5:1–2; 12:15–17; 12:28–29 [65]
11QMelch Melchizedek 11Q13 Contains Pesher/commentary on Leviticus 25:13; Deuteronomy 15:2; Psalm 7:8-9; 82:2; Isaiah 52:7; Daniel 9:25; Leviticus 25:9 Hebrew 50-25 BCE or 75-50 BCE

Late Hasmonean or Early Herodian

Describes a tenth jubilee and portrays Melchizedek as a messianic agent of salvation, using similar language to that used for Jesus in Hebrews, such as "Heavenly Prince Melchizedek" [65][28]
11Q Sefer ha-Milmah Sefer ha-Milmah ("The Book of War") 11Q14 Hebrew Herodian An account of the final eschatological battle of the Israelites and the Kittim (Romans), including a messianic figure named the "Prince of the Congregation." [65]
11QHymnsa Hymns 11Q15 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11QHymnsb 11Q16 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11QShirShabb Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice 11Q17 Hebrew Herodian Collection of 13 hymns describing a heavenly temple service. [65]
11QNJ New Jerusalem 11Q18 Aramaic Herodian Appears to be an apocalyptic vision, including some architectural details of a very large city (cf. Ezekiel and Revelation) [65]
11QTa Temple Scroll 11Q19 Hebrew Herodian Rephrases the Pentateuch laws in the spirit of Deuteronomy, seeks to resolve biblical legal conflicts and expand ritual laws. [65]
11QTb Temple Scroll 11Q20 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11QTc 11Q21 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11Q Unidentified Unidentified 11Q22 Hebrew Hasmonean Unidentified fragments. [65]
11Q23 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [65]
11Q24 Aramaic Hasmonean [65]
11Q25 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11Q26 Hebrew Herodian [65]
11Q27 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [65]
11Q28 Hebrew Hellenistic-Roman [65]
11Q29 Serekh ha-Yahad related
11Q Unidentified Unidentified 11Q30 Hebrew Herodian Unidentified fragments. [65]
11Q Unidentified Unidentified 11Q31 Unidentified wads [392]
11Q9999 Unidentified Hellenistic-Roman [65]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ H. Kelley, Daniel Stephen Mynatt, Timothy G. Crawford, The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: introduction and annotated glossary, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1998, p. 18
  2. ^ Randall Price, Searching for the Original Bible, Harvest House Publishers, 2007, p. 45-50
  3. ^ Thomas Hartwell Horne, An introduction to the critical study and knowledge of the Holy Scriptures (1836), vol. 2, p. 7
  4. ^ a b Old Testament manuscripts
  5. ^ Fragmentos do Gueniza do Cairo[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ David Sinclair, An Overview of the Bible (2006)
  7. ^ Würthwein Ernst (1988). Der Text des Alten Testaments, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, pp. 38–39; translated into English and published in 1995 as Wurthwein, The Text of the Old Testament (2nd rev. ed, 1995, Grand Rapids, Mich., Wm.B. Eerdmans Publg. Co.)(this is the source for most of the dates of the mss listed).
  8. ^ Würthwein, Ernst (1995). The text of the Old Testament: an introduction to the Biblia Hebraica. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-8028-0788-5.
  9. ^ British Library Asian and African studies blog 10 April 2014
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ Manuscript written by two different scribes, the older square script believed to be from the 10th century, whereas the newer Yemenite square script was written in the 16th century. See the British Library, Or. 4445.
  12. ^ Eleazar Birnbaum, The Michigan Codex: An important Hebrew Bible manuscript, Vetus Testamentum, vol. 17 pages 373-415 (Oct. 1967).
  13. ^ Damascus Pentateuch
  14. ^ "Hebrew Bible". www.metmuseum.org. MET. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  15. ^ Timothy Lim, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2005, Dating the Scrolls, [2]
  16. ^ The Great Isaiah Scroll at The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
  17. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 14-15.
  18. ^ a b 1Q8 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  19. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 15-16.
  20. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, p. 18.
  21. ^ Bruce, F.F.,"The Dead Sea Habakkuk Scroll," The Annual of Leeds University Oriental Society I (1958/59): 5-24.
  22. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, p. 16.
  23. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 16-18.
  24. ^ Schiffman, Lawrence H. (2000). Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.
  25. ^ 1Q1 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  26. ^ 1Q2 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  27. ^ 1Q3 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc OakTree Software, Inc. Accordance 10: Bible Software. 2008.
