List of IOC country codes

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The flag of the international Olympic movement
The flag of the international Paralympic movement

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) uses three-letter abbreviation country codes[1] to refer to each group of athletes that participate in the Olympic Games. Each geocode usually identifies a National Olympic Committee (NOC), but there are several codes that have been used for other instances in past Games, such as teams composed of athletes from multiple nations, or groups of athletes not formally representing any nation.

Several of the IOC codes are different from the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes. Other sporting organisations like FIFA use similar country codes to refer to their respective teams, but with some differences. Still others, such as the Commonwealth Games Federation or the Association of Tennis Professionals, use the IOC list verbatim.

Because French is the first reference language of the IOC, followed by English, followed by the host country's language when necessary, most IOC codes have their origins in either French or English.[2][3]


The 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics were the first Games to feature Initials of Nations to refer to each NOC in the published official reports.[4] However, the codes used at the next few Games were often based on the host nation's language (e.g., GIA for Japan at the 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics, both held in Italy, from Italian Giappone) or based on the French name for the nation (e.g., AUT for Austria, from Autriche). By the 1972 Winter Olympics, most codes were standardized on the current usage, but several have changed in recent years. Additionally, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, division and unification of Germany, breakup of Yugoslavia, dissolution of Czechoslovakia, and several other instances of geographical renaming have all resulted in code changes.

In addition to this list of over 200 NOCs, the participation of National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) at the Paralympic Games requires standardised IOC codes, such as Macau (or as "Macau, China" since 1999) and the Faroe Islands, coded MAC and FRO respectively.[5][6]

Current NOCs[edit]

There are 206 current NOCs (National Olympic Committees) within the Olympic Movement. The following tables show the currently used code for each NOC and any different codes used in past Games, per the official reports from those Games. Some of the past code usage is further explained in the following sections. Codes used specifically for a Summer Games only or a Winter Games only, within the same year, are indicated by "S" and "W" respectively.

