List of human-powered aircraft
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|Lists of aircraft|
This is a list of human-powered aircraft.
|Type||Country||Date||Class||Designer / builder||Notes|
|Abhilasha HPA||Netherlands||2009||Jesse van Kuijk|
|AeroVelo Atlas||Canada||2013||Helicopter||Todd Reichert; Cameron Robertson||13 June 2013 winner of American Helicopter Society Igor I. Sikorsky Human-Powered Helicopter Challenge $250,000 prize with 64-second controlled flight from rest reaching 3.3 m above ground.|
|Airglow HPA||UK||1990||John and Mark McIntyre|
|Bauer Bird||USA||1973||Ted Bauer|
|Betterfly||UK||2009||David Barford||950m max distance. Capable of 120deg turn. Very stable and easy to fly|
|Bionic Bat||USA||1983||Paul MacCready Jr.||Two Kremer speed challenges won, doing 1500 M in 163.28 seconds 18 July 1984 and 143.08 seconds, 2 December 1984.|
|Bird Ornithopter||UK||Ornithopter||Bryn Bird||Two prototypes built, but no record of any flights.|
|Bliesner 1 to 3||USA||1978||Wayne T. Bliesner||unsuccessful precursors to Bliesners more successful efforts. No.3 crashed during towed flight attempts.|
|Bliesner 4||USA||1979||Wayne T. Bliesner||100 yards.|
|Bliesner 5||USA||1980||Wayne T. Bliesner||1 mile, crashed during testing.|
|Bliesner 6||USA||1980||Wayne T. Bliesner||a few hops, crashed during testing.|
|Bliesner 7||USA||1981||Wayne T. Bliesner||300 yards.|
|Boffin-Coffin||New Zealand||1988||Walther||Flight trials were unsuccessful, eventually abandoned after persistent ground-handling damage and a violent gust of wind entering the hangar where the aircraft was stored.|
|BURD||USA||1972||Biplane||Massachusetts Institute of Technology||'Biplane Ultralight Research Device'|
|BURD II||USA||1974||Biplane||Massachusetts Institute of Technology||'Biplane Ultralight Research Device II'|
|Chrysalis HPA||USA||1979||Parks, Youngren & Massachusetts Institute of Technology||40 pilots, some inexperienced.|
|Chyeranovskii BICh-18||USSR||1937||Only known to have been launched as a glider with the wing mechanism locked, but flown at least once with the wings operated by the pilot after a launch as a glider.|
|CT-2.2 RockHopper2||Japan||2005||Yoshiyasu Hirano / Coolthrust||Flew over 18 km at the 29th Japan international Birdman Rally in 2005 piloted by Sosuke Tanaka.|
|Czerwinski HPA||Canada||1967||Czerwinski||A two-seater with twin propellers built in Ottawa, but no record of any flights.|
|Daedalus 87||USA||1987||Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology||MIT Daedalus Project.|
|Daedalus 88||USA||1988||Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology||MIT Daedalus Project.|
|DaSH PA||USA||2015||Alec Proudfoot|||
|Da Vinci II||USA||California Polytechnic State University|
|Da Vinci III||USA||1989||California Polytechnic State University||8-second flight not controlled by pilot.|
|Dragonfly HPA||Scotland||1975||Roger Hardy||short flights|
|Druiff-Neate Cycloplane||UK||1909||built by Messrs. C.G. Spencer & Co.|
|Dumbo-Mercury||UK||1971||P.K. Green, W.F.Ball and M.J. Rudd / Weybridge MPAG||Originally nickname 'Dumbo' at Weybridge. When taken over by John Potter at RAF Cranwell, it was renamed Mercury.|
|Dumoulin tracteur pour la navigation aérienne||France||1904||Biplane||Dumoulin||A human powered circular winged biplane with Archimedean screw propellers turned by hand.|
|DUT Icarus 001||Netherlands||Delft University of Technology||with the Movement Science Faculty of the University of Maastricht.|
|Egret I||Japan||1973||Kimura / Nihon University||37 yards.|
|Egret 2||Japan||1974||Kimura / Nihon University||222 yards.|
|Egret 3||Japan||1974||Kimura / Nihon University|
|Farman Aviette HPA||France||1912|
|Frost Emmett HPA||New Zealand||1970s||John Frost / University of Auckland||Revisited 1984|
|Gamera HPH||USA||1972||Helicopter||University of Maryland|
|Gamera II HPH||USA||2012?||Helicopter||University of Maryland|
|Gerhardt Cycleplane||USA||1923||Multiplane||Flight Test Section at McCook Field||20-foot (6.1 m) hop.|
|Gokuraku Tombo||Japan||1986||Team Aeroscepsy||Several HPAs built by the team are called the same name.
