List of Indian independence activists

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This is a list of individuals who notably campaigned against or are considered to have campaigned against colonial rule on the Indian sub-continent.

The Indian independence movement consisted of efforts by individuals and organizations from a wide spectrum of society to obtain political independence from the British, French and Portuguese rule through the use of a many of methods.

Post-independence, the term "freedom fighter" was officially recognized by the Indian government for those who took part in the movement; people in this category (which can also include dependent family members)[1] receive pensions and other benefits such as special railway counters.[2]

List of Indian freedom fighters[edit]

Name Birth Death Activity
Maveeran Alagumuthu Kone 1710 1759 Maveeran Alagumuthu Konar (1710–1759) is a First Freedom Fighter from Kattalankulam in Thoothukudi District, was an early Chieftain and freedom fighter against the British presence in Tamil Nadu. Born into a yadav community family, he became a military leader in the town of Ettayapuram, and was defeated in battle there against the British and Maruthanayagam's forces. He was executed in 1759

In his memory, the government of Tamil Nadu conducts a Pooja ceremony every year on 11 July. A documentary film based on his life was released in 2012.

Aravind Surapur 1907 1931 A socialist revolutionary who worked with several revolutionary organisations and became prominent in the Hindustan Republican Association. And First Youth icon of India (HRA).
Maruthu Pandiyar 1748 1801 The brothers Periya and Chinna Marudhu were Tamil Nadu chieftains said to have invented the valari.[3] They were the first to issue a proclamation against the British.[4][unreliable source?][dubious ]
Dheeran Chinnamalai 1756 1805 An indigenous governor, he took part in guerrilla warfare against the British East India Company.
Jayi Rajaguru 1739 1806 A prominent figure of the Indian independence movement in the state of Odisha.
Pazhassi Raja 1753 1805 He used guerrilla warfare to fight the British in the Cotiote War (Kottayathu war, 1793–1805) to preserve the independence of his kingdom. He was killed at Mavila Thodu at the present Kerala-Karnataka border.[5]
Veerapandiya Kattabomman 1760 1799 He refused to accept the sovereignty of the British East India Company and waged a war against the British.[3]
Babu Kunwar Singh 1777 1858 A Rajput military commander in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Kittur Chennamma 1778 1829 An Indian freedom fighter and rani of the Kittur, a former princely state in Karnataka. She led an armed force against the British East India Company in 1824 in defiance of the doctrine of lapse in an attempt to maintain Indian control over the region, but was defeated in the third war and died in prison.
Titumir 1782 1831 A freedom fighter who led a campaign against British rule during the 19th century, he eventually built a bamboo fort in Narikelberia village which became the subject of Bengali folk legend. Titumir died of wounds following the storming of the fort by British soldiers.
Sangolli Rayanna 1796 1831 The army chief of Kittur, who fought the British East India Company until his death.
Uyyalawada Narasimha Reddy 1806 1847 He led an uprising in Andhra Pradesh in 1846 and was executed by the British.[6]
Ahmadullah Shah 1787 1858 He led in various battles including the Battle of Chinhat, the Siege of Lucknow, the Capture of Lucknow, and the Chapati Movement.
Mangal Pandey 1827 1857 He rebelled against his British Indian army commanders and was executed.
Sah Mal 1834 1857 A Rebel of Baraut, led 3500 local Jat peasants who fought against British soldiers of the East India Company.
Dhan Singh Gurjar 1820 1857 He was the police chief of Meerut, who participated in the 1857 rebellion and led initial actions against the British East India Company in Meerut.
Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi 1832 1880 The founder of Darul Uloom Deoband, he participated in the 1857 rebellion in Shamli.[7]
Mahmud Hasan Deobandi 1851 1920 He and his students launched the Silk Letter Movement and laid the foundation of Jamia Millia Islamia on 29 October 1920.[8]
V. O. Chidambaram Pillai 1872 1936 A hardline politician of the Indian National Congress (INC), he launched the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in defiance of the British trade monopoly.[9]
Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar 1908 1963 A leader of the socialist All India Forward Bloc, he was arrested and jailed by the British.