Code National Olympic Committee Other codes used Link
AFG  Afghanistan [1]
ALB  Albania [2]
ALG  Algeria
  • AGR (1964)
  • AGL (1968 S) from Spanish Argelia
AND  Andorra [4]
ANG  Angola ANO (As referenced in IAAF World Championships Beijing 2015 Statistics Handbook)[7] [5]
ANT  Antigua and Barbuda [6]
ARG  Argentina [7]
ARM  Armenia [8]
ARU  Aruba [9]
ASA  American Samoa AMS[7] [10]
AUS  Australia [11]
AUT  Austria current code from French Autriche [12]
AZE  Azerbaijan [13]
BAH  Bahamas [14]
BAN  Bangladesh [15]
BAR  Barbados BAD (1964) [16]
BDI  Burundi [17]
BEL  Belgium [18]
BEN  Benin
  • DAY (1964)
  • DAH (1968–1976) as Dahomey
BER  Bermuda [20]
BHU  Bhutan [21]
BIH  Bosnia and Herzegovina BSH (1992 S), BOS[7] current code from Bosnian Bosna i Hercegovina [22]
BIZ  Belize HBR (1968–1972) from French Honduras britannique as British Honduras Also BHO[7] [23]
BLR  Belarus [24]
BOL  Bolivia [25]
BOT  Botswana [26]
BRA  Brazil [27]
BRN  Bahrain BHR[7] [28]
BRU  Brunei [29]
BUL  Bulgaria [30]
BUR  Burkina Faso VOL (1972–1984) as Upper Volta Also BKF[7] [31]
CAF  Central African Republic AFC (1968) [32]
CAM  Cambodia
CAN  Canada [34]
CAY  Cayman Islands [35]
CGO  Republic of the Congo [36]
CHA  Chad CHD (1964) [37]
CHI  Chile
  • CIL (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Cile
CHN  China PRC (1952 S) as People's Republic of China [39]
CIV  Ivory Coast
  • IVC (1964)
  • CML (1968) from Spanish Costa de Marfil
current code from French Côte d'Ivoire
CMR  Cameroon [41]
COD  Democratic Republic of the Congo
COK  Cook Islands CKI[7] [43]
COL  Colombia [44]
COM  Comoros [45]
CPV  Cape Verde CVD[7] [46]
CRC  Costa Rica COS (1964) [47]
CRO  Croatia [48]
CUB  Cuba [49]
CYP  Cyprus [50]
CZE Czech Republic Czechia [51]
DEN  Denmark
  • DAN (1960 S
  • 1968 W)
  • DIN (1968 S)
previous codes taken from Italian Danimarca, French Danemark and Spanish Dinamarca
DJI  Djibouti [53]
DMA  Dominica DMN[7] [54]
DOM  Dominican Republic [55]
ECU  Ecuador [56]
EGY  Egypt
previous codes taken from Italian Repubblica Araba Unita, French République Arabe Unie and Spanish República Árabe Unida
ERI  Eritrea [58]
ESA  El Salvador SAL (1964–1976) [59]
ESP  Spain
  • SPA (1956–1964
  • 1968 W)
current code taken from French Espagne or Spanish España
EST  Estonia [61]
ETH  Ethiopia
  • ETI (1960
  • 1968)
FIJ  Fiji FIG (1960) from Italian Figi [63]
FIN  Finland [64]
FRA  France [65]
FSM  Federated States of Micronesia [66]
GAB  Gabon [67]
GAM  The Gambia [68]
GBR  Great Britain
  • GRB (1956 W–1960)
  • GBI (1964)
GBS  Guinea-Bissau [70]
GEO  Georgia [71]
GEQ  Equatorial Guinea [72]
GER  Germany [73]
GHA  Ghana [74]
GRE  Greece [75]
GRN  Grenada [76]
GUA  Guatemala GUT (1964) [77]
GUI  Guinea [78]
GUM  Guam [79]
GUY  Guyana
  • GUA (1960)
  • GUI (1964)
HAI  Haiti [81]
HKG  Hong Kong, China HOK (1960–1968) [82]
HON  Honduras [83]
HUN  Hungary
  • UNG (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Ungheria
INA  Indonesia INS (1960) [85]
IND  India [86]
IRI  Iran
  • IRN (1956–1988)
  • IRA (1968 W)
current code from Islamic Republic of Iran
IRL  Ireland current code taken from French Irlande [88]
IRQ  Iraq
  • IRK (1960
  • 1968) from French/Spanish Irak
ISL  Iceland
  • ICE (1960 W
  • 1964 S)
current code taken from French Islande, Icelandic Ísland or Spanish Islandia
ISR  Israel [91]
ISV  Virgin Islands current code taken from French Îles Vierges (des États-Unis) [92]
ITA  Italy [93]
IVB  British Virgin Islands current code taken from French Îles Vierges britanniques [94]
JAM  Jamaica [95]
JOR  Jordan [96]
JPN  Japan
  • GIA (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Giappone
  • JAP (1960 W)
KAZ  Kazakhstan [98]
KEN  Kenya [99]
KGZ  Kyrgyzstan [100]
KIR  Kiribati [101]
KOR  South Korea
  • COR (1956 W
  • 1960 S
  • 1968 S
  • 1972 S)
previous code taken from Italian Corea, French Corée and Spanish Corea
KOS  Kosovo [103]
KSA  Saudi Arabia
  • ARS (1968–1976) from French Arabie saoudite
  • SAU (1980–1984)