  29. ^ 1Q4 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  30. ^ 1Q5 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  31. ^ 1Q6 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  32. ^ 1Q7 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  33. ^ 1Q9 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  34. ^ 1Q10 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  35. ^ 1Q11 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  36. ^ 1Q12 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  37. ^ 1Q13 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  38. ^ 1Q14 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  39. ^ 1Q15 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  40. ^ 1Q16 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  41. ^ 1Q17 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  42. ^ 1Q18 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  43. ^ 1Q19 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  44. ^ 1Q20 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  45. ^ 1Q21 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  46. ^ 1Q22 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  47. ^ 1Q23 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  48. ^ 1Q24 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  49. ^ 1Q25 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  50. ^ 1Q26 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  51. ^ 1Q27 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  52. ^ 1Q28 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  53. ^ 1Q28 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  54. ^ 1Q29 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  55. ^ 1Q30 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  56. ^ 1Q31 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  57. ^ 1Q32 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  58. ^ 1Q34 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  59. ^ 1Q35 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  60. ^ 1Q36 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  61. ^ 1Q37 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  62. ^ 1Q38 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  63. ^ 1Q39 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  64. ^ 1Q40 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as "Leon Levy Collection". Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library. Israel Antiquities Authority. Retrieved 2015-01-22.
  66. ^ 1Q71 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  67. ^ 1Q72 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Fitzmyer 2008, p. 25.
  69. ^ 2Q1 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  70. ^ 2Q2 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  71. ^ 2Q3 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  72. ^ 2Q4 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  73. ^ 2Q5 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  74. ^ 2Q6 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  75. ^ 2Q7 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  76. ^ 2Q8 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  77. ^ 2Q9 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h Fitzmyer 2008, p. 26.
  79. ^ 2Q13 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  80. ^ 2Q14 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  81. ^ 2Q15 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  82. ^ 2Q16 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  83. ^ 2Q17 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  84. ^ 2Q18 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  85. ^ 2Q19 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  86. ^ 2Q20 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  87. ^ 2Q21 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  88. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 26-27.
  89. ^ 2Q22 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  90. ^ a b c d e f Fitzmyer 2008, p. 27.
  91. ^ 2Q23 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  92. ^ 2Q24 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  93. ^ 2Q25 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  94. ^ 2Q26 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  95. ^ 3Q1 at Leon Levy Collection
  96. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fitzmyer 2008, p. 28.
  97. ^ 3Q2 at Leon Levy Collection
  98. ^ 3Q3 at Leon Levy Collection
  99. ^ 3Q4 at Leon Levy Collection
  100. ^ 3Q5 at Leon Levy Collection
  101. ^ 3Q6 at Leon Levy Collection
  102. ^ 3Q7 at Leon Levy Collection
  103. ^ 3Q8 at Leon Levy Collection
  104. ^ 3Q9 at Leon Levy Collection
  105. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 28-29.
  106. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fitzmyer 2008, p. 29.
  107. ^ 3Q14 at Leon Levy Collection
  108. ^ 3Q15 at Leon Levy Collection
  109. ^ 4Q1 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  110. ^ 4Q2 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  111. ^ 4Q3 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  112. ^ 4Q4 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  113. ^ 4Q5 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  114. ^ 4Q6 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  115. ^ 4Q7 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  116. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Fitzmyer 2008, p. 30.
  117. ^ 4Q8 4QGen h1 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  118. ^ 4Q8 4QGen h2 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  119. ^ 4Q8 4QGen h-para at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  120. ^ 4Q8 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  121. ^ 4Q9 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  122. ^ 4Q10 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  123. ^ 4Q11 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  124. ^ 4Q12 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  125. ^ 4Q13 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  126. ^ 4Q14 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  127. ^ 4Q15 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  128. ^ Martinez and Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Brill 1997): page 246
  129. ^ 4Q14 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  130. ^ a b c d e f g Fitzmyer 2008, p. 31.
  131. ^ 4Q17 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  132. ^ 4Q18 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  133. ^ 4Q19 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  134. ^ 4Q20 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  135. ^ 4Q21 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  136. ^ 4Q22 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  137. ^ 4Q23 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  138. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 31-32.
  139. ^ 4Q24 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  140. ^ a b c d e f g Fitzmyer 2008, p. 32.
  141. ^ 4Q25 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  142. ^ 4Q26 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  143. ^ 4Q27 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  144. ^ 4Q28 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  145. ^ 4Q29 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  146. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 32-33.
  147. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fitzmyer 2008, p. 33.
  148. ^ a b c 4Q38 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library. Accessed 20 May 2013
  149. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fitzmyer 2008, p. 34.
  150. ^ 4Q47 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  151. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 34-35.
  152. ^ 4Q48 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  153. ^ a b c d e f Fitzmyer 2008, p. 35.
