List of Indian inventions and discoveries

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This list of Indian inventions and discoveries details the inventions, scientific discoveries and contributions of India, including the ancient, classical and post-classical nations in the subcontinent historically referred to as India and the modern Indian state. It draws from the whole cultural and technological history of India, during which architecture, astronomy, cartography, metallurgy, logic, mathematics, metrology and mineralogy were among the branches of study pursued by its scholars.[1] During recent times science and technology in the Republic of India has also focused on automobile engineering, information technology, communications as well as research into space and polar technology.

For the purpose of this list, the inventions are regarded as technological firsts developed in India, and as such does not include foreign technologies which India acquired through contact. It also does not include technologies or discoveries developed elsewhere and later invented separately in India, nor inventions by Indian emigres in other places. Changes in minor concepts of design or style and artistic innovations do not appear in the lists.



  • DigiLocker world's first digital locker, DigiLocker provides an account in cloud to every Aadhaar holder to access all authentic documents/certificates such as driving license, vehicle registration, academic mark sheet in digital format from the original issuers of these certificates.
  • Janapada (democratic republic system) (1100-500 BCE):[2]
  • Local government: presence of municipality in Indus Valley Civilization is characterised by rubbish bins and drainage system throughout urban areas. Megasthenes also mentions presence of a local government in the Mauryan city of Pataliputra.[3][4]
  • Passport: Arthashastra (c. 3rd century BCE) make mentions of passes issued at the rate of one masha per pass to enter and exit the country. Chapter 34 of the Second Book of Arthashastra concerns with the duties of the Mudrādhyakṣa (lit.'Superintendent of Seals') who must issue sealed passes before a person could enter or leave the countryside. This constitutes first passports and passbooks in world history[5]


  • 5Gi, is an Indian wireless communication standard that features low mobility large cell (LMLC), is designed to enhance the signal transmission range of a basestation several times, helping service providers cost-effectively expand coverage in rural areas.TSDSI 5Gi is set to be merged with 3GPP 5G standard.[6]
  • Crystal detector by Jagadish Chandra Bose. Crystals were first used as radio wave detectors in 1894 by Bose in his microwave experiments. Bose first patented a crystal detector in 1901.[7][8][9]
  • Horn antenna or microwave horn, One of the first horn antennas was constructed by Jagadish Chandra Bose in 1897.[10][11]
  • Microwave Communication: The first public demonstration of microwave transmission was made by Jagadish Chandra Bose, in Calcutta, in 1895, two years before a similar demonstration by Marconi in England, and just a year after Oliver Lodge's commemorative lecture on Radio communication, following Hertz's death. Bose's revolutionary demonstration forms the foundation of the technology used in mobile telephony, radars, satellite communication, radios, television broadcast, WiFi, remote controls and countless other applications.[12][13]

Computers and programming languages[edit]

Construction, Civil engineering and Architecture[edit]

The Great Stupa at Sanchi (4th–1st century BCE). The dome shaped stupa was used in India as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.
  • BharatNet(National Optical Fibre Network) is establishment, management, and operation of the National Optical Fibre Network as an Infrastructure to provide a minimum of 100 Mbit/s broadband connectivity to all rural and remote areas. BBNL was established in 2012 to lay the optical fiber.
  • English Bond: The English bond is a form of brickwork with alternating stretching and heading courses, with the headers centred over the midpoint of the stretchers, and perpends in each alternate course aligned. Harappan architecture in South Asia was the first to use the so-called English bond in building with bricks.
Hanuman and Ravana in Tolu Bommalata, the shadow puppet tradition of Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Dedicated Freight Corridors is an electric high speed and high capacity railway corridor that is exclusively meant for the transportation of double stack freight cargo.It will help in freeing up the passenger corridor.
  • Dockyard: The world's earliest enclosed dockyard was built in the Harappan port city of Lothal circa 2600 BC in Gujarat, India.[1]
  • Genome Valley is world's first organized cluster for Life Sciences R&D and Clean Manufacturing activities, with world-class infrastructure facilities in the form of Industrial / Knowledge Parks, Special Economic Zones (SEZs), Multi-tenanted dry and wet laboratories and incubation facilities.
  • Light Gauge Steel framing is a construction technology using cold-formed steel as the construction material. It can be used for roof systems, floor systems, wall systems, roof panels, decks, or the entire buildings.
  • Multi-Modal Logistics Parks (MMLPs) defined as a freight-handling facility with a minimum area of 100 acres (40.5 hectares), with various modes of transport access, mechanized warehouses, specialized storage solutions such as cold storage, facilities for mechanized material handling and inter-modal transfer container terminals, and bulk and break-bulk cargo terminals.
  • Plumbing: Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 BC. Earthen pipes were used in the Indus Valley c. 2700 BC for a city-scale urban drainage system,[21]
  • Plastic road are made entirely of plastic or of composites of plastic with other materials. Plastic roads are different from standard roads in the respect that standard roads are made from asphalt concrete, which consists of mineral aggregates and asphalt. Most plastic roads sequester plastic waste within the asphalt as an aggregate. Plastic roads first developed by Rajagopalan Vasudevan in 2001.
  • Chenab Bridge is world's highest rail bridge and world's first blast-proof steel bridge.The bridge is built using 63mm-thick special blast-proof steel.[22]
  • Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) semi high speed metropolitan rail network which will operate within the range of 80–100 km which is the range between a metro system and conventional rail system, RRTS will be a rail based system that will connect small but fast developing towns in the NCR region.The goal of RRTS is to reduce the dependence of commuters on road based transportation to a combination of road-cum rail transportation system.
  • Squat toilet: Toilet platforms above drains, in the proximity of wells, are found in several houses of the cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa from the 3rd millennium BCE.[23]
  • Soil Health Card under the scheme, the government plans to issue soil cards to farmers which will carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilisers required for the individual farms to help farmers to improve productivity through judicious use of inputs. All soil samples are to be tested in various soil testing labs across the country.
  • Stepwell: Earliest clear evidence of the origins of the stepwell is found in the Indus Valley Civilisation's archaeological site at Mohenjodaro in Pakistan[24] and Dholavira in India.[25] The three features of stepwells in the subcontinent are evident from one particular site, abandoned by 2500 BCE, which combines a bathing pool, steps leading down to water, and figures of some religious importance into one structure.[24] The early centuries immediately before the common era saw the Buddhists and the Jains of India adapt the stepwells into their architecture.[24] Both the wells and the form of ritual bathing reached other parts of the world with Buddhism.[24] Rock-cut step wells in the subcontinent date from 200 to 400 CE.[26] Subsequently, the wells at Dhank (550–625 CE) and stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850–950 CE) were constructed.[26]
  • Stupa: The origin of the stupa can be traced to 3rd-century BCE India.[27] It was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.[27] The stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it evolved into the pagoda, a Buddhist monument used for enshrining sacred relics.[27]

Finance & Banking[edit]

  • InvITs(Infrastructure Investment Trusts) are a hybrid between equity and debt investment, i.e., it has features of both equity and debt. While the operating business model helps provide stable, predictable, and relatively low-risk cash flows like debt, there is growth potential like equity as the returns are not fixed with a scope of change in the unit price.[28]
  • Payments bank is an Indian new model of banks conceptualised by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) without issuing credit.
  • Cheque: There is early evidence of using cheques. In India, during the Maurya Empire (from 321 to 185 BC), a commercial instrument called the adesha was in use, which was an order on a banker desiring him to pay the money of the note to a third person.[29]
  • Direct Benefit Transfer, This program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts. It is hoped that crediting subsidies into bank accounts will reduce leakages, delays, etc.


  • Badminton: The game may have originally developed among expatriate officers in British India.
  • Blindfold Chess: Games prohibited by Buddha includes a variant of ashtapada game played on imaginary boards. Akasam astapadam was an ashtapada variant played with no board, literally "astapadam played in the sky". A correspondent in the American Chess Bulletin identifies this as likely the earliest literary mention of a blindfold chess variant.[30]
  • Carrom: The game of carrom originated in India.[31] One carrom board with its surface made of glass is still available in one of the palaces in Patiala, India.[32] It became very popular among the masses after World War I. State-level competitions were being held in the different states of India during the early part of the twentieth century. Serious carrom tournaments may have begun in Sri Lanka in 1935 but by 1958, both India and Sri Lanka had formed official federations of carrom clubs, sponsoring tournaments and awarding prizes.[33]
  • Chaturanga: The precursor of chess originated in India during the Gupta dynasty (c. 280–550 CE).[34][35][36][37] Both the Persians and Arabs ascribe the origins of the game of Chess to the Indians.[36][38][39] The words for "chess" in Old Persian and Arabic are chatrang and shatranj respectively – terms derived from caturaṅga in Sanskrit,[40][41] which literally means an army of four divisions or four corps.[42][43] Chess spread throughout the world and many variants of the game soon began taking shape.[44] This game was introduced to the Near East from India and became a part of the princely or courtly education of Persian nobility.[42] Buddhist pilgrims, Silk Road traders and others carried it to the Far East where it was transformed and assimilated into a game often played on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares.[44] Chaturanga reached Europe through Persia, the Byzantine empire and the expanding Arabian empire.[43][45] Muslims carried Shatranj to North Africa, Sicily, and Spain by the 10th century where it took its final modern form of chess.[44]
  • Kabaddi: The game of kabaddi originated in India during prehistory.[46] Suggestions on how it evolved into the modern form range from wrestling exercises, military drills, and collective self-defence but most authorities agree that the game existed in some form or the other in India during the period between 1500 and 400 BCE.[46]
  • Ludo: Pachisi originated in India by the 6th century.[47] The earliest evidence of this game in India is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta.[47] A variant of this game, called Ludo, made its way to England during the British Raj.[47]
  • Mallakhamba: It is a traditional sport, originating from the Indian subcontinent, in which a gymnast performs aerial yoga or gymnastic postures and wrestling grips in concert with a vertical stationary or hanging wooden pole, cane, or rope.The earliest literary known mention of Mallakhamb is in the 1135 CE Sanskrit classic Manasollasa, written by Someshvara III. It has been thought to be the ancestor of Pole Dancing.
  • Nuntaa, also known as Kutkute.[48]
  • Seven Stones: An Indian subcontinent game also called Pitthu is played in rural areas has its origins in the Indus Valley Civilization.[49]
  • Snakes and ladders: Vaikunta pali Snakes and ladders originated in India as a game based on morality.[50] During British rule of India, this game made its way to England, and was eventually introduced in the United States of America by game-pioneer Milton Bradley in 1943.[50]
  • Suits game: Kridapatram is an early suits game, made of painted rags, invented in Ancient India. The term kridapatram literally means "painted rags for playing."[51][52][53][54][55] Paper playing cards first appeared in East Asia during the 9th century.[51][56] The medieval Indian game of ganjifa, or playing cards, is first recorded in the 16th century.[57]
  • Table Tennis: It has been suggested that makeshift versions of the game were developed by British military officers in India around the 1860s or 1870s, who brought it back with them.[58]
  • Vajra-mushti: refers to a wrestling where knuckleduster like weapon is employed.The first literary mention of vajra-musti comes from the Manasollasa of the Chalukya king Someswara III (1124–1138), although it has been conjectured to have existed since as early as the Maurya dynasty.
  • Kalaripayattu: One of the world's oldest form of martial arts is Kalaripayattu that developed in the southwest state of Kerala in India.[59] It is believed to be the oldest surviving martial art in India, with a history spanning over 3,000 years.[60]
  • Dice: Excavations from graves at Mohenjo-daro, an Indus Valley civilization settlement, unearthed terracotta dice dating to 2500–1900 BC.[61] Games involving dice are mentioned in the Rigveda, Atharvaveda and Mahabharata


  • Amrapali mango is a named mango cultivar introduced in 1971 by Dr. Pijush Kanti Majumdar at the Indian Agriculture Research Institute in Delhi.
  • Synthetic genes and decoding of protein synthesising gene: Indian-American biochemist Har Gobind Khorona, created the first synthetic gene and uncovered how a DNA's genetic code determines protein synthesis – which dictates how a cell functions. That discovery earned Khorana, along with his two colleagues, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968.[62]
  • Pseudomonas putida: Indian (Bengali) inventor and microbiologist Ananda Mohan Chakrabarty created a variety of man-made microorganism to break down crude oil.[63] He genetically engineered[64][65][66][67][68][69] a new variety of Pseudomonas bacteria ("the oil-eating bacteria") in 1971.[70] In Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the United States Supreme Court granted Chakrabarty's invention patent, even though it was a living organism. The court ruling decreed that Chakrabarty's discovery was "not nature's handiwork, but his own..." Chakrabarty secured his patent in 1980.[71]
  • Mynvax is world's first "warm" COVID-19 vaccine, developed by IISc, capable of withstanding 37C for a month and neutralise all coronavirus variants of concern.[72]

Metallurgy and manufacturing[edit]