current code from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
KUW  Kuwait [105]
LAO  Laos [106]
LAT  Latvia [107]
LBA  Libya
  • LYA (1964)
  • LBY (1968 W)
LBN  Lebanon
  • LEB (1960 W
  • 1964 S)
  • LIB (1964–2016) from French Liban
LBR  Liberia [110]
LCA  Saint Lucia [111]
LES  Lesotho [112]
LIE  Liechtenstein
  • LIC (1956 W
  • 1964 S
  • 1968 W)
LTU  Lithuania LIT (1992 W) [114]
LUX  Luxembourg [115]
MAD  Madagascar MAG (1964) [116]
MAR  Morocco MRC (1964); current code from French Maroc [117]
MAS  Malaysia MAL (1964–1988) [118]
MAW  Malawi [119]
MDA  Moldova MLD (1994) [120]
MDV  Maldives [121]
MEX  Mexico [122]
MGL  Mongolia MON (1968 W) [123]
MHL  Marshall Islands [124]
MKD North Macedonia North Macedonia current code taken from Macedonian Македонија/Makedonija [125]
MLI  Mali [126]
MLT  Malta MAT (1960–1964) [127]
MNE  Montenegro [128]
MON  Monaco [129]
MOZ  Mozambique [130]
MRI  Mauritius From French Maurice [131]
MTN  Mauritania [132]
MYA  Myanmar
  • BIR (1948–1960
  • 1968–1988) from French Birmanie
  • BUR (1964) as Burma
NAM  Namibia [134]
NCA  Nicaragua
  • NCG (1964)
  • NIC (1968)
NED  Netherlands
  • OLA (1956 W) from Italian Olanda
  • NET (1960 W)
  • PBA (1960 S) from Italian Paesi Bassi
  • NLD (1964 S)
  • HOL (1968–1988) as Holland
current code taken from Dutch Nederland
NEP  Nepal [137]
NGR  Nigeria
  • NIG (1960 S)
  • NGA (1964)
NIG  Niger NGR (1964) [139]
NOR  Norway [140]
NRU  Nauru [141]
NZL  New Zealand
  • NZE (1960
  • 1968 W)
OMA  Oman [143]
PAK  Pakistan [144]
PAN  Panama [145]
PAR  Paraguay [146]
PER  Peru [147]
PHI  Philippines
  • FIL (1960
  • 1968) from Spanish Filipinas and Italian Filippine
PLE  Palestine [149]
PLW  Palau [150]
PNG  Papua New Guinea
  • NGY (1976–1980)
  • NGU (1984–1988)
POL  Poland [152]
POR  Portugal [153]
PRK  North Korea
  • NKO (1964 S
  • 1968 W)
  • CDN (1968) from French Corée du Nord or Spanish Corea del Norte
current code from People's Republic of Korea
PUR  Puerto Rico
  • PRI (1960)
  • PRO (1968)
QAT  Qatar [156]
ROU  Romania
  • ROM (1956–1960
  • 1972–2006)
  • RUM (1964–1968) from obsolete spelling Rumania
current code from French Roumanie
RSA  South Africa SAF (1960–1972)
current code from Republic of South Africa
RUS  Russia From 1994 to 2016 [159]
RWA  Rwanda [160]
SAM  Samoa WSM (1984–1996) as Western Samoa [161]
SEN  Senegal SGL (1964) [162]
SEY  Seychelles [163]
SGP  Singapore SIN (1959–2016) [164]
SKN  Saint Kitts and Nevis [165]
SLE  Sierra Leone SLA (1968) [166]
SLO  Slovenia [167]
SMR  San Marino SMA (1960–1964) [168]
SOL  Solomon Islands [169]
SOM  Somalia [170]
SRB  Serbia [171]
SRI  Sri Lanka
  • CEY (1948–1964
  • 1972) as Ceylon
  • CEI (1968 S) from Spanish Ceilán
SSD  South Sudan [173]
STP  São Tomé and Príncipe [174]
SUD  Sudan [175]
SUI  Switzerland
  • SVI (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Svizzera
  • SWI (1960 W
  • 1964 S)
current code from French Suisse
SUR  Suriname [177]
SVK  Slovakia [178]
SWE  Sweden
  • SVE (1956 W
  • 1960 S) from Italian Svezia
  • SUE (1968 S) from Spanish Suecia
SWZ Eswatini Eswatini current code from former name Swaziland [180]
SYR  Syria SIR (1968) from Spanish Siria [181]
TAN  Tanzania [182]
TGA  Tonga TON (1984) [183]
THA  Thailand [184]
TJK  Tajikistan [185]
TKM  Turkmenistan [186]
TLS  East Timor current code taken from Portuguese Timor-Leste [187]
TOG  Togo [188]
TPE  Chinese Taipei[8]
TTO  Trinidad and Tobago
  • TRT (1964–1968)
  • TRI (1972–2012)
TUN  Tunisia [191]
TUR  Turkey [192]
TUV  Tuvalu [193]
UAE  United Arab Emirates [194]
UGA  Uganda [195]
UKR  Ukraine [196]
URU  Uruguay URG (1968) [197]
USA  United States
  • SUA (1960 S) from Italian Stati Uniti d'America
  • EUA (1968 S) from French États-Unis d'Amérique or Spanish Estados Unidos de América
UZB  Uzbekistan [199]
VAN  Vanuatu [200]
VEN  Venezuela [201]
VIE  Vietnam
VIN  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines [203]
YEM  Yemen [204]
ZAM  Zambia NRH (1964) as Northern Rhodesia [205]
ZIM  Zimbabwe RHO (1960–1972) as Rhodesia [206]