Seth Harchandrai Vishandas 1862 1928 A Sindhi politician and influential mayor of Karachi, he fought for Muslim-Hindu unity and the independence movement, particularly in opposing the Simon Commission of 1912. He died while travelling (against doctor's advice) to vote for its boycott.
B. R. Ambedkar 1891 1956 Politician who campaigned and negotiated for independence, and was pivotal in formation of the Indian Constitution.
Subramania Bharati 1882 1921 A writer and activist who created many patriotic and nationalistic songs during the independence movement.
Alluri Sitarama Raju 1897 1924 He led the Rampa Rebellion of 1922.
Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi 1888 1963 He founded the Khaksar Movement in British India.
Aruna Asaf Ali 1909 1996 An educator and activist who is widely remembered for hoisting the INC flag during the Quit India Movement, 1942.
Shambhu Dutt Sharma 1918 2016 A former British Indian Army officer, he joined the Quit India Movement in 1942.
Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu 1872 1957 An Indian politician, he became known as "Andhra Kesari" (lion of Andhra) for leading protests against the Simon Commission in Madras.
Swami Shraddhanand 1856 1926 An activist, he started a protest in front of a posse of Gurkha soldiers at the Clock Tower in Chandni Chowk.[10]
Khudiram Bose 1889 1908 One of the youngest revolutionary martyrs, he was executed following an attempted assassination bombing which accidentally killed two innocents instead of the then oppressive Viceroy of Bengal .
Chandra Shekhar Azad 1906 1931 When the HRA leadership were arrested following the Kakori train robbery, he reorganized the group and operated it until his death.
Komaram Bheem 1901 1940 A tribal leader, he fought for the liberation of Hyderabad.
Chittaranjan Das 1870 1925 He founded the Swaraj Party and became the leader of the Non-cooperation Movement in Bengal.
Veer Savarkar 1883 1966 He was an Independence activist, politician and a Hindu Nationalist. He published books advocating complete Indian independence by revolutionary means. One of the books he published called The Indian War of Independence about the Indian rebellion of 1857. In 1910, Savarkar was arrested and ordered to be extradited to India for his connections with the revolutionary freedom group India House. He was later sentenced to a total 50 years imprisonment at the Cellular Jail
Ram Prasad Bismil 1897 1927 The founder of the HRA, he led the Kakori conspiracy in an attempt to raise funds for revolutionary operations.
Udham Singh 1899 1940 A revolutionary assassin, he was executed for the Caxton Hall shooting.
Hemu Kalani 1923 1943 A student revolutionary who was executed for attempted rail sabotage.
Ashfaqulla Khan 1900 1927 A founding member of the HRA, he was executed for taking part in the Kakori conspiracy.
Sachindra Bakshi 1904 1984 A member of the HRA, he took part in the Kakori conspiracy.
Manmath Nath Gupta 1908 2000 A member of the HRA, he took part in the Kakori conspiracy.
Vasudev Balwant Phadke 1845 1883 A Ramoshi revolutionary, he organized an insurgent group against British rule
Matangini Hazra 1870 1942 An activist with the Quit India Movement, she was fatally shot by British Indian police.
Anant Laxman Kanhere 1891 1910 A revolutionary assassin, he was executed for the murder of oppressive British officer A. M. T. Jackson.
Vanchinathan 1886 1911 A revolutionary assassin, he committed suicide after killing an oppressive and tyrannical tax collector Robert Ashe.
Krishnaji Gopal Karve 1887 1910 A revolutionary, he was executed as an accomplice to the murder of A. M. T. Jackson.
Bagha Jatin 1879 1915 A founding member of Anushilan Samiti, convicted in the Howrah-Sibpur conspiracy case and a participant in the Indo-German Conspiracy.
Batukeshwar Dutt 1910 1965 A revolutionary fighting against the inhumane and tyrannic British rule, he threw a bomb in the Central Assembly in 1929.
Sukhdev Thapar 1907 1931 A revolutionary fighting against the inhumane and tyrannic British rule, he was hanged following conviction in the 1929 Central Assembly Bomb Case.
Shivaram Rajguru 1908 1931 Associate of Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev Thapar in the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. Involved in the assassination of cruel and reppressive British police officer J. P. Saunders.