  • High ash coal gasification(Coal to Methanol), The Central Government gave the country world's first 'coal to methanol' (CTM) plant built by the Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL). The plant was inaugurated in BHEL's Hyderabad unit, The pilot project is the first that uses the gasification method for converting high-ash coal into methanol. Handling of high ash and heat required to melt this high amount of ash is a challenge in the case of Indian coal, which generally has high ash content. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited has developed the fluidized bed gasification technology suitable for high ash Indian coals to produce syngas and then convert syngas to methanol with 99% purity.[73]
  • CBM in Blast Furnace, Tata Steel has initiated the trial for continuous injection of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) gas in one of the Blast Furnaces at its Jamshedpur Works, making it the first such instance in the world where a steel company has used CBM as injectant. This process is expected to reduce coke rate by 10 kg/thm, which will be equivalent to reducing 33 kg of CO2 per tonne of crude steel.[74]
  • Crucible steel: Perhaps as early as 300 BCE—although certainly by 200 BCE—high quality steel was being produced in southern India, by what Europeans would later call the crucible technique.[75] In this system, high-purity wrought iron, charcoal, and glass were mixed in a crucible and heated until the iron melted and absorbed the carbon.[75]
Close-up of Wootz steel, pioneering steel alloy matrix developed in India.
  • Diamond drills: in the 12th century BCE or 7th century BCE, Indians not only innovated use of diamond tipped drills but also invented double diamond tipped drills for bead manufacturing.[76]
  • Diamond cutting and polishing: The technology of cutting and polishing diamonds was invented in India, Ratnapariksha, a text dated to 6th century talks about diamond cutting and Al-Beruni speaks about the method of using lead plate for diamond polishing in the 11th century CE.[77]
  • DMR grade steels for several high-technology applications, such as military hardware and aerospace, need to possess ultrahigh strength (UHS; minimum yield strength of 1380 MPa (200 ksi)) coupled with high fracture toughness in order to meet the requirement of minimum weight while ensuring high reliability.
  • Etched Carnelian beads: are a type of ancient decorative beads made from carnelian with an etched design in white. They were made according to a technique of alkaline-etching developed by the Harappans during the 3rd millennium BCE and were widely disperced from China in the east to Greece in the west.[78][79][80]
  • Fortified Cabin, is a car designing technique by TATA Motors such that the high-strength steel structure absorbs impact energy and protects the passenger during an unfortunate collision.Tata Nexon has the fortified cabin design for achieving full 5 star safety ratings.
  • Glass blowing: Rudimentary form of glass blowing from Indian subcontinent is attested earlier than Western Asian counterparts(where it is attested not earlier than 1st century BCE) in the form of Indo-Pacific beads which uses glass blowing to make cavity before being subjected to tube drawn technique for bead making dated more than 2500 BP.[81][82] Beads are made by attaching molten glass gather to the end of a blowpipe, a bubble is then blown into the gather.[83] The glass blown vessels were rarely attested and were imported commodity in 1st millennium CE though.
  • Iron pillar of Delhi: The world's first iron pillar was the Iron pillar of Delhi—erected at the time of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–413).[84] The pillar has attracted attention of archaeologists and materials scientists and has been called "a testament to the skill of ancient Indian blacksmiths" because of its high resistance to corrosion.[85]
  • Lost-wax casting: Metal casting by the Indus Valley civilization began around 3500 BC in the Mohenjodaro area,[86] which produced one of the earliest known examples of lost-wax casting, an Indian bronze figurine named the "dancing girl" that dates back nearly 5,000 years to the Harappan period (c. 3300–1300 BC).[86][87] Other examples include the buffalo, bull and dog found at Mohenjodaro and Harappa,[88][87][89] two copper figures found at the Harappan site Lothal in the district of Ahmedabad of Gujarat,[86] and likely a covered cart with wheels missing and a complete cart with a driver found at Chanhudaro.[88][89]
  • Lost wax Casting: It is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture. Intricate works can be achieved by this method.The oldest known example of this technique is a 6,000-year old amulet from the Indus Valley Civilization.[2] * Seamless celestial globe: Considered one of the most remarkable feats in metallurgy, it was invented in India in between 1589 and 1590 CE.[90][91] Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology.[91]
  • HIsarna a new process for production of steel, one it says "results in enormous efficiency gains" and reduces energy use and carbon dioxide emissions by a fifth of that in the conventional blast furnace route.It's IP belongs to TATA Steel.
  • Stoneware: Earliest stonewares, predecessors of porcelain have been recorded at Indus Valley Civilization sites of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, they were used for making stoneware bangles.[92][93][94]
  • Jackal steel is an advanced grade high strength low alloy steel, The technology of Jackal steel has been passed on to Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) and MIDHANI for its bulk production.
  • 1200 kV UHDVC Transformer, world's first ultra high voltage ac 1200kV transformer through in-house R&D by BHEL in 2011.[95]
  • Tube drawn technology: Indians used tube drawn technology for glass bead manufacturing which was first developed in the 2nd century BCE.[96][97][83]
  • Tumble polishing: Indians innvoted polishing method in the 10th century BCE for mass production of polished stone beads.[98][76][99][100]
  • Wootz steel: Wootz steel is an ultra-high carbon steel and the first form of crucible steel manufactured by the applications and use of nanomaterials in its microstructure and is characterised by its ultra-high carbon content exhibiting properties such as superplasticity and high impact hardness.[101] Archaeological and Tamil language literary evidence suggests that this manufacturing process was already in existence in South India well before the common era, with wootz steel exported from the Chera dynasty and called Seric Iron in Rome, and later known as Damascus steel in Europe.[102][103][104][105] Reproduction research is undertaken by scientists Dr. Oleg Sherby and Dr. Jeff Wadsworth and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have all attempted to create steels with characteristics similar to Wootz, but without success. J.D Verhoeven and Al Pendray attained some success in the reconstruction methods of production, proved the role of impurities of ore in the pattern creation, and reproduced Wootz steel with patterns microscopically and visually identical to one of the ancient blade patterns.[106]



Crescograph, Bose Institute, Kolkata.
  • Crescograph: The crescograph, a device for measuring growth in plants, was invented in the early 20th century by the Bengali scientist Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose.[108][109]
  • Incense clock: The incense clock is a timekeeping device used to measure minutes, hours, or days, incense clocks were commonly used at homes and temples in dynastic times. Although popularly associated with China the incense clock is believed to have originated in India, at least in its fundamental form if not function.[110][111] Early incense clocks found in China between the 6th and 8th centuries CE—the period it appeared in China all seem to have Devanāgarī carvings on them instead of Chinese seal characters.[110][111] Incense itself was introduced to China from India in the early centuries CE, along with the spread of Buddhism by travelling monks.[112][113][114] Edward Schafer asserts that incense clocks were probably an Indian invention, transmitted to China, which explains the Devanāgarī inscriptions on early incense clocks found in China.[110] Silvio Bedini on the other hand asserts that incense clocks were derived in part from incense seals mentioned in Tantric Buddhist scriptures, which first came to light in China after those scriptures from India were translated into Chinese, but holds that the time-telling function of the seal was incorporated by the Chinese.[111]
  • Shearing Interferometer: Invented by M.V.R.K. Murty, a type of Lateral Shearing Interferometer utilises a laser source for measuring refractive index.[115][116]

Science and technology[edit]

  • Fibonacci number The Fibonacci numbers were first described in Indian mathematics, as early as 200 BC in work by Pingala on enumerating possible patterns of Sanskrit poetry formed from syllables of two lengths.
  • Bipyrazole Organic Crystals, the piezoelectric molecules developed by IISER scientists recombine following mechanical fracture without any external intervention, autonomously self-healing in milliseconds with crystallographic precision.[117]
  • Digital vaccines: Developed based on fundamental neurocognitive computing and immunological modulation discoveries in pediatric and young adult populations, this sub field of digital therapeutics was invented by Bhargav Sri Prakash, through work led by his team at Carnegie Mellon University.[118][119][120][121]
  • e-mode HEMT, In 2019 scientists from Bangalore have developed a highly reliable, High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMTs) that is a normally OFF device and can switch currents up to 4A and operates at 600V. This first-ever indigenous HEMT device made from gallium nitride (GaN). Such transistors are called e-mode or enhancement mode transistors.[122][123]
  • Nano Urea, the size of one nano urea liquid particle is 30 nanometre and compared to the conventional granular urea it has about 10,000 times more surface area to volume size. Due to the ultra-small size and surface properties, the nano urea liquid gets absorbed by plants more effectively when sprayed on their leaves.Ramesh Raliya of IFFCO is the inventor of nano urea.
  • Locomotive with Regenerative braking, BHEL has developed world's first ever DC electric locomotive with a regenerative braking system through its in-house R&D centre, First proposed by the Railway Ministry, the concept involving the energy-efficient regeneration system was put into shape by BHEL in a 5,000 HP WAG-7 electric locomotive.[124]
  • In2Se3 transistor developed by the Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE), a ferroelectric channel semiconductor FET, i.e., FeS-FET, whose gate-triggered and polarization-induced resistive switching is then exploited to mimic an artificial synapse.
  • Indian Ocean Dipole is an unusual pattern in the ocean-atmosphere system of the equatorial Indian Ocean that influences the monsoon and can offset the adverse impact of El Nino. It is typically characterized by cooler than normal eastern equatorial Indian Ocean and warmer than normal west and unusual equatorial easterly winds. It was discovered in Centre for Atmospheric And Oceanic Sciences, IISc. team led by NH Saji in 1999.[125]
  • Toe stirrup: The earliest known manifestation of the stirrup, which was a toe loop that held the big toe was used in India in as early as 500 BCE[126] or perhaps by 200 BCE according to other sources.[127][128] This ancient stirrup consisted of a looped rope for the big toe which was at the bottom of a saddle made of fibre or leather.[128] Such a configuration made it suitable for the warm climate of most of India where people used to ride horses barefoot.[128] A pair of megalithic double bent iron bars with curvature at each end, excavated in Junapani in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh have been regarded as stirrups although they could as well be something else.[129] Buddhist carvings in the temples of Sanchi, Mathura and the Bhaja caves dating back between the 1st and 2nd century BCE figure horsemen riding with elaborate saddles with feet slipped under girths.[130][131][132] Sir John Marshall described the Sanchi relief as "the earliest example by some five centuries of the use of stirrups in any part of the world".[132] In the 1st century CE horse riders in northern India, where winters are sometimes long and cold, were recorded to have their booted feet attached to hooked stirrups.[127] However the form, the conception of the primitive Indian stirrup spread west and east, gradually evolving into the stirrup of today.[128][131]
  • Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) was accidentally discovered in 1988 at Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru, India. SCS involves an exothermic redox chemical reaction between an oxidizer like metal nitrate and a fuel in an aqueous medium.[133]
  • Three-stage nuclear power programme was formulated by Homi Bhabha, the well-known physicist, in the 1950s to secure the country's long term energy independence, through the use of uranium and thorium reserves found in the monazite sands of coastal regions of South India.

Textile and Material production[edit]

  • Button: Ornamental buttons—made from seashell—were used in the Indus Valley civilisation for ornamental purposes by 2000 BCE.[134] Some buttons were carved into geometric shapes and had holes pierced into them so that they could be attached to clothing by using a thread.[134] Ian McNeil (1990) holds that: "The button, in fact, was originally used more as an ornament than as a fastening, the earliest known being found at Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley. It is made of a curved shell and about 5000 years old."[135]
A Nepali Charkha in action
  • Calico: Calico had originated in the subcontinent by the 11th century and found mention in Indian literature, by the 12th-century writer Hemachandra. He has mentioned calico fabric prints done in a lotus design.[136] The Indian textile merchants traded in calico with the Africans by the 15th century and calico fabrics from Gujarat appeared in Egypt.[136] Trade with Europe followed from the 17th century onward.[136] Within India, calico originated in Kozhikode.[136]
  • Carding devices: Historian of science Joseph Needham ascribes the invention of bow-instruments used in textile technology to India.[137] The earliest evidence for using bow-instruments for carding comes from India (2nd century CE).[137] These carding devices, called kaman and dhunaki would loosen the texture of the fibre by the means of a vibrating string.[137]
  • Chintz: The origin of Chintz is from the printed all cotton fabric of calico in India.[138] The origin of the word chintz itself is from the Hindi language word चित्र् (chitr), which means an image.[138][139]
  • Cashmere: The fibre cashmere fibre also known as pashm or pashmina for its use in the handmade shawls of Kashmir, India.[140] The woolen shawls made from wool in Indian administered Kashmir find written mention between the 3rd century BCE and the 11th century CE.[141]
  • Cotton cultivation: Cotton was cultivated by the inhabitants of the Indus Valley civilisation by the 5th millennium BCE – 4th millennium BCE.[142] The Indus cotton industry was well developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be practised till the modern industrialisation of India.[143] Well before the Common Era, the use of cotton textiles had spread from India to the Mediterranean and beyond.[144]
  • Single roller cotton gin: The Ajanta Caves of India yield evidence of a single roller cotton gin in use by the 5th century.[145] This cotton gin was used in India until innovations were made in form of foot powered gins.[146] The cotton gin was invented in India as a mechanical device known as charkhi, more technically the "wooden-worm-worked roller". This mechanical device was, in some parts of India, driven by water power.[137]
  • Modrant (Dye Fixing): Modrants for fixing dyes were used since Indus valley civilization, it exhibited Indian mastry over clothes dying which was unrivalled until the invention of western chemical dyes.[147]
  • Muslin: The fabric was named after the city where Europeans first encountered it, Mosul, in what is now Iraq, but the fabric actually originated from Dhaka in what is now Bangladesh.[148][149] Roman document Periplus of Erythraean Sea describes Muslin dated 59–62 CE being exported from Barygaza (Bharuch).[150] In the 9th century, an Arab merchant named Sulaiman makes note of the material's origin in Bengal (known as Ruhml in Arabic).[149]
Single roller cotton gin, in use c. 1820
  • Palampore: पालमपोर् (Hindi language) of Indian origin[151] was imported to the western world—notable England and Colonial America—from India.[152][153] In 17th-century England these hand painted cotton fabrics influenced native crewel work design.[152] Shipping vessels from India also took palampore to colonial America, where it was used in quilting.[153]
  • Prayer flags: The Buddhist sūtras, written on cloth in India, were transmitted to other regions of the world.[154] These sutras, written on banners, were the origin of prayer flags.[154] Legend ascribes the origin of the prayer flag to the Shakyamuni Buddha, whose prayers were written on battle flags used by the devas against their adversaries, the asuras.[155] The legend may have given the Indian bhikku a reason for carrying the 'heavenly' banner as a way of signyfying his commitment to ahimsa.[156] This knowledge was carried into Tibet by 800 CE, and the actual flags were introduced no later than 1040 CE, where they were further modified.[156] The Indian monk Atisha (980–1054 CE) introduced the Indian practice of printing on cloth prayer flags to Tibet.[155]
  • Charkha (Spinning wheel): invented in India, between 500 and 1000 CE.[157]
  • Super Cotton, BARC has developed super absorbent for removal of oily substance from aqueous media.[158]
  • Tanning (leather): Ancient civilizations used leather for waterskins, bags, harnesses and tack, boats, armour, quivers, scabbards, boots, and sandals. Tanning was being carried out by the inhabitants of Mehrgarh in Ancient India between 7000 and 3300 BCE.[159]