Current NPCs[edit]

Most National Paralympic Committees (NPC) cover a territory with an active NOC. In these cases the NPC codes matches the IOC codes shown above. The two current NPCs without a corresponding NOC use the following NPC codes.

Code National Paralympic Committee Link
MAC  Macau, China Associação Recreativa dos Deficientes de Macau
FRO  Faroe Islands The Faroese Sport Organisation for Disabled

Historic NOCs and teams[edit]

Codes still in use[edit]

Fourteen historical NOCs or teams have codes that are still used in the IOC results database[9] to refer to past medal winners from these teams.

Code Nation/Team Other codes used
AHO  Netherlands Antilles
  • ATO (1960)
  • NAN (1964)
code from French Antilles hollandaises
ANZ  Australasia Also AUA[7]
BOH  Bohemia
BWI  British West Indies
  • ANT (1960
  • 1968) from Antilles
  • WID (1964)
EUA  United Team of Germany GER (1956–1964)
code taken from French Équipe unifiée d'Allemagne
EUN  Unified Team code from the French Équipe unifiée or Spanish Equipo Unificado
FRG  West Germany
  • ALL (1968 W) from French Allemagne
  • ALE (1968 S) from Spanish Alemania
  • GER (1972–1976)
code FRG taken from Federal Republic of Germany
GDR  East Germany ADE (1968) from Spanish Alemania Democrática
code GDR taken from German Democratic Republic
RU1  Russian Empire
SCG  Serbia and Montenegro code from Serbian Србија и Црна Гора / Srbija i Crna Gora
TCH  Czechoslovakia
  • CSL (1956 W)
  • CZE (1960 W)
  • CSV (1960 S)
  • CZS (1964 S)
  • CHE (1968 S) from Spanish Checoslovaquia
code taken from French Tchécoslovaquie
URS  Soviet Union SOV (1968 W)
code from French Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques (URSS)
VNM South Vietnam South Vietnam Code of the State of Vietnam and then Republic of Vietnam from 1952 to 1975.[10][11][12]
YUG  Yugoslavia
  • JUG (1956–1960
  • 1968 W) from Југославија/Jugoslavija in native languages
  • YUS (1964 S)
ZZX  Mixed team

Obsolete codes[edit]

Unlike the previous list, these codes no longer appear in the IOC results database. When a past athlete from one of these teams has won a medal, the new code is shown next to them instead.

Code Nation (NOC) Years Notes
BIR  Burma
From French Birmanie
1948–1988 Now  Myanmar (MYA)
CEY  Ceylon
From French Ceylan
1948–1972 Now  Sri Lanka (SRI)
DAH  Dahomey 1964–1976 Now  Benin (BEN)
GUI  British Guiana 1948–1964 Now  Guyana (GUY).
The code former GUI has been reassigned to  Guinea (GUI) in 1965 when its new NOC was recognized by the IOC and used publicly in their first competed games in 1968. All formerly known by BGU[7]
HBR  British Honduras
From French Honduras britannique
1968–1972 Now  Belize (BIZ)
IHO  Dutch East Indies
code from French Indes orientales hollandaises
1934–1938 Now  Indonesia (INA)
KHM  Khmer Republic
From French République khmère
1972 Now  Cambodia (CAM)
MAL  Malaysia
From French Malaisie
1956–1960 Competed independently before the formation of Malaysia in 1963.
Now  Malaysia (MAS)
NBO  North Borneo 1956
NRH  Northern Rhodesia 1964 Now  Zambia (ZAM)
RAU  United Arab Republic
code from French République arabe unie
1960 Now  Egypt (EGY) and  Syria (SYR)
RHO  Rhodesia
also Southern Rhodesia and Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland until it became Zimbabwe in 1980
1960–1972 Now  Zimbabwe (ZIM)
ROC  Republic of China 1932–1976 Medal winners from 1948 and earlier display as  China (CHN), while medal winners from after 1948 display as  Chinese Taipei (TPE) under which the team now competes.
SAA  Saar 1952 Competed independently before rejoining  West Germany (FRG) in 1957
UAR  United Arab Republic 1964–1968 Now  Egypt (EGY)
VOL  Upper Volta 1972–1984 Now  Burkina Faso (BUR)
WSM  Western Samoa 1984–1996 Now  Samoa (SAM)
YAR  North Yemen
code from Yemen Arab Republic
1984–1988 Competed independently before Yemeni unification in 1990.
Now  Yemen (YEM)
YMD  South Yemen
code from Yemen Democratic Republic
ZAI  Democratic Republic of the Congo
From French Zaïre
1972–1996 Now  Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD)

Two other significant code changes have occurred, both because of a change in the nation's designation as used by the IOC:

  • HOL was changed to NED for the Netherlands for the 1992 Games, reflecting the change in designation from Holland.
  • IRN was changed to IRI for Iran for the 1992 Games, reflecting the change in designation to Islamic Republic of Iran.

