List of Indian massacres
|Indian massacre of 1622|
Indian massacre of 1622, depicted as a woodcut by Matthäus Merian, 1628.
|Location||Colony of Virginia|
|Date||1 April 1622|
|Target||English settlers in the Virginia colony|
|Massacre. European colonists were the first to use the phrase “Indian Massacre” which described massacres by Native Americans. The first originally termed instance of "Indian Massacre" occurred in 1622 at the Virginia colony of Jamestown.|
|Deaths||347 men, women, and children of all ages.|
In the history of the European colonization of the Americas, an atrocity termed "Indian massacre" is a specific incident wherein a group of people (military, mob or other) deliberately kill a significant number of unarmed, defenseless people — usually civilian noncombatants — or to the summary execution of prisoners-of-war. The term usually refers to the killing of unarmed Native American women, children, and elders by colonists and the colonizing military forces. In historical usage, it has also been used by colonists to describe the actions of Native Americans killing colonists.
"Indian massacre" is a phrase whose use and definition has evolved and expanded over time. The phrase was initially used by European colonists to describe attacks by indigenous Americans which resulted in mass colonial casualties. While similar attacks by colonists on Indian villages were called "raids" or "battles", successful Indian attacks on white settlements or military posts were routinely termed "massacres". Knowing very little about the native inhabitants of the American frontier, the colonists were deeply fearful, and as time passed, "far more white Americans eagerly consumed Indian atrocity stories around the family table and in popular literature and newspapers than ever interacted with Indians or witnessed an Indian raid." Emphasis was placed on the depredations of "murderous savages" in their information about Indians, and as the migrants headed further west, fear was the prevailing emotion behind their thoughts and actions concerning Indians. In some instances motivated by politics, in Colorado for example, "stories in the News continued to stir those fears: wild rumors of Indian conspiracies were heralded as fact; any violence at all between whites and Indians was reported as an Indian 'massacre'".
The phrase eventually became commonly used also to describe mass killings of American Indians. Killings described as "massacres" often had an element of indiscriminate targeting, barbarism, or genocidal intent. According to one historian, "Any discussion of genocide must, of course, eventually consider the so-called Indian Wars", the term commonly used for U.S. Army campaigns to subjugate Indian nations of the American West beginning in the 1860s. In an older historiography, key events in this history were narrated as battles.
Since the late 20th century, it has become more common for scholars to refer to certain of these events as massacres, especially if there were large numbers of women and children as victims. This includes the Colorado territorial militia's slaughter of Cheyenne at Sand Creek (1864), and the US army's slaughter of Shoshone at Bear River (1863), Blackfeet on the Marias River (1870), and Lakota at Wounded Knee (1890). Some scholars have begun referring to these events as "genocidal massacres," defined as the annihilation of a portion of a larger group, sometimes to provide a lesson to the larger group.
It is difficult to determine the total number of people who died as a result of "Indian massacres". In The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, lawyer William M. Osborn compiled a list of alleged and actual atrocities in what would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact in 1511 until 1890. His parameters for inclusion included the intentional and indiscriminate murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners. His list included 7,193 people who died from atrocities perpetrated by those of European descent, and 9,156 people who died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans. Many of the incidents included on this list are not mentioned in Osborn's book.
In An American Genocide, The United States and the California Catastrophe, 1846-1873, historian Benjamin Madley recorded the numbers of killings of California Indians between 1846 and 1873. He found evidence that during this period at least 9,400 to 16,000 California Indians were killed by non-Indians. Most of these killings occurred in what he said were more than 370 massacres (defined by him as the "intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise").
