List of Indian Nobel laureates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Nobel Prize

First instituted in 1901, as of 2018 the Nobel Prize has been awarded to a total of 904 individuals (852 men and 52 women) and 24 organizations.[1] Among the recipients, 11 are Indians (four Indian citizens and seven of Indian ancestry or residency). Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian citizen to be awarded and also first Asian to be awarded in 1913. Mother Teresa is the only woman among the list of recipients.[2] Sri Aurobindo, the Indian poet, philosopher, nationalist and developer of Integral yoga, was nominated unsuccessfully for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1943 and for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.[3][4]

On 1 December 1999, the Norwegian Nobel Committee confirmed that Mahatma Gandhi was nominated unsuccessfully for the Peace Prize five times (from 1937 to 1939, in 1947 and a few days before he was assassinated in January 1948).[5] In 2006, Geir Lundestad, the Secretary of Norwegian Nobel Committee, cited it as "the greatest omission in our 106-year history".[6][7][8]

Laureates[edit]

Two of the Nobel laureates (Tagore and Raman) were citizens of British India at the time they were awarded while two also were of foreign origin (Ross and Kipling). Three of the laureates were citizens of the Republic of India (Mother Teresa, Sen, and Satyarthi) and four were Indian by birth (Khorana, Chandrasekhar, Ramakrishnan, and Banerjee) but subsequently non-citizens of India.

Year Image Laureate Born Died Field Citation
1902 Ronald Ross 4 (cropped).jpg Ronald Ross 13 May 1857
Almora, Uttarakhand
16 September 1932
London, United Kingdom
Physiology or Medicine "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it."[9]
1907 Rudyard Kipling (portrait).jpg Joseph Rudyard Kipling 30 December 1865
Malabar Hill, South Mumbai, Maharashtra
18 January 1936
London, United Kingdom
Literature "in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author."[10]
1913 Rabindranath Tagore.jpg Rabindranath Tagore 7 May 1861
Kolkata, West Bengal
7 August 1941
Kolkata, West Bengal
Literature "because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West."[11]
1930 Sir CV Raman.JPG Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman 7 November 1888
Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu
21 November 1970
Bangalore, Karnataka
Physics "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him."[12]
1968 Har Gobind Khorana nobel.jpg Har Gobind Khorana 9 January 1922
Raipur, Punjab
9 November 2011
Concord, Massachusetts, United States
Physiology or Medicine "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis."[13]
(awarded together with American biochemists Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley)
1979 Mother Teresa 1995 (cropped).jpg Teresa Bojaxhiu, M.C. 26 August 1910
Skopje, North Macedonia
5 September 1997
Kolkata, West Bengal
Peace "for her work for bringing help to suffering humanity."[14]
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (cropped).gif Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 19 October 1910
Lahore, Punjab
21 August 1995
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Physics "for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars."[15]
(awarded together with American astrophysicist William Alfred Fowler)
1998 Amartya Sen 2012 (cropped).jpg Amartya Kumar Sen 3 November 1933
Santiniketan, Bolpur, West Bengal
Economics "for his contributions to welfare economics."[16]
2009 Venki Ramakrishnan (cropped2).jpg Venkatraman "Venki" Ramakrishnan 1 April 1952
Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu
Chemistry ""for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome."[17]
(awarded together with American biochemist Thomas A. Steitz and Israeli crystallographer Ada Yonath)
2014 Kailash Satyarthi March 2015 (cropped).jpg Kailash Satyarthi 11 January 1954
Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh
Peace "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education."[18]
(awarded together with Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai)
2019 FT Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award 2011 (cropped).jpg Abhijit Banerjee 21 February 1961
Mumbai, Maharashtra
Economics "for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty"
(awarded together with his wife Esther Duflo and American economist Michael Kremer)

Nominees[edit]