Roshan Singh 1892 1927 A revolutionary who was among those executed for the Kakori conspiracy, though he had not taken part in it.
Prabhavati Devi 1906 1973 A Gandhian leader, she was the wife of activist Jayaprakash Narayan.
Pritilata Waddedar 1911 1932 A Bengali revolutionary, she led the attack on the European Club in Pahartali and committed suicide to avoid capture.
Jatindra Nath Das 1904 1929 An activist and revolutionary, he died during a hunger strike while awaiting trial for the Lahore conspiracy case.
Durgawati Devi 1907 1999 A revolutionary, she helped operate a bomb factory.
Bhagwati Charan Vohra 1903 1930 A revolutionary ideologue and bomb-maker, he wrote the article "The Philosophy of Bomb".
Madan Lal Dhingra 1883 1909 An activist and revolutionary fighting against the inhumane and tyranic British rule, he assassinated British official Curzon Wyllie.
Alluri Sitarama Raju 1897 1924 A revolutionary, he led the Rampa Rebellion of 1922.
Kushal Konwar 1905 1943 An organizer of the Quit India movement, he was judged the mastermind of a troop train derailment and hanged.
Surya Sen 1894 1934 President of INC Chittagong Branch, he led the Chittagong armoury raid.
Ananta Singh 1903 1979 A revolutionary, he participated in the Chittagong armoury raid.
Ganesh Ghosh 1900 1994 A revolutionary, he participated in the Chittagong armoury raid.
Sri Aurobindo 1872 1950 A nationalist, he was arrested for leading the Alipore bomb conspiracy.
Rash Behari Bose 1886 1945 A revolutionary, he helped form the Indian National Army in Imperial Japan.
Ubaidullah Sindhi 1872 1944 An activist, he sought independence through foreign alliance in the Silk Letter Movement.
Uzair Gul Peshawari 1886 1989 An activist, he was imprisoned for the Silk Letter Movement.[11]
Lokenath Bal 1908 1964 A revolutionary, he participated in the Chittagong armoury raid.
Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee 1895 1960 A revolutionary, he was imprisoned for the Kakori conspiracy.
Baikuntha Shukla 1907 1934 A revolutionary, he was executed for murdering a government witness.
Ambika Chakrabarty 1892 1962 A revolutionary, he took part in the Chittagong armoury raid.
Badal Gupta 1912 1930 A revolutionary, he died in an attack on police at Writers' Building.
Dinesh Gupta 1911 1931 A revolutionary, he was executed following an attack on police at Writers' Building.
Benoy Basu 1908 1930 A revolutionary, he died following an attack on police at Writers' Building.
Rajendra Lahiri 1901 1927 A revolutionary, he participated in the Kakori conspiracy.
Barindra Kumar Ghosh 1880 1959 A revolutionary organizer, he was convicted in the Alipore bomb case.
Prafulla Chaki 1888 1908 A revolutionary, he killed two innocents in a mistargetted assassination bombing.
Ullaskar Dutta 1885 1965 A revolutionary bomb-maker, he was convicted in the Alipore bomb case.
Bhupendra Kumar Datta 1892 1979 A revolutionary, editor of the publications of Anushilan Samiti.
Ramesh Chandra Jha 1928 1994 An activist, he was a member of the Quit India movement.
Hemchandra Kanungo 1871 1951 A nationalist, convicted in the Alipore bomb case.
Surendranath Tagore 1872 1940 A nationalist, he served as treasurer of the Anushilan Samiti.
Basawon Singh 1909 1989 An activist, he was convicted in the Lahore Conspiracy Case trial.
Bhavabhushan Mitra 1881 1970 Ghadar Mutiny[citation needed]
Bina Das 1911 1986 A revolutionary, she attempted to assassinate Bengal Governor Stanley Jackson.
Kalpana Datta 1913 1995 Involved in the Indian Independence Movement; also part of the Chittagong armoury raid planning.
Kartar Singh Sarabha 1896 1915 A revolutionary, he helped with the Ghadar Party paper and the attempted Ghadar Mutiny.
Shyamji Krishna Varma 1857 1930 A nationalist, he founded the Indian Home Rule Society, India House and The Indian Sociologist in London.