Two Japanese records set under the FAI rules, 4437m (May 1992) and 10881m (Aug. 2003)
the 22nd Japan International Birdman Rally (JIBR) HPA section won, 23688.24m *the first HPA reached at opposite shore (northwest shore) of Lake Biwa from start point at east shore.
the 30th JIBR HPA-Time trial section won.
Piloted by Hironori Nakayama.
|Gossamer Albatross||USA||1978||Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissaman||Kremer Prize for first cross-channel flight, 12 June 1979. Two records set, both superseded: 35.82 km straight distance  and 2h 49mn Duration. |
|Gossamer Condor (Pasadena version)||USA||1976||Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissaman||One short hop only, in the car park of the Pasadena Rose Bowl.|
|Gossamer Condor (Mojave version)||USA||1976||Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissaman||(Mojave version)|
|Gossamer Condor (Shafter airport version)||USA||1977||Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissaman||Kremer Figure-Eight Prize 23 August 1977.|
|HV-1 Mufli||Germany||1935||Helmut Haessler & Villinger||MUSKELFLUG INSTITUT (Institute of Muscle-Powered-Flight)
At the Gesellschaft Polytechnic, Frankfurt, director - Oskar Ursinus - 779 yards from bungee launch.
|HVS HPA||Germany||1982||Hutter/Villinger/Schule||operated in 20 mph winds.|
|Hardy HPA||Roger Hardy|
|Hartman HPO||UK||1958||Emiel Hartman|
|Hill Flying Wing||Hill|
|Hurel Aviette HPA||France||1974||Maurice Hurel|
|HYPER-CHick "KoToNo Limited"||Japan||1992||Toshiaki Yoshikawa / Team Active Gals||First female flight in Japan on 5 July 1992, with Kotono Hori as pilot.
119.45 m (130.190 yards) / 22.98 seconds
|Ibis HPA||Japan||1978||Nihon University||further development of the Jupiter - Stork line.|
|Icarus HPA-1||USA||1977||Taras Kiceniuk Jr.||Longest flight of 30 seconds at Shafter Airport.|
|Jupiter HPA||UK||1972||Christopher Roper||1171 yards, 30 lb payload|
|Kiceniuk Icarus||Taras Kiceniuk|
|Linnet I||Japan||1966||Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University||47 yards, height 9 feet.|
|Linnet II||Japan||1967||Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University||100 yards, height 5 feet.|
|Linnet III||Japan||1970||Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University||34 yards.|
|Linnet IV||Japan||1971||Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University||66 yards.|
|Lippisch 1929 Man-Powered Ornithopter||Germany||1929||Ornithopter||Alexander Lippisch||Flown by Hans Werner Krause.|
|Liverpuffin||UK||1972||Dr Keith Sherwin||Built from the remains of the Puffin II by students from Liverpool University led by Dr Keith Sherwin.|
|Malliga I HPA||Austria||1967||Josef Malliga|||
|Malliga II HPA||Austria||1972||Josef Malliga|||
|Man-Eagle 1||USA||1982||Wayne T. Bliesner||short flights a.k.a. 'Bliesner 8'.|
|Man-Eagle 3||USA||1983||Wayne T. Bliesner||Kremer Speed Course.|
|Man-Eagle 4||USA||1985||Wayne T. Bliesner|
|Maruoka Man-Powered Screw-Wing Machine||Japan||1902||Katsura Maruoka|||
|McAvoy MPA-1||USA||1962||James M. McAvoy||Georgia Tech.|
|Michelob Light Eagle||USA||1986||Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology||37 miles. Onboard test equipment.|
|Micron HPA||UK||1976||Peter Wright|
|MiLan'81||Japan||1981||Naito / Nihon University||645 yards.|
|MiLan'82||Japan||1982||Naito / Nihon University||1800 yards.|
|Monarch A||USA||1983||Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology||29 flights.|
|Monarch B||USA||1983||Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology||First Kremer Speed Prize.|
|Möwe6-B||Japan||1989||Nihon University Aero Student Group (NASG)||First Japanese record set under the FAI rules.