Special codes for Olympics[edit]

Code Nation/team Years Notes
ANZ  Australasia 1908–1912 Used in the IOC's medal database[9] to identify the team from Australasia, composed of athletes from both Australia and New Zealand for the 1908 and 1912 Games. Both nations competed separately by 1920.
COR  Korea
from French Corée
2018 Used for the unified Korean women's ice hockey team at the 2018 Winter Olympics.[13]
EOR  Refugee Olympic Team
from French Équipe olympique des réfugiés
2020 Used for the IOC Refugee Olympic Team at the 2020 Summer Olympics for athletes to compete who have been displaced from their home countries. The IOC code was changed from ROT which was used in 2016.
EUA  United Team of Germany
from French Équipe unifiée d'Allemagne
1956–1964 Used in the IOC's medal database[9] to identify the United Team of Germany, composed of athletes representing the NOCs of both East Germany and West Germany for the 1956–1964 Games. The team was simply known as Germany in the official reports for those six games at the time.
EUN  Unified Team
from French Équipe unifiée
1992 Used in 1992 (both Summer and Winter Games) for the Unified Team, composed of athletes from most of the ex-republics of the Soviet Union that chose to compete as a unified team. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania entered separately in 1992, whereas Russia and eleven other post-Soviet nations competed independently for the first time in 1994 and/or 1996.
IOP  Independent Olympic Participants
  • 1992
  • 2014
Used for independent Olympic participants at the 1992 Summer Olympics as a designation used for athletes from FR Yugoslavia who could not compete as a team due to United Nations sanctions. At the 1992 Summer Olympics IOP was used as a designation for athletes from the Republic of Macedonia too. IOP was also used during the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi by Indian athletes due to the Indian Olympic Association suspension.
IOA  Independent Olympic Athletes
  • 2000
  • 2012
  • 2016
Used for Individual Olympic Athletes in 2000,[14] a designation used for athletes from Timor-Leste before the formation of its NOC. IOA was used again in the 2012 Games, when it stood for Independent Olympic Athletes,[15] comprising athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles and a runner from South Sudan. The Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee's membership from the IOC was withdrawn the previous year, and South Sudan had not yet formed an NOC at the time. IOA was used again in 2016 for athletes from Kuwait as a result of the suspension of its National Olympic Committee.[16]
IOC  Athletes from Kuwait 2010–2012 Used as the country code for Athletes from Kuwait, when the Kuwait Olympic Committee was suspended the first time, at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, the 2010 Asian Games and the 2011 Asian Winter Games; for the second suspension in 2015–2017, athletes from Kuwait were also competing in several international competitions under the IOC flag, but this time in the team of Individual Olympic Athletes (IOA), including (but not only) in the 2016 Summer Olympics.
MIX  Mixed-NOCs 2010– Used as the country code for Mixed NOCs at the Youth Olympics.[17][18]
OAR  Olympic Athletes from Russia 2018 Used for Olympic Athletes from Russia competing as neutral athletes due to the state-sponsored doping scandal.[19]
from the abbreviation for Russian Olympic Committee
2020– Used for Russian Olympic Committee athletes at the 2020 Summer Olympics and 2022 Winter Olympics following the sanctions due to the state-sponsored doping scandal.[20][21] The delegation used a flag depicting the logo of the Russian Olympic Committee.
ROT  Refugee Olympic Team 2016 Used for the Refugee Olympic Team at the 2016 Summer Olympics for athletes to compete who have been displaced from their home countries.[22]
ZZX  Mixed team 1896–1904 Used in the IOC's medal database[9] to identify medals won by mixed teams of athletes from multiple nations (such as the combination of France and Great Britain, for example), a situation that happened several times in the Games of 1896, 1900, and 1904.