  • Indian clubs: The Indian club—which appeared in Europe during the 18th century—was used long by India's native soldiery before its introduction to Europe.[160] During the British Raj the British officers in India performed calisthenic exercises with clubs to keep in physical condition.[160] From Britain the use of club swinging spread to the rest of the world.[160]
  • Meditation: The oldest documented evidence of the practice of meditation are wall arts in the Indian subcontinent from approximately 5,000 to 3,500 BCE, showing people seated in meditative postures with half-closed eyes.[161]
  • Shampoo: The word shampoo in English is derived from Hindustani chāmpo (चाँपो Hindustani pronunciation: [tʃãːpoː]),[162] and dates to 1762.[163] A variety of herbs and their extracts were used as shampoos since ancient times in India, evidence of early herbal shampoo have been discovered from Indus Valley Civilization site of Banawali dated to 2750–2500 BCE.[164] A very effective early shampoo was made by boiling Sapindus with dried Indian gooseberry (aamla) and a few other herbs, using the strained extract. Sapindus, also known as soapberries or soapnuts, is called Ksuna (Sanskrit: क्षुण)[165] in ancient Indian texts and its fruit pulp contain saponins, a natural surfactant. The extract of Ksuna, creates a lather which Indian texts identify as phenaka (Sanskrit: फेनक),[166] leaves the hair soft, shiny and manageable. Other products used for hair cleansing were shikakai (Acacia concinna), soapnuts (Sapindus), hibiscus flowers,[167][168] ritha (Sapindus mukorossi) and arappu (Albizzia amara).[169] Guru Nanak, the founding prophet and the first Guru of Sikhism, made references to soapberry tree and soap in 16th century.[170] Washing of hair and body massage (champu) during a daily strip wash was an indulgence of early colonial traders in India. When they returned to Europe, they introduced their newly learnt habits, including the hair treatment they called shampoo.[171]
  • Yoga: Yoga as a physical, mental, and spiritual practice originated in ancient India.[172]


Indigenisation and Improvements[edit]

  • Zero Emission Electrified Rail network, Indian Railway is all set to become the world's first 100 per cent green railway with net-zero emission by 2030 as the electrification of railway routes in the country is progressing 10 times faster since 2014.[175]
  • Unified Payments Interface is an instant real-time payment system developed by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) facilitating inter-bank peer-to-peer (P2P) and person-to-merchant (P2M) transactions.UPI doesn't needs Internet connection for financial transactions and card-less ATM transactions can also occur using UPI.
  • Fibre optics: Named as one of the 7 'Unsung Heroes' by Fortune Magazine, Dr. Narinder Singh Kapany, is widely recognised as the 'Father of Fibre Optics' for his pioneering work in developing commercial applications for fibre optic technology.[176]
  • CNG car/vehicle, Bajaj Auto launched the first 'commercial' lot of its CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) autorickshaws in Delhi on 29 May 2000.
  • Proto-writing: The Indus script is a symbol system that emerged during the end of the 4th millennium BC in the Indus Valley civilization.
  • India ink: Known in Asia since the third millennia BCE, and used in India since at least the 4th century BCE.[177] Masi, an early ink in India was an admixture of several chemical components.,[177] with the carbon black from which India ink is produced obtained by burning bones, tar, pitch, and other substances.[178][179][180] Documents dating to the 3rd century CE, written in Kharosthi, with ink have been unearthed in East Turkestan, Xinjiang.[181] The practice of writing with ink and a sharp pointed needle was common in ancient South India.[182] Several Jain sutras in India were compiled in ink.[183]


  • Power Series: The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics or the Kerala school was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Tirur, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Their work, completed two centuries before the invention of calculus in Europe, provided what is now considered the first example of a power series (apart from geometric series). However, they did not formulate a systematic theory of differentiation and integration.[184]
  • Indigo dye: Indigo, a blue pigment and a dye, was used in India, which was also the earliest major centre for its production and processing.[185] The Indigofera tinctoria variety of Indigo was domesticated in India.[185] Indigo, used as a dye, made its way to the Greeks and the Romans via various trade routes, and was valued as a luxury product.[185]
  • Jute cultivation: Jute has been cultivated in India since ancient times.[186] Raw jute was exported to the western world, where it was used to make ropes and cordage.[186] The Indian jute industry, in turn, was modernised during the British Raj in India.[186] The region of Bengal was the major centre for Jute cultivation, and remained so before the modernisation of India's jute industry in 1855, when Kolkata became a centre for jute processing in India.[186]
  • Sugar refinement: Sugarcane was originally from tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia,[187] with different species originating in India, and S. edule and S. officinarum from New Guinea.[187] The process of producing crystallised sugar from sugarcane was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas,[188] and the earliest reference of candied sugar comes from India.[189] The process was soon transmitted to China with travelling Buddhist monks.[189] Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, for obtaining technology for sugar-refining.[190] Each mission returned with results on refining sugar.[190]


Number System Numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Gurmukhi o
The half-chord version of the sine function was developed by the Indian mathematician Aryabhatta.
Brahmagupta's theorem (598–668) states that AF = FD.
  • Zero: Zero and its operation are first defined by (Hindu astronomer and mathematician) Brahmagupta in 628.[191] The Babylonians used a space, and later a zero glyph, in their written Sexagesimal system, to signify the 'absent',[192] the Olmecs used a positional zero glyph in their Vigesimal system, the Greeks, from Ptolemy's Almagest, in a Sexagesimal system. The Chinese used a blank, in the written form of their decimal Counting rods system. A dot, rather than a blank, was first seen to denote zero, in a decimal system, in the Bakhshali manuscript.[193] The usage of the zero in the Bakhshali manuscript was dated from between 3rd and 4th centuries, making it the earliest known usage of a written zero, in a decimal place value system.[194]
  • Quadratic equations: Indian mathematician Śrīdharācārya derived the quadratic formula used for solving quadratic equations.[195][196]
  • AKS primality test: The AKS primality test is a deterministic primality-proving algorithm created and published by three Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur computer scientists, Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, and Nitin Saxena on 6 August 2002 in a paper titled PRIMES is in P.[197][198] Commenting on the impact of this discovery, Paul Leyland noted: "One reason for the excitement within the mathematical community is not only does this algorithm settle a long-standing problem, it also does so in a brilliantly simple manner. Everyone is now wondering what else has been similarly overlooked".[198][199]
  • Finite Difference Interpolation: The Indian mathematician Brahmagupta presented what is possibly the first instance[200][201] of finite difference interpolation around 665 CE.[202]
  • Algebraic abbreviations: The mathematician Brahmagupta had begun using abbreviations for unknowns by the 7th century.[203] He employed abbreviations for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem.[203] Brahmagupta also used abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.[203]
  • Seshadri constant: In algebraic geometry, a Seshadri constant is an invariant of an ample line bundle L at a point P on an algebraic variety.The name is in honour of the Indian mathematician C. S. Seshadri.
  • Basu's theorem: The Basu's theorem, a result of Debabrata Basu (1955) states that any complete sufficient statistic is independent of any ancillary statistic.[204][205]
  • Rolle's theorem: Bhāskara II is credited with knowledge of Rolle's theorem although it is named after Michel Rolle who described with insufficient proof and was later proved by Cauchy.[206]
  • Kosambi-Karhunen-Loève theorem (also known as the Karhunen–Loève theorem) The Kosambi-Karhunen-Loève theorem is a representation of a stochastic process as an infinite linear combination of orthogonal functions, analogous to a Fourier series representation of a function on a bounded interval. Stochastic processes given by infinite series of this form were first[207] considered by Damodar Dharmananda Kosambi.[208]
  • Brahmagupta–Fibonacci identity, Brahmagupta formula, Brahmagupta matrix, and Brahmagupta theorem: Discovered by the Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta (598–668 CE).[209][210][211][212]
  • Chakravala method: The Chakravala method, a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations is commonly attributed to Bhāskara II, (c. 1114 – 1185 CE)[213][214][215] although some attribute it to Jayadeva (c. 950~1000 CE).[216] Jayadeva pointed out that Brahmagupta's approach to solving equations of this type would yield infinitely large number of solutions, to which he then described a general method of solving such equations.[217] Jayadeva's method was later refined by Bhāskara II in his Bijaganita treatise to be known as the Chakravala method, chakra (derived from cakraṃ चक्रं) meaning 'wheel' in Sanskrit, relevant to the cyclic nature of the algorithm.[217][218] With reference to the Chakravala method, E. O. Selenuis held that no European performances at the time of Bhāskara, nor much later, came up to its marvellous height of mathematical complexity.[213][217][219]
  • Magical Indian Math discovery: Numbers 495 and 6174. The Indian mathematician Dattaraya Ramchandra Kaprekar discovered the number 6174 is reached after repeatedly subtracting the smallest number from the largest number that can be formed from any four digits not all the same. The number 495 is similarly reached for three digits number.
  • Hindu number system: With decimal place-value and a symbol for zero, this system was the ancestor of the widely used Arabic numeral system. It was developed in the Indian subcontinent between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.[220][221]
  • Decimal mark: The practice of using a decimal mark is derived from the decimal system used in Indian mathematics.[222]
  • Fibonacci numbers: This sequence was first described by Virahanka (c. 700 CE), Gopāla (c. 1135), and Hemachandra (c. 1150),[223] as an outgrowth of the earlier writings on Sanskrit prosody by Pingala (c. 200 BCE).
  • Law of signs in multiplication: The earliest use of notation for negative numbers, as subtrahend, is credited by scholars to the Chinese, dating back to the 2nd century BCE.[224] Like the Chinese, the Indians used negative numbers as subtrahend, but were the first to establish the "law of signs" with regards to the multiplication of positive and negative numbers, which did not appear in Chinese texts until 1299.[224] Indian mathematicians were aware of negative numbers by the 7th century,[224] and their role in mathematical problems of debt was understood.[225] Mostly consistent and correct rules for working with negative numbers were formulated,[226] and the diffusion of these rules led the Arab intermediaries to pass it on to Europe.,[225] for example (+)×(-)=(-),(-)×(-)=(+) etc.
  • Madhava series: The infinite series for π and for the trigonometric sine, cosine, and arctangent is now attributed to Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340 – 1425) and his Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.[227][228] He made use of the series expansion of to obtain an infinite series expression for π.[227] Their rational approximation of the error for the finite sum of their series are of particular interest. They manipulated the error term to derive a faster converging series for π.[229] They used the improved series to derive a rational expression,[229] for π correct up to eleven decimal places, i.e. .[230][231] Madhava of Sangamagrama and his successors at the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics used geometric methods to derive large sum approximations for sine, cosine, and arctangent. They found a number of special cases of series later derived by Brook Taylor series. They also found the second-order Taylor approximations for these functions, and the third-order Taylor approximation for sine.[232][233][234]
  • Pascal's triangle: Described in the 6th century CE by Varahamihira[235] and in the 10th century by Halayudha,[236] commenting on an obscure reference by Pingala (the author of an earlier work on prosody) to the "Meru-prastaara", or the "Staircase of Mount Meru", in relation to binomial coefficients. (It was also independently discovered in the 10th or 11th century in Persia and China.)
  • Pell's equation, integral solution for: About a thousand years before Pell's time, Indian scholar Brahmagupta (598–668 CE) was able to find integral solutions to vargaprakṛiti (Pell's equation):[237][238] where N is a non-square integer, in his Brâhma-sphuṭa-siddhânta treatise.[238]
  • Ramanujan theta function, Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan summation, Ramanujan graph and Ramanujan's sum: Discovered by the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan in the early 20th century.[239]
  • Shrikhande graph: Graph invented by the Indian mathematician S.S. Shrikhande in 1959.
  • Sign convention: Symbols, signs and mathematical notation were employed in an early form in India by the 6th century when the mathematician-astronomer Aryabhata recommended the use of letters to represent unknown quantities.[203] By the 7th century Brahmagupta had already begun using abbreviations for unknowns, even for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem.[203] Brahmagupta also managed to use abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.[203] By the 7th century fractions were written in a manner similar to the modern times, except for the bar separating the numerator and the denominator.[203] A dot symbol for negative numbers was also employed.[203] The Bakhshali Manuscript displays a cross, much like the modern '+' sign, except that it symbolised subtraction when written just after the number affected.[203] The '=' sign for equality did not exist.[203] Indian mathematics was transmitted to the Islamic world where this notation was seldom accepted initially and the scribes continued to write mathematics in full and without symbols.[240]
  • Modern elementary arithmetic: Modum indorum or the method of the Indians for arithmetic operations was popularised by Al-Khwarizmi and Al-Kindi by means of their respective works such as in Al-Khwarizmi's on the Calculation with Hindu Numerals (ca. 825), On the Use of the Indian Numerals (ca. 830)[241] as early as the 8th and 9th centuries.They, amongst other works, contributed to the diffusion of the Indian system of arithmetic in the Middle-East and the West.The significance of the development of the positional number system is described by the French mathematician Pierre Simon Laplace (1749–1827) who wrote:

"It is India that gave us the ingenuous method of expressing all numbers by the means of ten symbols, each symbol receiving a value of position, as well as an absolute value; a profound and important idea which appears so simple to us now that we ignore its true merit, but its very simplicity, the great ease which it has lent to all computations, puts our arithmetic in the first rank of useful inventions, and we shall appreciate the grandeur of this achievement when we remember that it escaped the genius of Archimedes and Apollonius, two of the greatest minds produced by antiquity."