Distance: 3708.23m (Mar. 1990)
|Möwe20||Japan||2002||Nihon University Aero Student Group (NASG)||the 27th Japan International Birdman Rally(JIBR) HPA section won, 34654.10m *pilot was not exhausted but took water by organizer direction because the HPA reached end of flyable area (southwest side of Lake Biwa) (Jul. 2003) - straight distance record in JIBR.
Japanese record set under the FAI rules. 11874m / 46min 40s (Aug. 2004). Piloted by Kai Hirawata.
|Möwe21||Japan||2003||Nihon University Aero Student Group (NASG)||Japanese records set under the FAI rules. 49172m/ 1h 48m 12s (6 Aug. 2005). Current Japanese records. Piloted by Nariyuki Masuda.|
|Mozi HPA||China||2009||OXAI Aircraft Company / Mao Yiqing|
|Musculair I||Germany||1984||Günther Rochelt & Schoberl||Two different prizes; first passenger.|
|Musculair II||Germany||1985||Günther Rochelt & Schoberl||Kremer Speed Prize.|
|Newbury Manflier||UK||1979||Nick Goodhart||Two-seater with separate pods; pilot control tasks shared.|
|Nextz||Japan||2009||Team 'F'||Winner of 33rd Japan International Birdman Rally HPA-Time trial section.
First Japanese record of speed under the FAI rules: 1500m in 3min 15sconds = 27.69 km/h (22 Oct. 2012). As of 2012[update] current Japanese record.
|Nieuport Aviette 1921||France||1921|
|Northrop Institute of Technology HPA||USA||1972||Malcolm Smith / NIT||two-seater; not completed.|
|Pedaliante||Italy||1937||Enea Bossi & Vittorio Bonomi||? 40 unaided flights?|
|Pelargos 2||Switzerland||1983||Horlacher/Mohlin/Dubs||1100 yards.|
|Pelargos 3||Switzerland||1985||Horlacher/Mohlin/Frank||875 yards.|
|Perkins Inflatable HPA||USA||1959||Inflatable||Daniel Perkins||Precursor to the Reluctant Phoenix.|
|Phillips Mk.1 HPA||UK||1976 ?||Ron Phillips||First female pilot.|
|Phillips Mk.2 HPA||UK||1976 ?||Ron Phillips||Two-seater.|
|Posniak HPA||Italy||1936||B. Posniak|
|Poulain/Farman Aviette||France||1921||Gabriel Poulain / Farman|
|PSU Zephyrus||USA||Pennsylvania State University|
|Puffin 1||UK||1961||Wimpenny, Vann & Hatfield Man Powered Aircraft Club||993 yards.|
|Puffin 2||UK||1965||Wimpenny, Vann & Hatfield Man Powered Aircraft Club||875 yards, height 17 feet, turns.|
|Raven Project||USA||2001||Paul Illian|
|Ray||Japan||2008||Tohoku University Windnauts (HPA club at Tohoku University)||Winner of 32nd Japan International Birdman Rally (JIBR) HPA-Distance section. 36 km round-trip; 18 km one-way (longest distance under the rules at the time). Piloted by Wataru Nishiwaki; round trip distance record in JIBR.|
|Reluctant Phoenix||UK||1950's||Inflatable||Daniel Perkins||The culmination of Daniel Perkins' attempts to build a viable inflatable human-powered aircraft; flown inside the R100 airship hangars.|
|Rickman umbrella wing||UK||1909||Rickman|
|Royal Spoonbill||UK||1983||Robert Le Johnno-Johnson / NZHPFG||Never completed due to a redesign after being vandalised.|
|Sato Maeda SM-OX|
|Seehase MD-2||Germany||1937||Hans Seehase|
|Singapore University Man powered Aircraft 1
Singapore University Man powered Aircraft 2
|Singapore||Singapore University students / Dr Keith Sherwin||Of the two projects only one flew.|
|SM-OX||Japan||1969||Hiroshi Sato, Kenichi Maeda / Fukuoka Daiichi Highschool Department of Aeroengine||31 yards, height 6 feet.|
|Snowbird HPO||Canada||2010||University of Toronto|
|Stewart HPOs||UK||1959||Ornithopter||Alan Stewart||several unsuccessful human-powered ornithopters built between 1959 and 1979.|
|Stork A||Japan||1976||J. Ishii / Nihon University||651 yards - Re-designed Jupiter from the UK.|
|Stork B||Japan||1976||J. Ishii / Nihon University||2290 yards.|