List of massacres
This is a listing of some of the events reported then or referred to now as "Indian massacre". This list contains only incidents that occurred in Canada or the United States, or territory presently part of the United States.
|Year||Date||Name||Current location||Description||Reported native casualties|
|1325||Crow Creek massacre||South Dakota||486 known dead were discovered at an archaeological site near Chamberlain, South Dakota. The victims and perpetrators were both unknown groups of Native Americans.||486|||
|Year||Date||Name||Current location||Description||Reported casualties||Claimants|
|1539||Napituca Massacre||Florida||After defeating resisting Timucuan warriors, Hernando de Soto had 200 executed, in the first large-scale massacre by Europeans on what later became U.S. soil.||200|||
|1540||October 18||Mabila Massacre||Alabama||The Choctaw retaliated against Hernando de Soto's expedition, killing 200 soldiers, as well as many of their horses and pigs, for their having burned down Mabila compound and killed c. 2,500 warriors who had hidden in houses of a fake village.||2500|||
|1541–42||Tiguex Massacres||New Mexico||After the invading Spaniards seized the houses, food and clothing of the Tiguex and raped their women, the Tiguex resisted. The Spanish attacked them, burning at the stake 50 people who had surrendered. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's men laid siege to the Moho Pueblo, and after a months-long siege, they killed 200 fleeing warriors.||250|||
|1599||January 22–24||Acoma Massacre||New Mexico||Juan de Oñate led a punitive expedition against the natives in a three-day battle at the Acoma Pueblo, killing approximately 500 warriors and 300 civilians. King Philip III later punished Oñate for his excesses.||300|||
|1601||Sandia Mountains||New Mexico||Spanish troops destroyed 3 Indian villages in the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico. According to Spanish sources, 900 Tompiro Indians were killed.||900|||
|1610||August 9||Paspahegh Massacre||Virginia||Lord De la Warr sent 70 men to attack the Paspahegh Indians. They destroyed their main village near Jamestown, killing between 16 and 65 people. The wife and children of the village chief were captured and shortly afterwards put to death .||16-65|||
|1622||March 22||Jamestown Massacre||Virginia||Powhatan (Pamunkey) killed 347 English settlers throughout the Virginia colony, almost one-third of the English population of the Jamestown colony, in an effort to push the English out of Virginia. They then destroyed crops and livestock causing 500 more people to die of starvation, reducing the settler population to 180.||847 (English) (500 died from starvation)|||
|1623||Wessagusset affair||Massachusetts||Several Massachusett chiefs were lured to Wessagusset under peaceful pretenses and put to death. Other Indians present in the village were also killed.||4 (Native leaders) + unknown number of other Native Americans|||
|1623||May 12||Pamunkey Peace Talks||Virginia||The English poisoned the wine at a "peace conference" with Powhatan leaders, killing about 200; they physically attacked and killed another 50.||250|||
|1637||April 23||Wethersfield Attack||Connecticut||During the Pequot War, Wongunk chief Sequin attacked the Puritan town Wethersfield, Connecticut with Pequot help. Six men and 3 women were killed and 2 girls kidnapped.||9 (settlers)|||
|1637||May 26||Mystic Massacre||Connecticut||In response to the Wethersfield attack, English colonists commanded by John Mason, with Mohegan and Narragansett allies, launched a night attack on a large Pequot village on the Mystic River in present-day Connecticut, where they burned the inhabitants in their homes and killed all survivors, for total fatalities of about 600–700.||600–700|||
|1640||July||Staten Island||New York||80 Dutch soldiers under Cornelis van Tienhoven attacked a village of Raritans on Staten Island over stolen pigs. Van Tienhoven intended only to demand payment, but his men wanted to massacre the Indians and he eventually consented.|||
|1643||February 25||Pavonia Massacre||New York||In 1643 the Mohawk attacked a band of Wappinger and Tappan, who fled to New Amsterdam seeking the protection of New Netherland governor, William Kieft. Kieft dispersed them to Pavonia and Corlears Hook. They were later attacked, 129 being killed. This prompted the beginning of Kieft's War, driven by mercenary John Underhill.||129|||