  154. ^ 4Q49 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  155. ^ 4Q50 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  156. ^ 4Q51 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  157. ^ 4Q52 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  158. ^ 4Q53 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  159. ^ 4Q54 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  160. ^ a b c d e f g h Fitzmyer 2008, p. 36.
  161. ^ 4Q55 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  162. ^ 4Q56 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  163. ^ 4Q57 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  164. ^ 4Q58 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  165. ^ 4Q59 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  166. ^ 4Q60 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  167. ^ 4Q61 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  168. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fitzmyer 2008, p. 37.
  169. ^ 4Q62 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  170. ^ 4Q63 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  171. ^ 4Q64 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  172. ^ 4Q65 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  173. ^ 4Q66 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  174. ^ 4Q67 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  175. ^ 4Q68 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  176. ^ 4Q69 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  177. ^ a b c Martinez and Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Brill 1997): page 270
  178. ^ a b c d e Schiffman, Lawrence; VanderKam, James (2008). Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195084504.
  179. ^ a b c d e Flint, Peter (2013). The Dead Sea Scrolls. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780687494491.
  180. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fitzmyer 2008, p. 38.
  181. ^ 4Q73 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  182. ^ 4Q74 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  183. ^ Sanderson 1997. DJD 15: 215-218.
  184. ^ 4Q75 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  185. ^ 4Q76 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  186. ^ 4Q77 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  187. ^ 4Q78 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  188. ^ a b c d e f g Fitzmyer 2008, p. 39.
  189. ^ 4Q79 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  190. ^ 4Q80 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  191. ^ 4Q81 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  192. ^ 4Q82 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  193. ^ 4Q83 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  194. ^ 4Q84 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  195. ^ 4Q85 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  196. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fitzmyer 2008, p. 40.
  197. ^ 4Q86 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  198. ^ 4Q87 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  199. ^ 4Q88 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  200. ^ 4Q89 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  201. ^ 4Q90 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  202. ^ 4Q91 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  203. ^ 4Q92 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  204. ^ 4Q93 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  205. ^ 4Q94 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  206. ^ 4Q95 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  207. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fitzmyer 2008, p. 41.
  208. ^ 4Q96 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  209. ^ 4Q97 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  210. ^ 4Q98 4QPsr at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  211. ^ 4Q99 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  212. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fitzmyer 2008, p. 42.
  213. ^ 4Q100 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  214. ^ 4Q101 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  215. ^ 4Q102 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  216. ^ 4Q103 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  217. ^ 4Q104 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  218. ^ 4Q105 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  219. ^ 4Q106 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  220. ^ 4Q107 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  221. ^ 4Q108 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  222. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fitzmyer 2008, p. 43.
  223. ^ 4Q109 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  224. ^ 4Q110 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  225. ^ 4Q111 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  226. ^ 4Q112 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  227. ^ 4Q113 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  228. ^ 4Q114 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  229. ^ 4Q115 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  230. ^ 4Q116 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  231. ^ 4Q117 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  232. ^ 4Q118 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  233. ^ a b c d e f Fitzmyer 2008, p. 44.
  234. ^ 4Q119 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  235. ^ 4Q120 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  236. ^ 4Q121 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  237. ^ 4Q122 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  238. ^ 4Q123 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  239. ^ 4Q127 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  240. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 44-45.
  241. ^ 4Q128 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  242. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fitzmyer 2008, p. 45.
  243. ^ 4Q129 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  244. ^ 4Q130 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  245. ^ 4Q131 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  246. ^ 4Q132 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  247. ^ 4Q133 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  248. ^ 4Q134 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  249. ^ 4Q135 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  250. ^ 4Q136 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  251. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fitzmyer 2008, p. 46.
  252. ^ 4Q138 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  253. ^ 4Q139 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  254. ^ 4Q140 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  255. ^ 4Q141 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  256. ^ 4Q142 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  257. ^ 4Q143 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  258. ^ 4Q144 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  259. ^ 4Q145 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  260. ^ 4Q146 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  261. ^ 4Q147 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  262. ^ 4Q148 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  263. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 46-47.
  264. ^ 4Q149 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  265. ^ a b c d e f Fitzmyer 2008, p. 47.
  266. ^ 4Q150 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  267. ^ 4Q151 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  268. ^ 4Q152 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  269. ^ 4Q153 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  270. ^ 4Q154 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  271. ^ 4Q155 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  272. ^ a b Wise, Michael O.; Abegg, Martin G.; Cook, Edward M. (2005). The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 577. ISBN 9780060766627.
  273. ^ 4Q156 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  274. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 47-48.