|SUMPAC||UK||1961||Ann Marsden, Alan Lassiere & David Williams / Southampton University Man-powered Aircraft Committee||First independently observed unaided flight. Flown by Derek Piggott.|
|Swift A||Japan||Naito / Nihon University|
|Swift B||Japan||Naito / Nihon University|
|To Phoenix Inflatable HPA||UK||1982||Inflatable||Frederick E. To / Air-Plane Co. Ltd.|
|Toucan 1||UK||1972||Pressnell / Hertfordshire Pedal Aeronauts||Two-seater; Bryan Bowen & Derek May.|
|Toucan II||UK||1974||Pressnell / Hertfordshire Pedal Aeronauts|
|Ursinus 1925 HPA||Germany||1925||Oskar Ursinus|
|Vélair 89||Germany||1989||Peer Frank||3390 yards|
|Vertigo HPH||UK||1987||Andrew Cranfield||Human-powered helicopter; achieved short hops, but transmission problems slowed development.|
|Vine HPA||South Africa||1962||S.W. Vine||200 yards - One flight only at Krugersdorp, Transvaal, South Africa.|
|VMM HPA||Belgium||1974||Verstralte/Masschelin/Masschelin||Heights of 15 ft at Calais-Marck airport due to Belgian authorities refusing permission to fly.|
|White Dwarf blimp||USA||1984||Airship||Bill Watson||Built for the comedian Gallagher, and seen in Showtime special Over Your Head. Set records in airship categories BA-1 through BA-10 for Distance (93.36 km) and Duration (8h 50mn 12s.)|
|Wright HPA||UK||1972||Peter Wright||300 yards at 4 feet - elevator not used.|
|Yuri I HPH||Japan||1994||Helicopter||Akira Naito, Nihon Aero Student Group (NASG)|
|Zaschka Human-Power Aircraft||Germany||1934||Engelbert Zaschka|
|Zephyrus β||Japan||1997||Ochanomizu Human-powered aircraft study group||Japanese female record set under the FAI rules, 1004.25m / 3min. 3sec. (16 Nov. 1997). Piloted by Chihiro Muraoka - current Japanese female records.|
|Zinno Olympian ZB-1||USA||1976||Lt.Col. Joe Zinno, USAF (Ret.)||First controlled flight in Americas [Bernhard C. F. Klein, USA, millpab=aol.com, 05.07.2008
This pedal-powered "aircraft" was designed and built by Lt.Col. Zinno, USAF (Ret.) On his fourth try on April 21, 1976, at Quonset Point, Rhode Island, Joe Zinno barely got off the ground for a few seconds. The machine was damaged in a hangar by a gust of wind coming in the open door.
- Clay Lambert (2015-12-07). "Aviation enthusiasts pedal human power". Half Moon Bay Review.
- Opdycke, Leonard E. (1999). French Aeroplanes before the Great War. Atglen: SchifferPublishing Limited. ISBN 0 7643 0752 5.
- Keimel, Reinhard (1980). Propeller-Luftfahrzeugkonstruktionen seit 1945 (1. Aufl. ed.). Graz: H. Weishaupt Verlag. ISBN 3-900310-02-5.
- Mikesh, Robert and Shorzoe Abe. Japanese Aircraft 1910–1941. London: Putnam, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-840-2
- Taylor, John W. R.. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83. Jane's Publishing Company. London. 1983. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2
- Mikesh, Robert and Shorzoe Abe. Japanese Aircraft 1910–1941. London: Putnam, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-840-2.
- Taylor, John W. R.. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83. Jane's Publishing Company. London. 1983. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2.
- Reay, David Anthony. The History of Man-Powered Flight. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1977. ISBN 0-08-021738-9.
-  Chris Roper's online book Human Powered Flying
-  Vélair
-  - Snowbird
-  - Yuri human-powered helicopter - YouTube video
-  - human-powered ornithopter
-  - Snowbird
-  - video of first flight for the Snowbird
-  - Gamera human-powered helicopter
- de:HV-1 Mufli
-  - Snowbird
-  - Coolthrust Japan
-  - Snowbird
-  - Gossamer Condor
-  - Mozi video
-  - Mozi drawings, photos etc.
-  - Mozi article