List of rulers of Iceland

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This is a list of rulers of Iceland, ruling from 1262 to 1944.

Iceland was settled in the late 9th and early 10th centuries, principally by people of Norwegian and other Scandinavian origin. In 930, the ruling chiefs established a republican constitution and an assembly called the Althing - the oldest parliament in the world. Iceland remained independent until 1262, when it entered into a treaty which established a union with the Norwegian monarchy. In the late 14th century Norway and Denmark entered into a union. The union between Denmark and Norway, ignoring some shorter periods, lasted until 1814, when Norway briefly gained independence, and Iceland became an integral part of Denmark until 1918, when Iceland was recognised as a fully sovereign state united with Denmark under a common monarch, on 1 December that same year.

Following a constitutional referendum between 20 and 23 May 1944, Iceland formally became an independent republic on 17 June 1944. Since Denmark was still occupied by Germany, many Danes felt offended that the step should have been taken at the time. Still, the King of Denmark, Christian X, sent a message of congratulations to the Icelandic people.

Possession of Norway (1262–1814)[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Haakon IV
  • the Old
(1204-04-01)1 April 1204 – 16 December 1263(1263-12-16) (aged 59)126216 December 1263Son of Haakon IIIFairhairHaakon IV of Norway
Magnus VI
  • the Law-mender
(1238-05-01)1 May 1238 – 9 May 1280(1280-05-09) (aged 42)16 December 12639 May 1280Son of Haakon IVFairhairMagnus VI of Norway
Eric II1268 – (1299-07-15)15 July 12999 May 128015 July 1299Son of Magnus VIFairhairEric II of Norway
Haakon V1270 – (1319-05-08)8 May 131915 July 12998 May 1319Son of Magnus VIFairhairHaakon V of Norway
Magnus VII1316 – (1374-12-01)1 December 1374131915 August 1343Grandson of Haakon VBjelboMagnus VII of Norway
Haakon VI1340 – (1380-09-11)11 September 138015 August 134311 September 1380Son of Magnus VIIBjelboHaakon VI of Norway
Olaf IV1370 – (1387-08-23)23 August 138729 July 138023 August 1387Son of Haakon VIBjelboOlaf IV of Norway
Margaret Ic. 1353 – (1412-10-28)28 October 1412138828 October 1412Mother of Olaf IVEstridsenMargaret I of Norway
Eric IIIc. 1381 – (1459-05-03)3 May 145928 October 14121442Son of Wartislaw VII, Duke of PomeraniaGriffinsEric III of Norway
Christopher I(1416-02-26)26 February 1416 – 5 January 1448(1448-01-05) (aged 31)14425 January 1448Son of John, Count Palatine of NeumarktPalatinate-NeumarktChristopher I of Norway
Charles I(1409-10-05)5 October 1409 – 14 May 1470(1470-05-14) (aged 60)20 November 14491450Son of Knut Tordsson BondeBondeCharles I of Norway
Christian I1426 – (1481-05-21)21 May 1481145021 May 1481Son of Dietrich, Count of OldenburgOldenburgChristian I of Norway
John I(1455-02-02)2 February 1455 – 20 February 1513(1513-02-20) (aged 58)148320 February 1513Son of Christian IOldenburgJohn I of Norway
Christian II(1481-07-01)1 July 1481 – 25 January 1559(1559-01-25) (aged 77)22 July 151320 January 1523Son of John IOldenburgChristian II of Norway
Frederick I(1471-10-07)7 October 1471 – 10 April 1533(1533-04-10) (aged 61)152310 April 1533Son of Christian IOldenburgFrederick I of Norway
Christian III(1503-08-12)12 August 1503 – 1 January 1559(1559-01-01) (aged 55)15371 January 1559Son of Frederick IOldenburgChristian III of Norway
Frederick II(1534-07-01)1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588(1588-04-04) (aged 53)1 January 15594 April 1588Son of Christian IIIOldenburgFrederick II of Norway
Christian IV(1577-04-12)12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648(1648-02-28) (aged 70)4 April 158828 February 1648Son of Frederick IIOldenburgChristian IV of Norway
Frederick III(1609-03-18)18 March 1609 – 9 February 1670(1670-02-09) (aged 60)1 May 16489 February 1670Son of Christian IVOldenburgFrederick III of Norway
Christian V(1646-04-15)15 April 1646 – 25 August 1699(1699-08-25) (aged 53)9 February 167025 August 1699Son of Frederick IIIOldenburgChristian V of Norway
Frederick IV(1671-10-11)11 October 1671 – 12 October 1730(1730-10-12) (aged 59)25 August 169912 October 1730Son of Christian VOldenburgFrederick IV of Norway
Christian VI(1699-11-30)30 November 1699 – 6 August 1746(1746-08-06) (aged 46)12 October 17306 August 1746Son of Frederick IVOldenburgChristian VI of Norway
Frederick V(1723-03-31)31 March 1723 – 14 January 1766(1766-01-14) (aged 42)6 August 174614 January 1766Son of Christian VIOldenburgFrederick V of Norway
Christian VII(1749-01-29)29 January 1749 – 13 March 1808(1808-03-13) (aged 59)14 January 176613 March 1808Son of Frederick VOldenburgChristian VII of Norway
Frederick VI(1768-01-28)28 January 1768 – 3 December 1839(1839-12-03) (aged 71)13 March 18087 February 1814Son of Christian VIIOldenburgFrederick VI of Norway

Possession of Denmark (1814–1918)[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Frederick VI(1768-01-28)28 January 1768 – 3 December 1839(1839-12-03) (aged 71)7 February 18143 December 1839Son of Christian VIIOldenburgFrederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII(1786-09-18)18 September 1786 – 20 January 1848(1848-01-20) (aged 61)3 December 183920 January 1848Son of Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark and grandson of Frederick VOldenburgChristian VIII of Denmark
Frederick VII(1808-10-06)6 October 1808 – 15 November 1863(1863-11-15) (aged 55)20 January 184815 November 1863Son of Christian VIIIOldenburgFrederick VII of Denmark
Christian IX(1818-04-08)8 April 1818 – 29 January 1906(1906-01-29) (aged 87)15 November 186329 January 1906Son of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and great-grandson of Frederick VGlücksburgChristian IX of Denmark
Frederick VIII(1843-06-03)3 June 1843 – 14 May 1912(1912-05-14) (aged 68)29 January 190614 May 1912Son of Christian IXGlücksburgFrederick VIII of Denmark
Christian X(1870-09-26)26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947(1947-04-20) (aged 76)14 May 19121 December 1918Son of Frederick VIIIGlücksburgChristian X of Denmark

Kingdom of Iceland (1918–1944)[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Christian X
[1]
(1870-09-26)26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947(1947-04-20) (aged 76)1 December 191817 June 1944Son of Frederick VIIIGlücksburgChristian X of Denmark

Republic of Iceland (1944—)[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sveinn Björnsson, ruled as Regent from 1941 to 1944.