  • Catuskoti (Tetralemma): The four-cornered system of logical argumentation with a suite of four distinct functions that refers to a logical proposition P, with four possibilities that can arise. The tetralemma has many logico-epistemological applications and has been made ample use of by the Indian philosopher Nāgarjuna in the Madhyamaka school. The tetralemma also features prominently in the Greek skepticist school of Pyrrhonism, the teachings of which are based on Buddhism. The founder of the Pyrrhonist school lived in India for 18 months and likely learned the language, which allowed him to carry these teachings to Greece.[244]


A statue of Sushruta (800 BCE), author of Sushruta Samhita and the founding father of surgery, at Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) in Melbourne, Australia.
Cataract in the Human Eye—magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Indian surgeon Susruta performed cataract surgery by the 6th century BCE.
  • Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine: Ayurveda and Siddha are ancient systems of medicine practised in South Asia. Ayurvedic ideas can be found in the Hindu text[245] (mid-first millennium BCE). Ayurveda has evolved over thousands of years, and is still practised today. In an internationalised form, it can be thought of as a complementary and alternative medicine. In village settings, away from urban centres, it is simply "medicine." The Sanskrit word आयुर्वेदः (āyur-vedaḥ) means "knowledge (veda) for longevity (āyur)".[246] Siddha medicine is mostly prevalent in South India, and is transmitted in Tamil, not Sanskrit, texts. Herbs and minerals are basic raw materials of the Siddha therapeutic system whose origins may be dated to the early centuries CE.[247][248]
  • Cataract surgery: Cataract surgery was known to the Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE).[249] In India, cataract surgery was performed with a special tool called the Jabamukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision.[250] The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged.[250] Though this method was successful, Susruta cautioned that cataract surgery should only be performed when absolutely necessary.[250] Greek philosophers and scientists traveled to India where these surgeries were performed by physicians.[250] The removal of cataract by surgery was also introduced into China from India.[251]
  • Ancient Dentistry: The Indus Valley civilisation (IVC) has yielded evidence of dentistry being practised as far back as 7000 BCE. An IVC site in Mehrgarh indicates that this form of dentistry involved curing tooth related disorders with bow drills operated, perhaps, by skilled bead crafters.
  • Cure for Leprosy: Kearns & Nash (2008) state that the first mention of leprosy is described in the Indian medical treatise Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE).[252] However, The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine holds that the mention of leprosy, as well as ritualistic cures for it, were described in the Atharva-veda (1500–1200 BCE), written before the Sushruta Samhita.[253]
  • Lithiasis treatment: The earliest operation for treating lithiasis, or the formations of stones in the body, is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE).[254] The operation involved exposure and going up through the floor of the bladder.[254]
  • Visceral leishmaniasis, treatment of: The Indian (Bengali) medical practitioner Upendranath Brahmachari (19 December 1873 – 6 February 1946) was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for his discovery of 'ureastibamine (antimonial compound for treatment of kala azar) and a new disease, post-kalaazar dermal leishmanoid.'[255] Brahmachari's cure for Visceral leishmaniasis was the urea salt of para-amino-phenyl stibnic acid which he called Urea Stibamine.[256] Following the discovery of Urea Stibamine, Visceral leishmaniasis was largely eradicated from the world, except for some underdeveloped regions.[256]
  • Angina pectoris: The condition was named "hritshoola" in ancient India and was described by Sushruta (6th century BCE).[257]


  • Diamond mining and diamond tools: Diamonds were first recognised and mined in central India,[258][259][260] where significant alluvial deposits of the stone could then be found along the rivers Penner, Krishna and Godavari. It is unclear when diamonds were first mined in India, although estimated to be at least 5,000 years ago.[261] India remained the world's only source of diamonds until the discovery of diamonds in Brazil in the 18th century.[262][263][264] Golconda served as an important centre for diamonds in central India.[265] Diamonds then were exported to other parts of the world, including Europe.[265] Early references to diamonds in India come from Sanskrit texts.[266] The Arthashastra of Kautilya mentions diamond trade in India.[264] Buddhist works dating from the 4th century BCE mention it as a well-known and precious stone but don't mention the details of diamond cutting.[258] Another Indian description written at the beginning of the 3rd century describes strength, regularity, brilliance, ability to scratch metals, and good refractive properties as the desirable qualities of a diamond.[258] A Chinese work from the 3rd century BCE mentions: "Foreigners wear it [diamond] in the belief that it can ward off evil influences".[258] The Chinese, who did not find diamonds in their country, initially used diamonds as a "jade cutting knife" instead of as a jewel.[258]
  • Zinc mining and medicinal zinc: Zinc was first smelted from zinc ore in India.[267] Zinc mines of Zawar, near Udaipur, Rajasthan, were active during early Christian era.[268][269] There are references of medicinal uses of zinc in the Charaka Samhita (300 BCE).[270] The Rasaratna Samuccaya which dates back to the Tantric period (c. 5th – 13th century CE) explains the existence of two types of ores for zinc metal, one of which is ideal for metal extraction while the other is used for medicinal purpose.[270][271] India was to melt the first derived from a long experience of the old alchemy zinc by the distillation process, an advanced technique. The ancient Persians had also tried to reduce zinc oxide in an open stove, but had failed. Zawar in Tiri valley of Rajasthan is the first known old zinc smelting site in the world. The distillation technique of zinc production dates back to the 12th century CE and is an important contribution of India in the world of science.


Bengali Chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy synthesised NH4NO2 in its pure form.
A Ramachandran plot generated from the protein PCNA, a human DNA clamp protein that is composed of both beta sheets and alpha helices (PDB ID 1AXC). Points that lie on the axes indicate N- and C-terminal residues for each subunit. The green regions show possible angle formations that include Glycine, while the blue areas are for formations that don't include Glycine.


  • Lunar water: Although the presence of water ice on the moon has been conjectured by various scientists since the 1960s, inconclusive evidence of free water ice had also been identified. The first incontrovertible evidence of water on the moon was provided by the payload Chace carried by the Moon Impact Probe released by Chandrayaan-1 in 2009,[296][297][298] confirmed and established by NASA.[299]
  • Earth's orbit (Sidereal year): The Hindu cosmological time cycles explained in the Surya Siddhanta (c.600 CE), give the average length of the sidereal year (the length of the Earth's revolution around the Sun) as 365.2563627 days, which is only a negligible 1.4 seconds longer than the modern value of 365.256363004 days.[300] This calculation was the most accurate estimate for the length of the sidereal year anywhere in the world for over a thousand years.
  • Periodicity of comets: Indian astronomers by the 6th century believed that comets were celestial bodies that re-appeared periodically. This was the view expressed in the 6th century by the astronomers Varahamihira and Bhadrabahu, and the 10th-century astronomer Bhattotpala listed the names and estimated periods of certain comets, but it is unfortunately not known how these figures were calculated or how accurate they were.[301]
  • Saha ionisation equation: The Saha equation, derived by the Bengali scientist Meghnad Saha (6 October 1893 – 16 February 1956) in 1920, conceptualises ionisations in context of stellar atmospheres.[302]
  • Quasi-normal modes of black holes: C. V. Vishveshwara discovered the quasi-normal modes of black holes.[303] These modes of black hole vibrations are one of the main targets of observation using the gravitational wave detector.


  • Flush deck: The flushed deck design was introduced with rice ships built in Bengal Subah, Mughal India (modern Bangladesh), resulting in hulls that were stronger and less prone to leak than the structurally weak hulls of stepped deck design.This was a key innovation in shipbuilding at the time.
  • Iron working: Iron works were developed in India, around the same time as, but independently of, Anatolia and the Caucasus. Archaeological sites in India, such as Malhar, Dadupur, Raja Nala Ka Tila and Lahuradewa in present-day Uttar Pradesh show iron implements in the period between 1800 BCE—1200 BCE.[304] Early iron objects found in India can be dated to 1400 BCE by employing the method of radiocarbon dating. Spikes, knives, daggers, arrow-heads, bowls, spoons, saucepans, axes, chisels, tongs, door fittings etc. ranging from 600 BCE to 200 BCE have been discovered from several archaeological sites of India.[305] Some scholars believe that by the early 13th century BCE, iron smelting was practised on a bigger scale in India, suggesting that the date the technology's inception may be placed earlier.[304] In Southern India (present day Mysore) iron appeared as early as 11th to 12th centuries BCE; these developments were too early for any significant close contact with the northwest of the country.[306] In the time of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–413 CE), corrosion-resistant iron was used to erect the Iron pillar of Delhi, which has withstood corrosion for over 1,600 years.[307]

Computer science and Programming[edit]

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a computer network. FTP is built on a client–server model architecture using separate control and data connections between the client and the server. Abhay Bhushan is the author of the File Transfer Protocol (which he started working on while he was a student at IIT-Kanpur) and the early versions of email protocols.
  • Kosaraju's algorithm is a linear time algorithm to find the strongly connected components of a directed graph. Aho, Hopcroft and Ullman credit it to S. Rao Kosaraju and Micha Sharir. Kosaraju suggested it in 1978.
  • Simputer: The Simputer (acronym for "simple, inexpensive and multilingual people's computer") is a self-contained, open hardware handheld computer, designed for use in environments where computing devices such as personal computers are deemed inconvenient. It was developed in 1999 by 7 scientists of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, led by Dr. Swami Manohar in collaboration with Encore India, a company based in Bangalore.[308] Originally envisaged to bring internet to the masses of India, the Simputer and its derivatives are today widely utilised by governments of several Indian states as part of their e-governance drive, the Indian Army, as well as by other public and private organisations.
  • Backus-naur form: In computer science, Backus–Naur form or Backus normal form (BNF) or Panini Backus form[309] is a notation technique for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages, document formats, instruction sets and communication protocols. They are applied wherever exact descriptions of languages are needed: for instance, in official language specifications, in manuals, and in textbooks on programming language theory.The idea of describing the structure of language using rewriting rules can be traced back to at least the work of Pāṇini (who lived sometime between the 7th and 4th century BCE).[310][311] The name Pāṇini Backus form has also been suggested in view of the fact that the expansion Backus normal form may not be accurate, and that Pāṇini had independently developed a similar notation earlier.[312] His notation to describe Sanskrit word structure notation is equivalent in power to that of Backus and has many similar properties.
  • National Common Mobility Card is an inter-operable transport card conceived by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs of the Government of India. It was launched on 4 March 2019. The transport card enables the user to pay for travel, toll duties (toll tax), retail shopping and withdraw money.



  • Standardisation: The oldest applications and evidence of standardisation come from the Indus Valley Civilisation in the 5th millennium BCE characterised by the existence of weights in various standards and categories as[314] well as the Indus merchants usage of a centralised weight and measure system. Small weights were used to measure luxury goods, and larger weights were used for buying bulkier items, such as food grains etc.[314] The weights and measures of the Indus civilisation also reached Persia and Central Asia, where they were further modified.[315]