Subhas Chandra Bose 1897 1945 A nationalist, he founded the Indian Legion in Nazi Germany and revamped the Indian National Army in Imperial Japan.
Binod Bihari Chowdhury 1911 2013 A revolutionary, he took part in the Chittagong armoury raid.
Bhupendranath Datta 1880 1961 A revolutionary, he was editor of newspaper Jugantar Patrika.
Amarendranath Chatterjee 1880 1957 A revolutionary, he raised funds and took part in the Indo-German Conspiracy.
Atulkrishna Ghosh 1890 1966 A revolutionary, he took part in the [Indo-German Conspiracy.
Subodh Roy 1915 2006 A revolutionary, he took part in the Chittagong armoury raid and later the Tebhaga movement.
Maulvi Liaquat Ali 1812 1892 A leader of the Sepoy Mutiny, he captured Khusro Bagh in Allahabad and declared the independence of India.
Asaf Ali 1888 1953 A nationalist, he campaigned for independence.
Rani of Jhansi 1828 1858 One of the Pivotal Leaders of the First war of Independence of 1857.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 1869 1948 Father of the Nation, he was the preeminent leader of nonviolent civil disobedience and led the final struggle of India to independence.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 1875 1950 The Iron man of India, he fought for independence and Unified India into one sovereign Nation .
Jawahar Lal Nehru 1889 1964 An activist, he campaigned for independence and became India's first prime minister.
S. Satyamurti 1887 1943 A politician, he campaigned for independence.[12]
Ram Lakhan Singh Yadav 1920 2006 A veteran freedom fighter, Shri Yadav participated in India’s freedom struggle.[13]
Shaukat Ali 1873 1938 An activist and revolutionary, he campaigned for independence and supplied weapons to revolutionaries.[14]
Sushila Chain Trehan 1923 2011 An activist, she was a leading member of Arya Samaj and also fought for women's rights.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak 1856 1920 [The Father of Indian Unrest] A staunch nationalist, he campaigned for complete Swaraj (self-rule).
Bipin Chandra Pal 1858 1932 A staunch nationalist, he was a founding member of the swadeshi movement and campaigned for complete Swaraj Swadeshi movement.
Lala Lajpat Rai 1865 1928 A staunch nationalist, he was a founding member of the swadeshi movement and campaigned for complete Swaraj Swadeshi movement.
Alekh Patra 1923 1999 A nationalist, he was jailed for burning a police station.
Accamma Cherian 1909 1982 An activist, she was named acting president of the Travancore State Congress while the leadership were jailed.
Rosamma Punnoose 1913 2013 An activist, she campaigned for independence.
Annie Mascarene 1902 1963 An activist and politician, she was arrested several times while campaigning for independence.
Titusji 1905 1980 An activist, he was among the 78 marchers selected by Mahatma Gandhi to take part in the 1930 Salt March.
Adoor R. Parameswaran Pillai (Kerala) 1905 1985 An activist, he led the Kadakkal Revolt in Kerala. He was declared as the first democratic minister ("Janakiya Manthri") of Kerala during this revolt was arrested and kept in jail for 141 days before presenting to the court. [15]
George Joseph (Kerala) 1887 1938 An activist, he led the non-cooperation movement in Madurai.
T. V. Thomas 1910 1977 One of the first generation trade union leaders in Kerala and was actively involved in the Indian independence movement.[relevant?]
Madhusudan Das 1848 1934 A leader from the Christian community in Odisha, popularly known as "Utkal Gourab". He was the first graduate and advocate of Odisha.[relevant?]
Kali Charan Banerjee 1847 1902 A Bengali Christian politician, he regularly addressed the Indian National Congress annual sessions in moulding the policy of national movement.[relevant?]
Sukhdev Thapar 1907 1931 A revolutionary, he was a senior member of HSRA and participated in several actions before his execution.
Shivaram Rajguru 1908 1931 A revolutionary, he was an HSRA member and assassinated a tyranic british police officer.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee 1838 1894 A nationalist, he wrote Vande Mataram which inspired many activists and became the national song of India.