Special codes for Paralympics[edit]

Code Nation/Team Years Notes
IPP  Independent Paralympic Participants 1992 Used for Independent Paralympic Participants at the 1992 Summer Paralympics as a designation used for athletes from FR Yugoslavia and Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia who could not compete as a team due to United Nations sanctions.
IPA Paralympic flag (1994-2004).svg Individual Paralympic Athletes
  • 2000
De facto independent East Timor was not yet recognised as a sovereign state, and did not have a recognised National Paralympic Committee. Two athletes from the country gained the opportunity to in the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, but they competed officially as Individual Paralympic Athletes, rather than as representatives of an NPC.
IPA Paralympic flag (2010-2019).svg Independent Paralympic Athletes
  • 2016
A team consisting of refugee and asylee Paralympic athletes competed at the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro as Independent Paralympic Athletes.
NPA Paralympic flag (2010-2019).svg Neutral Paralympic Athletes
  • 2018
Used in 2018 for Russian athletes competing as neutral athletes due to the state-sponsored doping scandal. Was to be used in 2022 for Russian athletes competing as neutral athletes due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine,[23] however the Russian athletes were ultimately banned before the start of the 2022 Games.
PNA Paralympic flag (2019).svg Paralympic Neutral Athletes Was to be used for Belarusian athletes competing as neutral athletes due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine,[23] however the Belarusian athletes were ultimately banned before the start of the 2022 Winter Paralympics and the code was not used.
from the abbreviation for Russian Paralympic Committee
  • 2020
Used for Russian Paralympic Committee athletes at the 2020 Summer Paralympics following the sanctions due to the state-sponsored doping scandal. Was to be used in 2022 as well, however the Russian athletes were ultimately banned due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. The delegation used a flag depicting a specially created emblem representing the Russian Paralympic Committee.
RPT  Refugee Paralympic Team 2020

Special codes for World Games[edit]

The World Games are a multi-sport event comprising sports and sporting disciplines that are not contested in the Olympic Games. The World Games are governed by the International World Games Association, under the patronage of the International Olympic Committee.

Code Nation/Team Years Notes
HNL[24] Iroquois 2022 The Haudenosaunee Nationals (also known as the Iroquois), who invented the sport of lacrosse and which has spiritual significance to them, were initially denied a spot to compete at the 2022 World Games, despite the Haudenosaunee national team's placement at the 2018 World Lacrosse Championship, due to not having a recognized NOC and issues concerning other countries recognizing sovereignty; they were given a spot to compete after Ireland agreed to drop out of competition in a show of solidarity.[25][26][27]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Olympic Documents - Athletes, Olympic Games, IOC and More" (PDF). 18 May 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09.
  2. ^ As per rule 24 of the Olympic Charter, which writes "The official languages of the IOC are French and English. In the case of divergence between the French and English texts of the Olympic Charter and any other IOC document, the French text shall prevail unless expressly provided otherwise in writing"
  3. ^ "Le français, langue officielle des JO". Retrieved 2022-02-22.
  4. ^ Mallon, Bill; Karlsson, Ove (May 2004). "IOC and OCOG Abbreviations for NOCs" (PDF). Journal of Olympic History. 12 (2): 25–28. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  5. ^ Faroe Islands Archived 2012-12-04 at
  6. ^ Macau, China Archived 2013-01-03 at
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "IAAF World Championships Beijing 2015 Statistics Handbook" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved 2022-02-22.
  8. ^ Official name given to the Republic of China for international organizations
  9. ^ a b c d "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ IOC. "Olympic Korean Peninsula Declaration" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  14. ^ "The Results" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-27.
  15. ^ "Independent Olympic Athletes". London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Archived from the original on 2013-02-28.
  16. ^ "Independent Olympic Athletes". Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  17. ^ "Mixed NOCs". Archived from the original on 2014-02-25.
  18. ^ "Medals - Youth Olympic Games, Buenos Aires 2018 | Olympic Channel". Archived from the original on 2019-07-12. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  19. ^ "IOC suspends Russian NOC and creates a path for clean individual athletes to compete in PyeongChang 2018 under the Olympic Flag". 24 January 2018.
  20. ^ "Russian team to be branded as 'ROC' during Tokyo Olympics as part of doping sanctions". The Japan Times. 20 February 2021. Retrieved 2022-02-22.
  21. ^ "Olympics: Russia to compete under ROC acronym in Tokyo as part of doping sanctions". Reuters. Reuters. 2021-02-19. Archived from the original on 2021-02-20. Retrieved 2021-02-20.
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