A total of 558 weights were excavated from Mohenjodaro, Harappa, and Chanhu-daro, not including defective weights. They did not find statistically significant differences between weights that were excavated from five different layers, each about 1.5 m in thickness. This was evidence that strong control existed for at least a 500-year period. The 13.7-g weight seems to be one of the units used in the Indus valley. The notation was based on the binary and decimal systems. 83% of the weights which were excavated from the above three cities were cubic, and 68% were made of chert.[316]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Nanda, Meera (16 September 2016), "Hindutva's science envy", Frontline, retrieved 14 October 2016
  2. ^ Misra, Sudama (1973). Janapada state in ancient India. Vārāṇasī: Bhāratīya Vidyā Prakāśana. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016., page 18.
  3. ^ Narain Singh Kalota (1978). India As Described By Megasthenes.
  4. ^ Kenoyer, Jhon Mark (1998). Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0195779400.
  5. ^ Boesche, Roger (2003). The First Great Political Realist: Kautilya and His Arthashastra. Lexington Books. pp. 62 A superintendent must issue sealed passes before one could enter or leave the countryside(A.2.34.2, 181) a practice that might constitute the first passbooks and passports in world history. ISBN 9780739106075.
  6. ^ "India's 5Gi to be included in 3GPP global standards – report".
  7. ^ Malanowski, Gregory (2001). The Race for Wireless: How Radio was Invented (or Discovered). pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1463437503.
  8. ^ Seitz, Frederick; Einspruch, Norman (4 May 1998). The Tangled History of Silicon in Electronics. Silicon Materials Science and Technology: Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Silicon Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 1. San Diego: The Electrochemical Society. pp. 73–74. ISBN 9781566771931. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  9. ^ U.S. Patent 755,840 Jagadis Chunder Bose, Detector for Electrical Disturbances, filed: 30 September 1901, granted 29 March 1904
  10. ^ Rodriguez, Vincente (2010). "A brief history of horns". In Compliance Magazine. Same Page Publishing. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  11. ^ Emerson, D. T. (December 1997). "The work of Jagadis Chandra Bose: 100 years of MM-wave research". 1997 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. Vol. 45. pp. 2267–2273. Bibcode:1997imsd.conf..553E. CiteSeerX doi:10.1109/MWSYM.1997.602853. ISBN 978-0-7803-3814-2. S2CID 9039614. Retrieved 15 March 2012. reprinted in Igor Grigorov, Ed., Antentop, Vol.2, No.3, p.87-96, Belgorod, Russia
  12. ^ "Famous Scientists – Jagdish Chandra Bose". Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  13. ^ "15 Indian Inventions & Discoveries That Shaped the Modern World – Part 2". HuffPost.
  14. ^ S Prasanna, Microsoft's VJ#.Net is made in India Archived 28 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Express Computer, 29 July 2002 – invalid link !
  15. ^ "The Hindu Business Line : Microsoft lines up big plans for Hyderabad centre".
  16. ^ "Kojo home page". Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  17. ^ Geertjan Wielenga (19 February 2010). "Interview: Scala Learning Environment on the NetBeans Platform". DZone. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  18. ^ Maria Thomas (20 April 2017). "An Indian computer scientist helped build an alternative programming language in Bengaluru". Quartz. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  19. ^ Julka, Harsimran. "Speed was God when we created Pentium: Vinod Dham". The Economic Times. Retrieved 21 November 2021.
  20. ^ "The inventor of USB is an Indian and he didn't do it for money". India Today. 3 January 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2021.
  21. ^ Teresi, Dick (2002). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science—from the Babylonians to the Maya. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 351–352. ISBN 0-684-83718-8.
  22. ^ "Chenab Bridge, Highest Railway Bridge in the World, is a Man-Made-Wonder".
  23. ^ Rodda, J. C. and Ubertini, Lucio (2004). The Basis of Civilization – Water Science? pg 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (International Association of Hydrological Sciences Press 2004).
  24. ^ a b c d Livingston & Beach, 20
  25. ^ The Lost River by Michel Danino. Penguin India 2010
  26. ^ a b Livingston & Beach, page xxiii
  27. ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). Pagoda.
  28. ^ "What Are InvITs and How do They Work?". Forbes. 29 November 2021.
  29. ^ "Reserve Bank of India – Publications".
  30. ^ American Chess Bulletin, vol. 13–15, Hartwig Cassell & Hermann Helms, eds.
  31. ^ History of Physical Education, p.209, SR Tiwari, APH Publishing
  32. ^ "All India Carrom Federation". Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  33. ^ "". Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  34. ^ Murray (1913)
  35. ^ Forbes (1860)
  36. ^ a b Jones, William (1807). "On the Indian Game of Chess". pages 323–333
  37. ^ Linde, Antonius (1981)
  38. ^ Wilkinson, Charles K (May 1943)
  39. ^ Bird (1893), page 63
  40. ^ Hooper & Whyld (1992), page 74
  41. ^ Sapra, Rahul (2000). "Sports in India". Students' Britannica India (Vol. 6). Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 106. ISBN 0-85229-762-9.
  42. ^ a b Meri (2005), page 148
  43. ^ a b Basham (2001), page 208
  44. ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica (2002). Chess: Ancient precursors and related games.
  45. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2007). Chess: Introduction to Europe.
  46. ^ a b Alter, page 88
  47. ^ a b c MSN Encarta (2008). Pachisi.
  48. ^ "Archived copy" মজার খেলা নুনতা (in Bengali). 19 September 2012. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  49. ^ "Terra cotta discs | Harappa". Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  50. ^ a b Augustyn, pages 27–28
  51. ^ a b James McManus (27 October 2009). Cowboys Full: The Story of Poker. Macmillan. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-374-29924-8.
  52. ^ Carlisle, Rodney (2009), Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society, SAGE Publications, p. 31, ISBN 978-1-4129-6670-2
  53. ^ Quackenbos (2010), Illustrated History of Ancient Literature, Oriental and Classical, READ BOOKS, p. 60, ISBN 978-1-4455-7978-8
  54. ^ Kapoor, Subodh (2002), The Indian encyclopaedia: biographical, historical, religious, administrative, ethnological, commercial and scientific – Vol 6, Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, p. 1786, ISBN 978-81-7755-257-7
  55. ^ Townsend, George (1862), The manual of dates: a dictionary of reference to all the most important events in the history of mankind to be found in authentic records, Routledge, Warne, & Routledge, p. 184
  56. ^ Needham, Joseph (2004). Science & Civilisation in China. Vol. V:1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–132. ISBN 978-0-521-05802-5.
  57. ^ David G. Schwartz (5 October 2006). Roll the bones: the history of gambling. Gotham Books. ISBN 978-1-59240-208-3.
  58. ^ Accessed 2 August 2012. Archived 3 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ Meera, Sethumadhavan; Vinodan, A. (1 January 2019). "Attitude towards alternative medicinal practices in wellness tourism market". Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights. 2 (3): 278–295. doi:10.1108/JHTI-06-2018-0037. ISSN 2514-9792. S2CID 169971249.
  60. ^ Radhakrishnan, S. Anil (10 January 2021). "Kalaripayattu academy braces for action". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  61. ^ Possehl, Gregory. "Meluhha". In: J. Reade (ed.) The Indian Ocean in Antiquity. London: Kegan Paul Intl. 1996a, 133–208
  62. ^ "Google Celebrates Nobel-Prize Winning Biochemist Har Gobind Khorana". Time. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  63. ^ Chakrabarty, Ananda M. (1981). "Microorganisms having multiple compatible degradative energy-generating plasmids and preparation thereof".
  64. ^ Chakrabarty, AM; Mylroie, JR; Friello, DA; Vacca, JG (1975). "Transformation of Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli with plasmid-linked drug-resistance factor DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 72 (9): 3647–51. Bibcode:1975PNAS...72.3647C. doi:10.1073/pnas.72.9.3647. PMC 433053. PMID 1103151.
  65. ^ Chakrabarty, AM; Friello, DA (1974). "Dissociation and interaction of individual components of a degradative plasmid aggregate in Pseudomonas". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 71 (9): 3410–4. Bibcode:1974PNAS...71.3410C. doi:10.1073/pnas.71.9.3410. PMC 433782. PMID 4530312.
  66. ^ Chakrabarty, AM (1974). "Dissociation of a degradative plasmid aggregate in Pseudomonas". Journal of Bacteriology. 118 (3): 815–20. doi:10.1128/JB.118.3.815-820.1974. PMC 246827. PMID 4829926.
  67. ^ Chakrabarty, AM (1974). "Transcriptional control of the expression of a degradative plasmid in Pseudomonas". Control of Transcription. Basic Life Sciences. Vol. 3. pp. 157–65. doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-4529-9_13. ISBN 978-1-4613-4531-2. PMID 4823075.
  68. ^ Shaham, M; Chakrabarty, AM; Gunsalus, IC (1973). "Camphor plasmid-mediated chromosomal transfer in Pseudomonas putida". Journal of Bacteriology. 116 (2): 944–9. doi:10.1128/JB.116.2.944-949.1973. PMC 285467. PMID 4745436.
  69. ^ Rheinwald, JG; Chakrabarty, AM; Gunsalus, IC (1973). "A transmissible plasmid controlling camphor oxidation in Pseudomonas putida". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 70 (3): 885–9. Bibcode:1973PNAS...70..885R. doi:10.1073/pnas.70.3.885. PMC 433381. PMID 4351810.
  70. ^ "Environment: Oil-Eating Bug". Time. 22 September 1975. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
  71. ^ "Diamond v. Chakrabarty 447 U.S. 303 (1980)". Justia Law.
  72. ^ Van Vuren, Petrus Jansen; McAuley, Alexander J.; Kuiper, Michael J.; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B.; Bruce, Matthew P.; Riddell, Shane; Goldie, Sarah; Mangalaganesh, Shruthi; Chahal, Simran; Drew, Trevor W.; Blasdell, Kim R.; Tachedjian, Mary; Caly, Leon; Druce, Julian D.; Ahmed, Shahbaz; Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Malladi, Sameer Kumar; Singh, Randhir; Pandey, Suman; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Vasan, Seshadri S. (2022). "Petrus Jansen van Vuren, et al (2022)". Viruses. 14 (4): 800. doi:10.3390/v14040800. PMC 9031315. PMID 35458530.
  73. ^ "First of Its Kind! Central Government Inaugurates India's 'Coal to Methanol' Plant Made by BHEL". 17 January 2022.
  74. ^ "Tata Steel initiates 'first-of-its-kind in the world' trial to cut emissions".
  75. ^ a b Juleff, G (1996). "An ancient wind powered iron smelting technology in Sri Lanka". Nature. 379 (6560): 60–63. Bibcode:1996Natur.379...60J. doi:10.1038/379060a0. S2CID 205026185.
  76. ^ a b Gwinnett, A. John; Gorelick, Leonard (1991). "Bead Manufacture at Hajar Ar-Rayhani, Yemen". The Biblical Archaeologist. 54 (4): 187–196. doi:10.2307/3210280. ISSN 0006-0895. JSTOR 3210280. S2CID 134287655.
  77. ^ Keene, Manuel (1981). "THE LAPIDARY ARTS IN ISLAM". Penn Museum. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  78. ^ For the etching technique, see MacKay, Ernest (1925). "Sumerian Connexions with Ancient India". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (4): 699. JSTOR 25220818.
  79. ^ Guimet, Musée (2016). Les Cités oubliées de l'Indus: Archéologie du Pakistan (in French). FeniXX réédition numérique. p. 355. ISBN 9782402052467.
  80. ^ "Such beads occur fairly largely on all the principal sites of the Harappan civilisation." in Pakistan Archaeology No.2. 1965. p. 21.
  81. ^ Saju, M. T. (17 November 2020). "Indians made glass blown beads 2,500 years ago". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  82. ^ Francis, Peter (1990). "Glass Beads in Asia Part Two. Indo-Pacific Beads". Asian Perspectives. 29 (1): 1–23. ISSN 0066-8435. JSTOR 42928207.
  83. ^ a b Wood, Marilee (2012). "Interconnections: glass beads and trade in southern and eastern Africa and the Indian Ocean – 7th to 16th centuries AD". Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa. 47 (2): 248. doi:10.1080/0067270X.2012.680307. ISSN 0067-270X. S2CID 162211326.
  84. ^ Balasubramaniam, R. (2002)
  85. ^ Waseda, Yoshio; Shigeru Suzuki (2006). Characterization of corrosion products on steel surfaces. Pg.vii. ISBN 978-3-540-35177-1. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
  86. ^ a b c Kuppuram, Govindarajan (1989). Ancient Indian Mining, Metallurgy, and Metal Industries. Sundeep Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-85067-28-5.
  87. ^ a b Krishnan, M.V. (1976). Cire perdue casting in India. Kanak Publications.
  88. ^ a b Agrawal, D. P. (2000). Ancient Metal Technology and Archaeology of South Asia. A Pan-Asian Perspective. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. ISBN 978-81-7305-177-7.
  89. ^ a b Kenoyer, J. M. & H. M.-L. Miller, (1999). Metal Technologies of the Indus Valley Tradition in Pakistan and Western India., in The Archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World., ed. V. C. Pigott. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Museum.
  90. ^ Kamarustafa (1992), page 48
  91. ^ a b Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985). Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their history, Construction, and Use. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
  92. ^ Satyawadi, Sudha (1 July 1994). Proto-Historic Pottery of Indus Valley Civilization; Study of Painted Motif. D.K. Printworld. p. 324. ISBN 978-8124600306.
  93. ^ Blackman et all (1992). The Production and Distribution of Stoneware Bangles at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa as Monitored by Chemical Characterization Studies. Madison, WI, USA: Prehistory Press. pp. 37–44.
  94. ^ Mark Kenoyer, Jonathan (1998). Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Oxford University Press. p. 260.
  95. ^
  96. ^ Wood, Marilee; Dussubieux, Laure; Robertshaw, Peter (1 June 2012). "The glass of chibuene, mozambique: New insights into early indian ocean trade". South African Archaeological Bulletin. 67: 59–74.