  275. ^ 4Q157 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  276. ^ a b c d e Martinez and Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Brill 1997): page 305ff
  277. ^ 4Q158 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  278. ^ a b c Fitzmyer 2008, p. 48.
  279. ^ 4Q159 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  280. ^ 4Q160 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  281. ^ 4Q161 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  282. ^ 4Q162 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  283. ^ a b "THE QUMRAN LIBRARY: SCROLLS".
  284. ^ a b c d Fitzmyer 2008, p. 49.
  285. ^ 4Q166 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  286. ^ 4Q167 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  287. ^ 4Q168 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  288. ^ 4Q169 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  289. ^ a b Fitzmyer 2008, p. 50.
  290. ^ 4Q174 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  291. ^ 4Q175 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  292. ^ 4Q179 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  293. ^ 4Q186 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  294. ^ 4Q196 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  295. ^ 4Q197 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  296. ^ 4Q198 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  297. ^ 4Q199 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  298. ^ 4Q200 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  299. ^ 4Q201 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  300. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 54-55.
  301. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, p. 55.
  302. ^ 4Q215 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  303. ^ Gault, Brian P. (2010) "Fragments of Canticles at Qumran". Revue de Qumran. p.352
  304. ^ 4Q246 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  305. ^ a b c d Fitzmyer 2008, p. 62.
  306. ^ 4Q252 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  307. ^ 4Q253 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  308. ^ 4Q254 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  309. ^ 4Q254a-820 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  310. ^ 4Q258 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  311. ^ 4Q285 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  312. ^ 4Q299 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  313. ^ 4Q300 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  314. ^ 4Q301 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  315. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, p. 74.
  316. ^ 4Q364 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  317. ^ a b c Fitzmyer 2008, p. 75.
  318. ^ 4Q365 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  319. ^ 4Q366 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  320. ^ 4Q367 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  321. ^ 4Q378 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  322. ^ 4Q379 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  323. ^ 4Q385 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  324. ^ 4Q394 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  325. ^ 4Q400 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  326. ^ 4Q434 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  327. ^ 4Q483 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  328. ^ 4Q521 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  329. ^ Buitenwerf, Rieuwerd, The Gog and Magog Tradition in Revelation 20:8, in, H. J. de Jonge, Johannes Tromp, eds., The book of Ezekiel and its influence, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007, p.172; scheduled to be published in Charlesworth's edition, volume 9
  330. ^ 4Q523 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  331. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, p. 98.
  332. ^ 4Q539 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  333. ^ 4Q541 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  334. ^ 4Q542 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  335. ^ 4Q555 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  336. ^ "Uncovered in Jerusalem, 9 tiny unopened Dead Sea Scrolls". The Times of Israel.
  337. ^ Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 104-105.
  338. ^ 5Q1 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  339. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fitzmyer 2008, p. 105.
  340. ^ 5Q2 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  341. ^ 5Q3 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  342. ^ 5Q5 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  343. ^ 5Q6 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  344. ^ 5Q7 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  345. ^ 5Q8 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  346. ^ 5Q9 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  347. ^ 5Q10 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  348. ^ 5Q11 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  349. ^ 5Q12 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  350. ^ a b c d e Fitzmyer 2008, p. 106.
  351. ^ 5Q13 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  352. ^ 5Q14 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  353. ^ 5Q15 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  354. ^ 5Q25 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  355. ^ a b c d Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 104,106.
  356. ^ 6Q1 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  357. ^ 6Q2 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  358. ^ 6Q3 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  359. ^ 6Q4 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  360. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fitzmyer 2008, p. 107.
  361. ^ 6Q5 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  362. ^ 6Q6 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  363. ^ 6Q7 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  364. ^ 6Q8 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  365. ^ 6Q9 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  366. ^ 6Q10 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  367. ^ 6Q11 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  368. ^ 6Q12 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  369. ^ 6Q13 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  370. ^ 6Q14 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  371. ^ 6Q15 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  372. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Fitzmyer 2008, p. 108.
  373. ^ 6Q16 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  374. ^ 6Q17 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  375. ^ 6Q18 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  376. ^ 6Q19 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  377. ^ 6Q20 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  378. ^ 6Q21 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  379. ^ 6Q22 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  380. ^ 6Q23 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  381. ^ 6Q24 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  382. ^ 6Q25 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  383. ^ 6Q26 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  384. ^ 6Q30 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  385. ^ 6Q31 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  386. ^ 7Q1 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  387. ^ 7Q2 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  388. ^ 7Q3 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  389. ^ 7Q4 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  390. ^ 7Q5 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  391. ^ 7Q19 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
  392. ^ 11Q31 at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]