Image Laureate Born Died Years Nominated Citation Nominator(s)
Physics
Sir CV Raman.JPG Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman 7 November 1888
Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu
21 November 1970
Bangalore, Karnataka
1929, 1930 "for his work in the field of light scattering and the discovery of a modified scattering called Raman effect."[19]
Dr-Meghnad-Saha (cropped).jpg Meghnad Saha 6 October 1893
Dhaka, Bangladesh
16 February 1956
New Delhi
1930, 1937, 1939, 1940, 1951, 1955 "for developing the Saha ionization equation, used to describe chemical and physical conditions in stars."[20]
Arthur E. Kennelly (cropped).jpg Arthur Edwin Kennelly* 17 December 1861
Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra
18 June 1939
Boston, Massachusetts, United States
1935 "for his contributions to the theory of electrical transmission and to the development of international electrical standards."[21]
Homi Jehangir Bhabha 1960s (cropped).jpg Homi Jehangir Bhabha 30 October 1909
Mumbai, Maharashtra
24 January 1966
Mont Blanc, Alps, France
1951, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956 "for his discovery of the cascade process of cosmic radiation and Bhabha Scattering in quantum electrodynamics."[22] Jacques Hadamard (1865–1963)
SatyenBose1925 (cropped2).jpg Satyendra Nath Bose 1 January 1894
Kolkata, West Bengal
4 February 1974
Kolkata, West Bengal
1956, 1959, 1962, 1968, 1969 "for developing the foundation for Bose statistics and the theory of the Bose condensate in quantum mechanics."[23]
Robert Hanbury Brown (cropped).tif Robert Hanbury Brown* 31 August 1916
Aruvankadu, Tamil Nadu
16 January 2002
Andover, Hampshire, United Kingdom
1965, 1966 "for developing the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect leading to the creation of intensity interferometers."[24][25]
BLANK ICON (cropped).png Richard Quinn Twiss* 24 August 1920
Shimla, Himachal Pradesh
20 May 2005
Sydney, Australia
Chemistry
BLANK ICON (cropped).png Roger John Williams* 14 August 1893
Ooty, Tamil Nadu
20 February 1988
Austin, Texas, United States
1960 "for his work on vitamins, particularly on discovering and isolating vitamin B6, lipoic acid, and avidin."[26]
BLANK ICON (cropped).png Gopalasamudram Narayanan Ramachandran 8 October 1922
Ernakulam, Kerala
7 April 2001
Chennai, Tamil Nadu
1964 "for developing the Ramachandran plot for understanding peptide structure."[27] Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888–1970)
BLANK ICON (cropped).png Thiruvengadam Rajendram Seshadri 3 February 1900
Kulithalai, Tamil Nadu
27 September 1975
New Delhi
1966, 1968 "for his research on oxygen heterocyclic compounds."[28]
  • N. Subba Rao (?)
  • B. Jain (?)
Literature
Rudyard Kipling (portrait).jpg Joseph Rudyard Kipling* 30 December 1865
Malabar Hill, South Mumbai, Maharashtra
18 January 1936
London, United Kingdom
1903, 1904, 1905,
1907
[29]
Rabindranath Tagore.jpg Rabindranath Tagore 7 May 1861
Kolkata, West Bengal
7 August 1941
Kolkata, West Bengal
1913 [30] Thomas Sturge Moore (1870–1944)
Roby Datta (cropped).jpg Rabindranath Datta 1 October 1883
Kolkata, West Bengal
6 July 1917
Kolkata, West Bengal
1916 [31]
  • Mano Gangedy (?)
  • Raya Yatindra Chondhury (?)
Photograph of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan presented to First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy in 1962 (cropped).jpg Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 5 September 1888
Thiruttani, Tamil Nadu
17 April 1975
Chennai, Tamil Nadu
1933, 1934, 1935,
1936, 1937, 1952,
1956, 1957, 1958,
1960, 1961, 1962,
1963
[32]
James Henry Cousins.png James Cousins* 22 July 1873
Belfast, Northern Ireland
20 February 1956
Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh
1935 [33] Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941)
BLANK ICON (cropped).png Hari Mohan Banerjee 1936 [34] Devadatta Ramakrishna Bhandarkar (1875–1950)
BLANK ICON (cropped).png Bensadhar Majumdar 1937, 1939 [35]
  • Sen Satyendranath (1909–?)
  • Mukundadeb Chatterjee (?)
BLANK ICON (cropped).png Mohammad Hosain Khan
(probably Mohammad Habib (1895–1971))
1938 [36] Per Hallström (1866–1960)