  97. ^ Wood, Marilee; Panighello, Serena; Orsega, Emilio F.; Robertshaw, Peter; van Elteren, Johannes T.; Crowther, Alison; Horton, Mark; Boivin, Nicole (2017). "Zanzibar and Indian Ocean trade in the first millennium CE: the glass bead evidence". Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 9 (5): 879–901. doi:10.1007/s12520-015-0310-z. ISSN 1866-9557. S2CID 49586474.
  98. ^ Kenoyer, Vidale, J.M, Massimo (May 1992). "A new look at stone drills of the Indus Valley Tradition" (PDF). MRS Online Proceedings Library. 267: 495–518. doi:10.1557/PROC-267-495.
  99. ^ Gwinnett, A. John; Gorelick, L. (1993). "Beads, Scarabs, and Amulets: Methods of Manufacture in Ancient Egypt". Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. 30: 125–132. doi:10.2307/40000232. ISSN 0065-9991. JSTOR 40000232.
  100. ^ "The elaboration of political models in maritime Southeast Asia and of pan-regional culture: Contribution from Khao Sek stone ornament craft system study". ResearchGate. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  101. ^ "WOOTZ STEEL: AN ADVANCED MATERIAL OF THE ANCIENT WORLD". Archived from the original on 11 February 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2008.
  102. ^ Srinivasan 1994
  103. ^ Srinivasan & Griffiths
  104. ^ "Indian Journal of History & Science,34(4),1999 (through "Digital Library of India")" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  105. ^ "A great past in bright colours". Frontline. India. 8 October 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011.
  106. ^ "Fig. 7. Two Damascus swords and surface markings".
  107. ^ Bruno Nettl, Ruth M. Stone, James Porter and Timothy Rice (1999), The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Routledge, ISBN 978-0824049461, pages 242–245
  108. ^ "Jagadis Bose Research on Measurement of Plant Growth". Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  109. ^ Geddes, pages 173–176
  110. ^ a b c Schafer (1963), pages 160–161
  111. ^ a b c Bedini (1994), pages 69–80
  112. ^ Bedini (1994), page 25
  113. ^ Seiwert (2003), page 96
  114. ^ Kumar, Yukteshwar (2005), page 65
  115. ^ "Definition of Murty interferometer".
  116. ^ Riley, M. E.; Gusinow, M. A. (1 October 1977). "Laser beam divergence utilizing a lateral shearing interferometer". Applied Optics. 16 (10): 2753–6. Bibcode:1977ApOpt..16.2753R. doi:10.1364/AO.16.002753. PMID 20174226.
  117. ^ "Indian scientists make breakthrough discovery of material that repairs itself". 24 July 2021.
  118. ^ Katie Barry (4 December 2020). "Digital Vaccines for COVID-19 and beyond". Brown University Alpert School of Medicine.
  119. ^ Asian News International (31 July 2020). "Indian health-tech pioneer develops the world's first digital vaccine candidate for COVID-19". Times Now.
  120. ^ Priyanka Sahay (13 August 2020). "Digital vaccine: Check out how this app can help you fight COVID-19". Moneycontrol.
  121. ^ Rupali Mukherjee (29 December 2020). "Now 'digital vaccines' to help promote healthy eating in kids". The Times of India.
  122. ^ "India Gets its First e-mode Gallium-Nitride Power Transistor". 10 May 2019.
  123. ^ "New technology for High Electron Mobility Transistor will make India self-reliant in power transistor technology".
  124. ^ "India Creates World's First DC Electric Train Engine with Regenerative Braking". 11 February 2019.
  125. ^ Saji, N. H.; Goswami, B. N.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Yamagata, T. (23 September 1999). "A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean". Nature. 401 (6751): 360–363. Bibcode:1999Natur.401..360S. doi:10.1038/43854. PMID 16862108. S2CID 4427627.
  126. ^ Chamberlin (2007), page 80
  127. ^ a b Hobson (2004), page 103
  128. ^ a b c d Woods & Woods (2000), pages 52–53
  129. ^ "16.17.4: Stirrups". Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology (Vol. 1). Edited by Amalananda Ghosh (1990). page 336
  130. ^ Azzaroli (1985), page 156
  131. ^ a b Addington (1990), page 45
  132. ^ a b Barua (2005), pages 16–17
  133. ^[bare URL PDF]
  134. ^ a b Hesse, Rayner W. & Hesse (Jr.), Rayner W. (2007). Jewelrymaking Through History: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. 35. ISBN 0-313-33507-9.
  135. ^ McNeil, Ian (1990). An encyclopaedia of the history of technology. Taylor & Francis. 852. ISBN 0-415-01306-2.
  136. ^ a b c d Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). calico
  137. ^ a b c d Baber (1996), page 57
  138. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). chintz
  139. ^ Hāṇḍā (1998), page 133
  140. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). cashmere.
  141. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). kashmir shawl.
  142. ^ Stein (1998), page 47
  143. ^ Wisseman & Williams (1994), page 127
  144. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. cotton.
  145. ^ Angela Lakwete: Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8018-7394-0, p. 5
  146. ^ Baber (1996), page 56
  147. ^ "Indian Textiles: Nature & Making – The Victoria and Albert Museum". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  148. ^ Karim, Abdul (2012). "Muslin". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  149. ^ a b Ahmad, S. (July–September 2005). "Rise and Decline of the Economy of Bengal". Asian Affairs. 27 (3): 5–26.
  150. ^ Schoff, Wilfred Harvey, ed. (1912). The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century. Longmans, Green, & Co. p. 48. ISBN 978-81-215-0699-1.
  151. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). interior design
  152. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). crewel work
  153. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). quilting
  154. ^ a b Barker, page 13
  155. ^ a b Beer, page 60
  156. ^ a b Wise, page 11–12
  157. ^ Smith, C. Wayne; Cothren, J. Tom (1999). Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. Vol. 4. John Wiley & Sons. pp. viii. ISBN 978-0471180456. The first improvement in spinning technology was the spinning wheel, which was invented in India between 500 and 1000 A.D.
  158. ^ "Super Cotton (Super absorbent for removal of oily substance from aqueous media) – Bhabha Atomic Research Centre ( BARC )".
  159. ^ Possehl, Gregory L. (1996). Mehrgarh in Oxford Companion to Archaeology, edited by Brian Fagan. Oxford University Press.
  160. ^ a b c Todd, Jan (1995). From Milo to Milo: A History of Barbells, Dumbells, and Indian Clubs. Accessed in September 2008. Hosted on the LA84 Foundation Sports Library.
  161. ^ Descartes, Rene (2006). Meditations of First Philosophy., Limited. ISBN 978-1-4250-0922-9.
  162. ^ chāmpo (चाँपो Hindustani pronunciation: [tʃãːpoː]) is the imperative of chāmpnā (चाँपना [tʃãːpnaː]), "to smear, knead the muscles, massage the head and hair"
  163. ^ Douglas Harper. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  164. ^ Bisht (1993). "Paleobotanical and pollen analytical investigations" (PDF). Indian Archaeology a Review 1993–1994: 143–144.
  165. ^ kSuNa, Sanskrit Lexicon, Monier-Williams Dictionary (1872)
  166. ^ phenaka, Spoken Sanskrit, University of Koeln, Germany
  167. ^ Rahman, History of Indian Science, Technology and Culture at Google Books, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195646528, page 145
  168. ^ Tamil Nadu Medicinal plants board Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  169. ^ Tamil Nadu Agricultural university – Albizzia amara
  170. ^ Khushwant Singh, Hymns of Guru Nanak, Orient Longman, ISBN 978-8125011613
  171. ^ Virginia Smith (2007), Clean: A History of Personal Hygiene and Purity, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199297795
  172. ^ "bose real inventor" (PDF).
  173. ^ a b Singh, Upinder (2016), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson PLC, ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9
  174. ^ Roddam Narasimha (1985), Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750–1850 A.D. Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science"Hyder Ali, prince of Mysore, developed war rockets with an important change: the use of metal cylinders to contain the combustion powder. Although the hammered soft iron he used was crude, the bursting strength of the container of black powder was much higher than the earlier paper construction. Thus a greater internal pressure was possible, with a resultant greater thrust of the propulsive jet. The rocket body was lashed with leather thongs to a long bamboo stick. Range was perhaps up to three-quarters of a mile (more than a kilometre). Although individually these rockets were not accurate, dispersion error became less important when large numbers were fired rapidly in mass attacks. They were particularly effective against cavalry and were hurled into the air, after lighting, or skimmed along the hard dry ground. Hyder Ali's son, Tippu Sultan, continued to develop and expand the use of rocket weapons, reportedly increasing the number of rocket troops from 1,200 to a corps of 5,000. In battles at Seringapatam in 1792 and 1799 these rockets were used with considerable effect against the British." – Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). rocket and missile.
  175. ^ "Indian Railway moves to become world's first Green Railway by 2030 with all routes electrified".
  176. ^ "Father of fibre optics and patron of Sikh arts Narinder Singh Kapany dies at 94".
  177. ^ a b Banerji, page 673
  178. ^ Gottsegen, page 30.
  179. ^ Smith, J. A. (1992), page 23
  180. ^ "India ink", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008
  181. ^ Sircar, page 206
  182. ^ Sircar, page 62
  183. ^ Sircar, page 67
  184. ^ (Stillwell 2004, p. 173)
  185. ^ a b c Kriger & Connah (2006), page 120
  186. ^ a b c d Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). jute.
  187. ^ a b Kenneth F.Kiple & Kriemhild Conee Ornelas. "World history of Food – Sugar". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  188. ^ Adas (2001), page 311
  189. ^ a b Kieschnick (2003)
  190. ^ a b Kieschnick (2003), page 258
  191. ^ September 2017, Jessie Szalay-Live Science Contributor 18 (18 September 2017). "Who Invented Zero?". Retrieved 18 May 2021. {{cite web}}: |first= has generic name (help)
  192. ^ Nils-Bertil Wallin (19 November 2002). "The History of Zero". Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
  193. ^ Dr. Hossein Arsham. "Zero in Four Dimensions". University of Baltimore. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
  194. ^ Devlin, Hannah (13 September 2017). "Much ado about nothing: ancient Indian text contains earliest zero symbol". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  195. ^ Smith, David Eugene (1958). History of Mathematics. Courier Dover Publications. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-486-20429-1.
  196. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Sridhara", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews
  197. ^ Crandall & Pomerance (2005), pages 200–201
  198. ^ a b Weisstein, Eric W. "AKS Primality Test". MathWorld.
  199. ^ Crandall & Papadopoulos (2003), page 2
  200. ^ Van Brummelen, Glen (2009). The mathematics of the heavens and the earth: the early history of trigonometry. Princeton University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9780691129730. (p.111)
  201. ^ Meijering, Erik (March 2002). "A Chronology of Interpolation From Ancient Astronomy to Modern Signal and Image Processing". Proceedings of the IEEE. 90 (3): 319–342. doi:10.1109/5.993400.
  202. ^ Gupta, R. C. "Second-order interpolation in Indian mathematics upto the fifteenth century". Indian Journal of History of Science. 4 (1 & 2): 86–98.
  203. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bell (1992), page 96
  204. ^ Nitis (2000), page 325
  205. ^ Boos & Oliver (1998)
  206. ^ R.C. Gupta, Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures, p. 156.
  207. ^ Raju, C.K. (2009), "Kosambi the Mathematician", Economic and Political Weekly, 44 (20): 33–45
  208. ^ Kosambi, D. D. (1943), "Statistics in Function Space", Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society, 7: 76–88, MR 0009816.
  209. ^ Plofker (2007), pp. 419–436
  210. ^ Joseph (2000), page 306
  211. ^ Kala Fischbein, Tammy Brooks. "Brahmagupta's Formula". University of Georgia. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  212. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Brahmagupta Matrix". Mathworld. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  213. ^ a b "Bhaskaracharya II". Students' Encyclopedia India (2000). (Volume 1: Adb Allah ibn al Abbas – Cypress). p. 200. ISBN 0-85229-760-2
  214. ^ Kumar (2004), page 23
  215. ^ Singh, Manpal (2005), page 385
  216. ^ Plofker (2007), page 474
  217. ^ a b c Goonatilake (1998), page 127 – 128
  218. ^ Baber (1996), page 34
  219. ^ Rao K. A. (2000), page 252
  220. ^ "Indian numerals". Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  221. ^ Salomon, R. (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 61. ISBN 9780195099843. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  222. ^ Reimer, L., and Reimer, W. Mathematicians Are People, Too: Stories from the Lives of Great Mathematicians, Vol. 2. 1995. pp. 22–22. Parsippany, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. as Dale Seymor Publications. ISBN 0-86651-823-1.
  223. ^ Goonatilake, S. (1998). Toward a Global Science: Mining Civilizational Knowledge. Indiana University Press. p. 126. ISBN 9780253333889. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  224. ^ a b c Smith (1958), pp. 257–258
  225. ^ a b Bourbaki (1998), page 49
  226. ^ Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2007). algebra
  227. ^ a b Goonatilake (1998), page 37
  228. ^ Amma (1999), pp. 182–183
  229. ^ a b Roy (1990)
  230. ^ Borwein (2004), page 107
  231. ^ Plofker (2007), page 481
  232. ^ Bressoud (2002)
  233. ^ Plofker (2001)
  234. ^ Katz (1995)
  235. ^ a b "Varahamihira biography". Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  236. ^ Edwards, A.W.F. (2002). Pascal's Arithmetical Triangle: The Story of a Mathematical Idea. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 201. ISBN 9780801869464. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  237. ^ Puttaswamy (2000), page 416
  238. ^ a b Stillwell (2004), pages 72–73
  239. ^ Berndt & Rankin (2001)
  240. ^ Bell (1992), page 97
  241. ^ "Al-Kindi biography". Archived from the original on 26 October 2007.
  242. ^ Pingree (2003):