Kazi Nazrul Islam 1899 1976 A nationalist, he called for revolution in his poetic works and publications.
Sarojini Naidu 1879 1949 An activist, she called for independence in her writing and was a major figure of the civil disobedience movement.
Tara Rani Srivastava unknown unknown An activist, she was part of the Quit India movement.
Chowdary Satyanarayana 1908 1981 He was an Indian freedom fighter, anti-colonial nationalist, politician, legislature in Andhra Pradesh Assembly (1955–62, 1967–72) and a human rights activist.
Bhagat Singh 1907 1931 A socialist revolutionary who worked with several revolutionary organisations and became prominent in the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA).
Raja Nahar Singh 1821 1858 A Great Jat Ruler of the princely state of Ballabhgarh, he had secured the road from Delhi Gate (Delhi) to Bhadrapur (Bharatpur), as well as drove the British away from the parganas of Pali (Rajasthan), Palwal and Fatehpur.[16]
Umaji Naik Khomane 1791 1832 First Ramoshi Freedom Fighter who faught against British Council Umaji Naik also known as honorofically vishwa krantiveer narveer Raje Umaji Naik (7 September 1791 – 3 February 1832) was an Indian revolutionary who challenged the British rule in India around 1826 to 1832.He was one of the earliest freedom fighter of India.He fought against East India company and company rule
Ganesh Damodar Savarkar 1879 1945 Founder of the Abhinav Bharat Society. He led an armed movement against the British colonial government in India, he was sentenced to transportation for life as a result. Was the brother of Veer Savarkar.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ PTI (18 August 2016). "Pension of freedom fighters hiked by Rs 5,000". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  2. ^ Lisa Mitchell (2009). Language, Emotion, and Politics in South India: The Making of a Mother Tongue. Indiana University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-253-35301-6.
  3. ^ a b Kumar, Madhan (2017). Thamizh Is Not Just A Language: The Valour. Educreation Publishing.
  4. ^ "The Story of Maruthu Brothers! The Leaders Of South Indian Rebellion Against The British East India Company Who Were The First To Issue Declaration Of Independence!". Post Card News: Breaking News, Exclusive Stories, History, Spirituality, Political Analysis, Economics, Nationalism, Culture, Opinion, India and World News, Indian Armed Force. 16 December 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  5. ^ S, Nileena M. (24 October 2011). "Remembering a warrior regent". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  6. ^ Ramachandran, D. P. (2008). Empire's First Soldiers. Lancer Publishers. p. 121. ISBN 9780979617478.
  7. ^ Najmul Hasan Thanwi. Maidan-e-Shamli-o-Thana Bhawan awr Sarfaroshan-e-Islam (in Urdu). Thana Bhawan: Idara Talifat-e-Ashrafia. p. 17.
  8. ^ Asir Adrawi. Hazrat Shaykh al-Hind: Hayat awr Karname [Shaykh al-Hind: Life and works] (in Urdu) (April 2012 ed.). Deoband: Shaykh al-Hind Academy, Darul Uloom Deoband.
  9. ^ Duraichi, Paul (5 September 2019). "Parturition of V.O.Chidambaram Pillai Steam Navigation Company in Indian Freedom Struggle Movement". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ G.S.Chhabra (2005). Advance Study in the History of Modern India (Volume-3: 1920-1947). Lotus Press. ISBN 978-81-89093-08-2.
  11. ^ Muhammad Miyan Deobandi. "Mawlana Uzair Gul". Asiran-e-Malta [Prisoners of Malta] (in Urdu) (January 2002 ed.). Deoband: Naimia Book Depot. pp. 367–376.
  12. ^ "S, SATYAMURTI; Indian Political Leader, 56, Long Active in Civil Disobedience". The New York Times. 28 March 1943. (subscription required)
  13. ^ "Regarding Passing Away Of Shri Ram Lakhan Singh Yadav, Member 10 Th Lok ... on 2 March, 2006".
  14. ^ Brief History of Shaukat Ali,[1], [2]
  15. ^ https://www.mathrubhumi.com/pathanamthitta/news/kadakkal-freedom-fighter-adoor-parameswaran-pillai-wife-passed-away-1.3517460
  16. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ali_Jinnah