BLANK ICON (cropped).png Sanjib Chaudhuri 1938, 1939 [37]
Sri aurobindo (cropped).jpg Sri Aurobindo Ghose 15 August 1872
Kolkata, West Bengal
5 December 1950
Pondicherry, Union Territory of Puducherry
1943 [38] Francis Younghusband (1863–1942)
Sachidananda Routray Portrait (cropped).png Sachidananda Routray 13 May 1916
Gurujang, Odisha
21 August 2004
Cuttack, Odisha
1959 [39] Radhakamal Mukerjee (1889–1968)
Lawrence Durrell (cropped).png Lawrence Durrell* 27 February 1912
Jalandhar, Punjab
7 November 1990
Sommières, Gard, France
1961, 1962, 1963,
1964, 1965, 1966,
1967, 1969, 1971
[40]
BLANK ICON (cropped).png Gopal Singh 29 November 1917
Panaji, Goa
8 August 1990
Panaji, Goa
1965 [41]
BLANK ICON (cropped).png Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay 27 July 1898
Labhpur, West Bengal
14 September 1971
Kolkata, West Bengal
1971 [42] Krishna Kripalani (1907–1992)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Media, Nobel (22 November 2018). "Nobel Prize facts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  2. ^ "From 1913 to 2014: Indian Nobel Prize winners". The Hindu. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  3. ^ Rajinder Singh (September 2012). "Aurobindo Gosh's Nobel nomination". Science and Culture. p. 442. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  4. ^ Media, Nobel (22 November 2018). "Aurobindo Ghosh Nomination archive". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  5. ^ Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin (2001). The Nobel Prize: The First 100 Years. London: Imperial College Press, London. pp. 181–186. ISBN 9789810246655.
  6. ^ Tønnesson, Øyvind (1 December 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  7. ^ Ghosh, Avijit (17 October 2006). "We missed Mahatma Gandhi". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  8. ^ Wolchover, Natalie (10 May 2011). "No Peace for Gandhi". NBCNews. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  9. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902 nobelprize.org
  10. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 1907 nobelprize.org
  11. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913 nobelprize.org
  12. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930 nobelprize.org
  13. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968 nobelprize.org
  14. ^ The Nobel Peace Prize 1979 nobelprize.org
  15. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983 nobelprize.org
  16. ^ The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998 nobelprize.org
  17. ^ The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 nobelprize.org
  18. ^ The Nobel Peace Prize 2014 nobelprize.org
  19. ^ Nomination archive – Sir Chandrasekhara V Raman nobelprize.org
  20. ^ Nomination archive – Meghnad N Saha nobelprize.org
  21. ^ Nomination archive – Arthur E Kennelly nobelprize.org
  22. ^ Nomination archive – Homi J Bhabha nobelprize.org
  23. ^ Nomination archive – Satyendra Nath Bose nobelprize.org
  24. ^ Nomination archive – Robert Hanbury Brown nobelprize.org
  25. ^ Nomination archive – Richard Q Twiss nobelprize.org
  26. ^ Nomination archive – Roger J Williams nobelprize.org
  27. ^ Nomination archive – Gopalasamudram Narayanan Ramachandran nobelprize.org
  28. ^ Nomination archive – T R Seshadri nobelprize.org
  29. ^ Nomination archive – Rudyard Kipling nobelprize.org
  30. ^ Nomination archive – Rabindranath Tagore nobelprize.org
  31. ^ Nomination archive – Roby Datta nobelprize.org
  32. ^ Nomination archive – Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan nobelprize.org
  33. ^ Nomination archive – James H Cousins nobelprize.org
  34. ^ Nomination archive – Hari Mohan Banerjee nobelprize.org
  35. ^ Nomination archive – Bensadhar Majumdar nobelprize.org
  36. ^ Nomination archive – Mohammad H Khan nobelprize.org
  37. ^ Nomination archive – Sanjib Chaudhuri nobelprize.org
  38. ^ Nomination archive – Sri Aurobindo nobelprize.org
  39. ^ Nomination archive – Sochi Raut Roy nobelprize.org
  40. ^ Nomination archive – Lawrence Durrell nobelprize.org
  41. ^ Nomination archive – Gopal Singh nobelprize.org
  42. ^ Nomination archive – Tarashankar Bandyopadhyay nobelprize.org