    "Geometry, and its branch trigonometry, was the mathematics Indian astronomers used most frequently. In fact, the Indian astronomers in the third or fourth century, using a pre-Ptolemaic Greek table of chords, produced tables of sines and versines, from which it was trivial to derive cosines. This new system of trigonometry, produced in India, was transmitted to the Arabs in the late eighth century and by them, in an expanded form, to the Latin West and the Byzantine East in the twelfth century."

  243. ^ J. J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson (1996). Trigonometric functions Archived 20 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive
  244. ^ Beckwith, Christopher I. (9 June 2015). Greek Buddha: Pyrrho's Encounter with Early Buddhism in Central Asia. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-6632-8.
  245. ^ Zysk, K. G. (1991). Asceticism and Healing. London, New York, Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-505956-4.
  246. ^ Chopra 2003, p. 75
  247. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil V. (1996). The Siddha Quest for Immortality. Oxford: Mandrake of Oxford. ISBN 978-1-869928-43-8.
  248. ^ Scharf, Hartmut (1999). "The Doctrine of the Three Humors in Traditional Indian Medicine and the Alleged Antiquity of Tamil Siddha Medicine". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 119 (4): 609–629. doi:10.2307/604837. JSTOR 604837.
  249. ^ Deshpande, Vijaya (2000). "Ophthalmic Surgery: A Chapter in the History of Sino-Indian Medical Contacts". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 63 (3): 370. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00008454. S2CID 162655091.
  250. ^ a b c d Finger (2001), page 66
  251. ^ Lade & Svoboda (2000), page 85
  252. ^ Kearns & Nash (2008)
  253. ^ Lock; Last & Dunea (2001), page 420
  254. ^ a b Lock; Last & Dunea (2001), page 836
  255. ^ Nobel Foundation (2008). The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1901–1951
  256. ^ a b Upendra Nath Brahmachari: A Pioneer of Modern Medicine in India. Vigyan Prasar: Government of India
  257. ^ Dwivedi, Girish; Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). "Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence" (PDF). The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences. 49: 243–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2008.
  258. ^ a b c d e Dickinson, pages 1–3
  259. ^ Hershey (2004), page 22
  260. ^ Malkin (1996), page 12
  261. ^ Hershey (2004), pages 3 & 23
  262. ^ Thomas (2007), page 46
  263. ^ Read (2005), page 17
  264. ^ a b Lee, page 685
  265. ^ a b Wenk, pages 535–539
  266. ^ MSN Encarta (2007). Diamond. Archived 1 November 2009.
  267. ^ "Zinc-Fact sheet". Australian mines. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  268. ^ Srinivasan, Ranganathan. "Mettalurgical heritage of India". Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  269. ^ Rina Shrivastva (1999). "Smelting furnaces in Ancient India" (PDF). Indian Journal of History & Science,34(1), Digital Library of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  270. ^ a b Craddock (1983)
  271. ^ Biswas (1986), page 11
  272. ^ Pickover, Clifford (16 April 2008). Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the Great Minds Behind Them. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199792689.
  273. ^ Bose, Mainak Kumar (1988). Late classical India. A. Mukherjee & Co.
  274. ^ *Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian. Allen Lane. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-7139-9687-6.
  275. ^ a b c d "Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray" Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Viyan Prasar, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India.
  276. ^ a b Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Archived 18 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Vigyan Prasar: Government of India.
  277. ^ a b Penney (1967), page 39
  278. ^ a b c Rigden (2005), pages 143–144
  279. ^ a b c Fraser (2006), page 238
  280. ^ Dauxois & Peyrard (2006), pages 297–298
  281. ^ Notes on Dirac's lecture Developments in Atomic Theory at Le Palais de la Découverte, 6 December 1945, UKNATARCHI Dirac Papers BW83/2/257889. See note 64 to p. 331 in "The Strangest Man" by Graham Farmelo
  282. ^ Daigle, Katy (10 July 2012). "India: Enough about Higgs, let's discuss the boson". Associated Press. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  283. ^ Bal, Hartosh Singh (19 September 2012). "The Bose in the Boson". The New York Times blog. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  284. ^ Wells, John C. (1990). Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. ISBN 978-0582053830. entry "Boson"
  285. ^ "boson". Collins Dictionary.
  286. ^ Carroll, Sean (2007) Dark Matter, Dark Energy: The Dark Side of the Universe, Guidebook Part 2 p. 43, The Teaching Company, ISBN 1598033506 "...boson: A force-carrying particle, as opposed to a matter particle (fermion). Bosons can be piled on top of each other without limit. Examples include photons, gluons, gravitons, weak bosons, and the Higgs boson. The spin of a boson is always an integer, such as 0, 1, 2, and so on..."
  287. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F. (February 2005), "Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews
  288. ^ a b "Indian Scientists" (November 2004), Science Popularisation and Public Outreach Committee, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.
  289. ^ Sarkar (2006), page 94
  290. ^ Taguchi & Jugulum (2002), pages 6–7
  291. ^ Ramakrishnan (2001)
  292. ^ "Raman effect".Encyclopædia Britannica (2008)
  293. ^ Naresh (2005)
  294. ^ Shadab,K. A. (2020). "PERIODICITY IN NUCLEAR PROPERTIES". International Research Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. 7 (5): 18–61.
  295. ^ Awakening Indians to India. All India Chinmaya Yuva Kendra (1st ed.). Mumbai, India: Central Chinmaya Mission Trust. 2003. ISBN 81-7597-175-4. OCLC 296288988.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  296. ^ Staff Reporter (25 September 2009). "MIP detected water on Moon way back in June: ISRO Chairman". The Hindu.
  297. ^ "Did India beat NASA to find water on moon?". Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  298. ^ "Chandrayaan-1 | Indian space probe". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  299. ^ "Chandrayaan first discovered water on moon, but… | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 25 September 2009.
  300. ^ White, M.J. "Sidereal, tropical, and anomalistic years" (PDF). Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  301. ^ Kelley, David H.; Milone, Eugene F. (2011). Exploring Ancient Skies: A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy. p. 293. ISBN 9781441976246.
  302. ^ Narlikar (2002), page 188
  303. ^ Vishveshwara, C.V., Nature, 1970, 227, 936
  304. ^ a b "The origins of Iron Working in India: New evidence from the Central Ganga plain and the Eastern Vindhyas by Rakesh Tewari (Director, U.P. State Archaeological Department)" (PDF). Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  305. ^ Marco Ceccarelli (2000). International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms: Proceedings HMM Symposium. Springer. ISBN 0-7923-6372-8. pp 218
  306. ^ I. M. Drakonoff (1991). Early Antiquity. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14465-8. pp 372
  307. ^ Balasubramaniam, R. (2000). "On the Corrosion Resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar" (PDF). Corrosion Science. 42 (12): 2103–29. doi:10.1016/s0010-938x(00)00046-9.
  308. ^ "Simputer Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia".
  309. ^ Ingerman, P. Z. (1967). ""Pāṇini Backus Form" suggested". Communications of the ACM. 10 (3): 137. doi:10.1145/363162.363165. S2CID 52817672.
  310. ^ "Panini biography". School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  311. ^ Ingerman, Peter Zilahy (March 1967). ""Pāṇini-Backus Form" Suggested". Communications of the ACM. 10 (3): 137. doi:10.1145/363162.363165. S2CID 52817672. Ingerman suggests that the Backus Normal Form be renamed to the Pāṇini-Backus Form, to give due credit to Pāṇini as the earliest independent inventor.
  312. ^ Ingerman, P. Z. (1967). ""Pāṇini Backus Form" suggested". Communications of the ACM. 10 (3): 137. doi:10.1145/363162.363165. S2CID 52817672.
  313. ^ "Panini biography".
  314. ^ a b Kenoyer, 265
  315. ^ a b In the third millennium BCE the Indus measuring system was further developed in the ancient regions of Iran and Afghanistan – Iwata, 2254.
  316. ^ a b Iwata2254
  317. ^ Baber, 23


  • Adas, Michael (January 2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-832-0.
  • Addington, Larry H. (1990). The Patterns of War Through the Eighteenth Century (Illustrated edition). Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20551-4.
  • Alter, J. S. in "Kabaddi, a national sport of India". Dyck, Noel (2000). Games, Sports and Cultures. Berg Publishers: ISBN 1-85973-317-4.
  • Amma, T. A. Sarasvati (1999) [1979]. Geometry in Ancient and Medieval India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publication. ISBN 81-208-1344-8.
  • Arensberg, Conrad M. & Niehoff, Arthur H. (1971). Introducing Social Change: A Manual for Community Development (second edition). New Jersey: Aldine Transaction. ISBN 0-202-01072-4
  • Augustyn, Frederick J. (2004). Dictionary of toys and games in American popular culture. Haworth Press. ISBN 0-7890-1504-8.
  • Azzaroli, Augusto (1985). An Early History of Horsemanship. Massachusetts: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-07233-0.
  • Baber, Zaheer (1996). The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2919-9.
  • Bag, A. K. (2005). "Fathullah Shirazi: Cannon, Multi-barrel Gun and Yarghu". Indian Journal of History of Science. 40 (3): 431–6.
  • Balasubramaniam, R. (2002). Delhi Iron Pillar: New Insights. Delhi: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies [University of Michigan]. ISBN 81-7305-223-9.
  • Banerji, Sures Chandra (1989). A Companion to Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0063-X.
  • Barker, Dian (2003). Tibetan Prayer Flags. Connections Book Publishing. ISBN 1-85906-106-0.
  • Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1344-1.
  • Basham, A. L. (2001) [1967]. The Wonder That was India. Third revised edition. New Delhi: Rupa & co. ISBN 0-283-99257-3.
  • Bedini, Silvio A. (1994). The Trail of Time : Time Measurement with Incense in East Asia. England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37482-0.
  • Bell, Eric Temple (1992). The Development of Mathematics (originally published in 1945). Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-27239-7.
  • Bell, John (2000). Strings, Hands, Shadows: A Modern Puppet History. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-89558-156-6.
  • Beer, Robert (2004). Encyclopedia of Tibetan Symbols and Motifs. Serindia Publications Inc. ISBN 1-932476-10-5.
  • Bird, Henry Edward (1893). Chess History and Reminiscences. London. (Republished version by Forgotten Books). ISBN 1-60620-897-7.
  • Berndt, Bruce C.; Rankin, Robert Alexander (2001). Ramanujan: Essays and Surveys. Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society. ISBN 978-0-8218-2624-9.
  • Biswas, Arun Kumar (June 1986). "Rasa-Ratna-Samuccaya and Mineral Processing State-of-Art in the 13th Century A.D. India" (PDF). Indian Journal of History of Science. 22 (1): 29–46. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
  • Blechynden, Kathleen (1905). Calcutta, Past and Present. Los Angeles: University of California.
  • Bondyopadhyay, Probir K (1988). "Sir J. C. Bose's Diode Detector Received Marconi's First Transatlantic Wireless Signal of December 1901 (The "Italian Navy Coherer" Scandal Revisited)". Proc. IEEE, Vol. 86, No. 1, January 1988.
  • Boga, Steven (1996). Badminton. Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-2487-5
  • Boos, Dennis D.; Oliver, Jacqueline M. Hughes (August 1998). "Applications of Basu's Theorem" (PDF). The American Statistician. 52 (3): 218–221. doi:10.2307/2685927. JSTOR 2685927.
  • Borwein, Jonathan M. & Bailey, David H. (2004) Mathematics by Experiment: Plausible Reasoning in the 21st Century Massachusetts: A K Peters, Ltd. ISBN 1-56881-211-6
  • Bourbaki, Nicolas (1998). Elements of the History of Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-64767-8.
  • Bressoud, David (2002), "Was Calculus Invented in India?", The College Mathematics Journal (Mathematical Association of America) 33 (1): 2–13
  • Broadbent, T. A. A.; Kline, M. (October 1968). "Reviewed work(s): The History of Ancient Indian Mathematics by C. N. Srinivasiengar". The Mathematical Gazette. 52 (381): 307–8. doi:10.2307/3614212. JSTOR 3614212.
  • Brown, W. Norman (1964). "The Indian Games of Pachisi, Chaupar, and Chausar". Expedition, 32–35. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 32 (35).
  • Chamberlin, J. Edward (2007). Horse: How the Horse Has Shaped Civilizations. Moscow: Olma Media Group. ISBN 1-904955-36-3.
  • Chandra, Anjana Motihar (2007). India Condensed: 5000 Years of History & Culture Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 981-261-350-1
  • Chopra, Ananda S. (2003). "Āyurveda". In Selin, Helaine (ed.). Medicine Across Cultures: History and Practice of Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 75–83. ISBN 978-1-4020-1166-5.
  • Dwivedi, Girish; Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). "History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence" (PDF). Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences. Delhi, India: Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, U. of Delhi / National College of Chest Physicians. 49: 243–244. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2008. (Republished by National Informatics Centre, Government of India.)
  • Cooke, Roger (2005). The History of Mathematics: A Brief Course. New York: Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0-471-44459-6.
  • Connors, Martin; Dupuis, Diane L. & Morgan, Brad (1992). The Olympics Factbook: A Spectator's Guide to the Winter and Summer Games. Michigan: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 0-8103-9417-0
  • Coppa, A. et al. 2006. "Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry". Nature. Volume 440. 6 April 2006.
  • Craddock, P.T. et al. (1983). Zinc production in medieval India, World Archaeology, vol. 15, no. 2, Industrial Archaeology.
  • Crandall, R. & Papadopoulos, J. (18 March 2003). "On the Implementation of AKS-Class Primality Tests"
  • Crandall, Richard E. & Pomerance, Carl (2005). Prime Numbers: A Computational Perspective (second edition). New York: Springer. ISBN 0-387-25282-7.
  • Dadhich, Naresh (August 2005). "Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri (1923–2005)" (PDF). Current Science. 89 (3): 569–570.
  • Dales, George (1974). "Excavations at Balakot, Pakistan, 1973". Journal of Field Archaeology. 1 (1–2): 3–22 [10]. doi:10.2307/529703. JSTOR 529703.
  • Daryaee, Touraj (2006) in "Backgammon" in Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia ed. Meri, Josef W. & Bacharach, Jere L, pp. 88–89. Taylor & Francis.
  • Dauxois, Thierry & Peyrard, Michel (2006). Physics of Solitons. England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85421-0.
  • Davreu, Robert (1978). "Cities of Mystery: The Lost Empire of the Indus Valley". The World's Last Mysteries. (second edition). Sydney: Reader's Digest. ISBN 0-909486-61-1
  • Dickinson, Joan Y. (2001). The Book of Diamonds. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-41816-2.
  • Drewes, F. (2006). Grammatical Picture Generation: A Tree-based Approach. New York: Springer. ISBN 3-540-21304-X
  • Durant, Will (1935). Our Oriental Heritage. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Dutfield, Graham (2003). Intellectual Property Rights and the Life Science Industries: A Twentieth Century History. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-2111-1.
  • Dwivedi, Girish & Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence. National Informatics Centre (Government of India).
  • Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology (Volume 1). Edited by Amalananda Ghosh (1990). Massachusetts: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09264-1.
  • Emerson, D.T. (1998).The Work of Jagdish Chandra Bose: 100 years of mm-wave research. National Radio Astronomy Observatory.
  • Emsley, John (2003). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850340-7.
  • Finger, Stanley (2001). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations into Brain Function. England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514694-8.
  • Flegg, Graham (2002). Numbers: Their History and Meaning. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-42165-1.
  • Forbes, Duncan (1860). The History of Chess: From the Time of the Early Invention of the Game in India Till the Period of Its Establishment in Western and Central Europe. London: W. H. Allen & co.
  • Fowler, David (1996). "Binomial Coefficient Function". The American Mathematical Monthly. 103 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1080/00029890.1996.12004694. JSTOR 2975209.
  • Fraser, Gordon (2006). The New Physics for the Twenty-first Century. England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81600-9.
  • Gangopadhyaya, Mrinalkanti (1980). Indian Atomism: history and sources. New Jersey: Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-02177-X.
  • Geddes, Patrick (2000). The life and work of Sir Jagadis C. Bose. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-1457-7.
  • Geyer, H. S. (2006), Global Regionalization: Core Peripheral Trends. England: Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 1-84376-905-0.
  • Ghosh, Amalananda (1990). An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09264-1.
  • Ghosh, S.; Massey, Reginald; and Banerjee, Utpal Kumar (2006). Indian Puppets: Past, Present and Future. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-435-X.
  • Gottsegen, Mark E. (2006). The Painter's Handbook: A Complete Reference. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-3496-8.
  • Goonatilake, Susantha (1998). Toward a Global Science: Mining Civilizational Knowledge. Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33388-1.
  • Guillain, Jean-Yves (2004). Badminton: An Illustrated History. Paris: Editions Publibook ISBN 2-7483-0572-8
  • Hāṇḍā, Omacanda (1998). Textiles, Costumes, and Ornaments of the Western Himalaya. Indus Publishing. ISBN 81-7387-076-4.
  • Hayashi, Takao (2005). Indian Mathematics in Flood, Gavin, The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 616 pages, pp. 360–375, 360–375, ISBN 978-1-4051-3251-0.
  • Hershey, J. Willard (2004). The Book of Diamonds: Their Curious Lore, Properties, Tests and Synthetic Manufacture 1940 Montana: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-7715-9
  • Hobson, John M. (2004). The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation (Illustrated edition). England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54724-5.
  • Hoiberg, Dale & Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Students' Britannica India. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. ISBN 0-85229-760-2
  • Hooper, David Vincent; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866164-9.
  • Hoover, Herbert Clark (2003). Georgius Agricola De Re Metallica Montana: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-3197-1.
  • Hopkins, Donald R. (2002). The Greatest Killer: Smallpox in history. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-35168-8.
  • Ifrah, Georges (2000). A Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to Computers. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  • Ingerman, P. Z. (1967). "Panini-Backus form suggested". Communications of the ACM. 10 (3): 137. doi:10.1145/363162.363165. S2CID 52817672.
  • Iwata, Shigeo (2008), "Weights and Measures in the Indus Valley", Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition) edited by Helaine Selin, Springer, 2254–2255, ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2.
  • James, Jeffrey (2003). Bridging the Global Digital Divide. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 1-84376-206-4.
  • Jones, William (1807). The Works of Sir William Jones (Volume 4). London.
  • Joseph, George Gheverghese (2000). The Crest of the Peacock: The Non-European Roots of Mathematics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00659-8.
  • Townsend White, Lynn; Jr (1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology". The American Historical Review. 65 (3): 522–526. doi:10.1086/ahr/65.3.515.
  • Juleff, G (1996). "An ancient wind powered iron smelting technology in Sri Lanka". Nature. 379 (6560): 60–63. Bibcode:1996Natur.379...60J. doi:10.1038/379060a0. S2CID 205026185.
  • Kamarustafa, Ahmet T. (1992). "Part 1 No. 1: Islamic Cartography 1". Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies. Vol. 2 Book 1. New York: Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-226-31635-1
  • Katz, V. J. (1995). "Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India". Mathematics Magazine. 68 (3): 163–174. doi:10.2307/2691411. JSTOR 2691411.
  • Kearns, Susannah C.J. & Nash, June E. (2008). leprosy. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Kieschnick, John (2003). The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7.
  • Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2000). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology. (Illustrated edition). New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-46158-3.
  • Koppel, Tom (2007). Ebb and Flow: Tides and Life on Our Once and Future Planet. Dundurn Press Ltd. ISBN 1-55002-726-3.
  • Kriger, Colleen E. & Connah, Graham (2006). Cloth in West African History. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0-7591-0422-0.
  • Kumar, Narendra (2004). Science in Ancient India. Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-261-2056-8
  • Kumar, Yukteshwar (2005). A History of Sino-Indian Relations: 1st Century A.D. to 7th Century A.D. New Delhi: APH Publishing. ISBN 81-7648-798-8.
  • Lade, Arnie & Svoboda, Robert (2000). Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1472-X.
  • Lee, Sunggyu (2006). Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8247-5563-4.
  • Linde, Antonius van der (1981) [1874] (in German). Geschichte und Literatur des Schachspiels. Zürich: Edition Olms. ISBN 3-283-00079-4
  • Livingston, Morna & Beach, Milo (2002). Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1-56898-324-7.
  • Lock, Stephen; Last, John M.; Dunea, George (2001). The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-262950-6.
  • Lowie, Robert H. (2007) [1940]. An Introduction To Cultural Anthropology. Masterson Press. ISBN 1-4067-1765-7.
  • Malkin, Stephen (1996). Grinding Technology: Theory and Applications of Machining with Abrasives. Michigan: Society of Manufacturing Engineers. ISBN 0-87263-480-9.
  • McEvilley, Thomas (2002). The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. New York: Allworth Communications Inc. ISBN 1-58115-203-5.
  • McIntosh, Jane (2007). The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. Illustrated edition. California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-907-4.
  • Meri, Josef W. (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96690-6.
  • Millar, Stuart (2004). "Using Technology: Handheld PC Bridges Digital Divide". World in Motion: Future, Science and Technology. Denmark: Systime. pp. 167–169. ISBN 87-616-0887-4
  • Murray, H. J. R. (1913). A History of Chess. England: Oxford University Press.
  • Narlikar, J. V. (2002). An Introduction to Cosmology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79376-9.
  • Nejat, Karen Rhea Nemet. (1998). Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-29497-6.
  • Nitis, Mukhopadhyay (2000). Probability and Statistical Inference. Statistics: A Series of Textbooks and Monographs. 162. Florida: CRC Press USA. ISBN 0-8247-0379-0.
  • Pacey, Arnold (1991). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-66072-5.
  • Penney, Lord (November 1967). "Homi Jehangir Bhabha. 1909–1966". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 13: 35–55. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1967.0002. JSTOR 769371.
  • Piercey, W. Douglas & Scarborough, Harold (2008). hospital. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Pingree, David (2003). "The logic of non-Western science: mathematical discoveries in medieval India". Daedalus. 132 (4): 45–54. doi:10.1162/001152603771338779. S2CID 57559157.
  • Plofker, Kim (2001). "The "Error" in the Indian "Taylor Series Approximation" to the Sine". Historia Mathematica. 28 (4): 283–295. doi:10.1006/hmat.2001.2331.
  • Ploker, Kim (2007) "Mathematics in India". The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A Sourcebook New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11485-4
  • Ponomarev, Leonid Ivanovich (1993). The Quantum Dice. CRC Press. ISBN 0-7503-0251-8.
  • Possehl, Gregory L. (2002). The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. Maryland: Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0-7591-0172-8.
  • Prathap, Gangan (March 2004). "Indian science slows down: The decline of open-ended research". Current Science. 86 (6): 768–769.
  • Pruthi, Raj (2004). Prehistory and Harappan Civilization. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corp. ISBN 81-7648-581-0.
  • Purohit, Vinayak (1988). Arts of Transitional India Twentieth Century. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. ISBN 0-86132-138-3
  • Puttaswamy, T. K. (2000), "The Mathematical Accomplishments of Ancient Indian Mathematicians". Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Non-western Mathematics. New York: Springer Publishing. ISBN 0-7923-6481-3
  • Ramakrishnan, C. (October 2001). "In Memoriam: Professor G.N. Ramachandran (1922–2001)" (PDF). Protein Science. 10 (8): 1689–1691. doi:10.1002/pro.101689. PMC 2374078. PMID 11468366. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  • Rao, S. R. (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India.
  • Rao, K. Anantharama (2000). Vision 21st Century. India: Vidya Publishing House [Michigan: University of Michigan]. ISBN 81-87699-00-0
  • Read, Peter G. (2005) Gemmology. England: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-6449-5
  • Reynolds, Terry S (1983). Stronger Than a Hundred Men: A History of the Vertical Water Wheel. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7248-0.
  • Rigden, John S. (2005). Einstein 1905: The Standard of Greatness. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01544-4.
  • Robinson, Dindy & Estes, Rebecca (1996). World Cultures Through Art Activities. New Hampshire: Libraries Unlimited. ISBN 1-56308-271-3.
  • Rodda & Ubertini (2004). The Basis of Civilization—water Science?. International Association of Hydrological Science. ISBN 1-901502-57-0.
  • Rousselet, Louis (1875). India and Its Native Princes: Travels in Central India and in the Presidencies of Bombay and Bengal. London: Chapman and Hall.
  • Roy, Ranjan (1990), "Discovery of the Series Formula for by Leibniz, Gregory, and Nilakantha", Mathematics Magazine (Mathematical Association of America) 63 (5): 291–306
  • Saliba, George (1997). "Interfusion of Asian and Western Cultures: Islamic Civilization and Europe to 1500". Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching. Edited by Ainslie Thomas Embree & Carol Gluck. New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-265-6.
  • Sanchez & Canton (2006). Microcontroller Programming: The Microchip PIC. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-7189-9.
  • Sarkar, Tapan K. etc. (2006), History of Wireless, Wiley-IEEE, ISBN 0-471-78301-3.
  • Schafer, Edward H. (1963). The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A Study of T'ang Exotics. California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05462-8.
  • Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1992). "Part 2: South Asian Cartography: 15. Introduction to South Asian Cartography". The History of Cartography – Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies (Volume 2 Book 1). Edited by J.B. Harley and David Woodward. New York: Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 0-226-31635-1.
  • Seiwert, Hubert Michael (2003). Popular Religious Movements and Heterodox Sects in Chinese History. Massachusetts: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-13146-9.
  • Shukla, R.P. in "Laser Interferometers for Measuring Refractive Index of Transparent Materials and Testing of Optical Components", Laser Applications in Material Science and Industry. 20–27. Allied Publishers. ISBN 81-7023-658-4.
  • Singh, A. N. (1936). On the Use of Series in Hindu Mathematics. Osiris 1: 606–628.
  • Singh, Manpal (2005). Modern Teaching of Mathematics. Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-261-2105-X
  • Singh, P. (1985). The So-called Fibonacci numbers in ancient and medieval India. Historia Mathematica 12(3), 229–44.
  • Sircar, D.C. (1996).Indian epigraphy. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1166-6.
  • Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. (2001). Tobacco and Areca Nut. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan. ISBN 81-250-2013-6
  • Smith, Joseph A. (1992). The Pen and Ink Book: Materials and Techniques for Today's Artist. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-3986-2.
  • Smith, David E. (1958). History of Mathematics. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20430-8.
  • Sreekantan, B. V. (December 2005). "Homi Bhabha and Cosmic Ray Research in India" (PDF). Resonance. 10 (12): 42–51. doi:10.1007/BF02835127. S2CID 195305468.
  • Srinivasan, S. & Ranganathan, S. Wootz Steel: An Advanced Material of the Ancient World. Bangalore: Indian Institute of Science.
  • Srinivasan, S. Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered production site in South India. Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 5 (1994), pp. 49–61.
  • Srinivasan, S. and Griffiths, D. South Indian wootz: evidence for high-carbon steel from crucibles from a newly identified site and preliminary comparisons with related finds. Material Issues in Art and Archaeology-V, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Series Vol. 462.
  • Staal, Frits (1999). "Greek and Vedic Geometry". Journal of Indian Philosophy. 27 (1–2): 105–127. doi:10.1023/A:1004364417713. S2CID 170894641.
  • Stcherbatsky, Theodore (2003) [1930]. Buddhist Logic. Vol. 1. Montana: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-7684-3.
  • Stein, Burton (1998). A History of India. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-20546-2.
  • Stepanov, Serguei A. (1999). Codes on Algebraic Curves. Springer. ISBN 0-306-46144-7.
  • Stillwell, John (2004). Mathematics and its History (2 ed.). Berlin and New York: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95336-1.
  • Taguchi, Genichi & Jugulum, Rajesh (2002). The Mahalanobis-taguchi Strategy: A Pattern Technology System. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-02333-7.
  • Teresi, Dick; et al. (2002). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science—from the Babylonians to the Maya. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-83718-8.
  • Thomas, Arthur (2007) Gemstones: Properties, Identification and Use. London: New Holland Publishers. ISBN 1-84537-602-1
  • Thrusfield, Michael (2007). Veterinary Epidemiology. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-5627-9.
  • Upadhyaya, Bhagwat Saran (1954). The Ancient World. Andhra Pradesh: The Institute of Ancient Studies Hyderabad.
  • Varadpande, Manohar Laxman (2005). History of Indian Theatre. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-430-9.
  • Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; et al. (2003). Minerals: Their Constitution and Origin. England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52958-1.
  • Whish, Charles (1835). "On the Hindu Quadrature of the Circle, and the infinite Series of the proportion of the circumference to the diameter exhibited in the four shastras: the Tantra Sangraham, Yukti-Bhasa, Carana Padhati, and Sadratnamala". Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 3 (3): 509–523. doi:10.1017/S0950473700001221.
  • White Jr, Lynn Townsend (1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology". The American Historical Review. 65 (3): 522–526. doi:10.2307/1849619. JSTOR 1849619.
  • Whitelaw, Ian (2007). A Measure of All Things: The Story of Man and Measurement. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-37026-1.
  • Wilkinson, Charles K (1943). "Chessmen and Chess". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. New Series. 1 (9): 271–279. doi:10.2307/3257111. JSTOR 3257111.
  • Wise, Tad (2002). Blessings on the Wind: The Mystery & Meaning of Tibetan Prayer Flags. Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-3435-2.
  • Wisseman, S. U. & Williams, W. S. (1994). Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials. London: Routledge. ISBN 2-88124-632-X.
  • Woods, Michael & Woods, Mary B. (2000). Ancient Transportation: From Camels to Canals. Minnesota: Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-8225-2993-9.

External links[edit]