|1643||August||Hutchinson Massacre||New York||As part of Kieft's War in New Netherland, near the Split Rock (now northeastern Bronx in New York City), local Lenape (or Siwanoy) killed settler Anne Hutchinson, six of her children, a son-in-law, and as many as seven others (servants). Susanna, one of Hutchinson's daughters, was taken captive and lived with the natives for several years.||15 (settlers)|||
|1644||Massapequa Massacre||New York||John Underhill's men killed more than 100 Indians near present-day Massapequa.||100+|||
|1644||April 18||Beginning of Third Anglo-Powhatan War||Virginia||Powhatan (Pamunkey) killed more than 400 English settlers throughout the Virginia colony, about 4 percent of the English population of the Jamestown colony, in a second effort to push the English out of Virginia.||400+ (English)|||
|1644||March||Pound Ridge Massacre||New York||As part of Kieft's War in New Netherland, at present day Pound Ridge, New York, John Underhill, hired by the Dutch, attacked and burned a sleeping village of Lenape, killing about 500 Indians.||500|||
|1655||September 11–15||Peach Tree War||New York||In retaliation for Director-General of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant's attacks to their trading partners and allies at New Sweden, united bands of natives attacked Pavonia, Staten Island, Colen Donck and other areas of New Netherland.|||
|1675||July||Susquehannock Massacre||Virginia||After a raid by Doeg Indians on a plantation in Virginia, a party of militiamen crossed the Potomac into Maryland and killed 14 Susquehannocks they found sleeping in their cabins.||14|||
|1675||July||Swansea Massacre||Massachusetts||Wampanoag warriors attack the town of Swansea, Massachusetts, killing 7 settlers. This attack marked the beginning of King Philip's War.||7 (settlers)|||
|1675||December 19||Great Swamp Massacre||Rhode Island||Colonial militia and Indian allies attacked a Narragansett fort near South Kingstown, Rhode Island. At least 40 warriors were killed and 300 to 1,000 women, children and elder men burnt in the village.||300-1000|||
|1676||March 26||Nine Men's Misery||Rhode Island||During King Philip's War, warriors subjected nine captive soldiers with ritual torture and death.||9|||
|1676||May||Massacre at Occoneechee Island||Virginia||Nathaniel Bacon turned on his Occaneechi allies and his men destroyed three forts within their village on Occoneechee Island, on the Roanoke River near present-day Clarksville, Virginia. Bacon's troops killed one hundred men as well as many women and children.||100–400|||
|1676||May 10||Turner Falls Massacre||Massachusetts||Captain William Turner and 150 militia volunteers attacked a fishing Indian camp at present-day Turners Falls, Massachusetts. At least 100 women and children were killed in the attack.||100|||
|1676||July 2||Rhode Island||Rhode Island||Militia volunteers under Major Talcott attacked a band of Narragansetts on Rhode Island, killing 34 men and 92 women and children.||126|||
|1680||August 10||Pueblo Revolt||New Mexico||Pueblo warriors killed 380 Spanish settlers, and drove other Spaniards from New Mexico.||380 (Spaniards)|||
|1689||August 5||Lachine massacre||Quebec||1,500 Mohawk warriors attacked the small settlement of Lachine, New France and killed more than 90 of the village's 375 French residents, in response to widespread French attacks on Mohawk villages in present-day New York.||90 (French)|||
|1689||Zia Pueblo||New Mexico||Governor Jironza de Cruzate destroyed the pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. 600 Indians were killed and 70 survivors enslaved.||600|||
|1690||February 8||Schenectady Massacre||New York||As part of the Beaver Wars, French and Algonquins destroyed Schenectady, New York, killing 60 Dutch and English settlers, including ten women and at least twelve children.||60 (Dutch and English)|||
|1692||January 24||Candlemas Massacre||Maine||During King William's War, 200–300 Abenaki and Canadiens killed 75, took 100 prisoner and burned the encroaching town of York, Maine district of the Province of Massachusetts Bay||75 (non-Indians)|||
|1704||Apalachee Massacre||South Carolina||English colonists and Creek allies under former Carolina Governor James Moore launched a series of brutal attacks on the Apalachee villages of Northern Florida. They killed 1000 Apalachees and enslaved at least 2000 survivors.||1000|||
|1704||February 29||Deerfield Massacre||Massachusetts||During Queen Anne's War, a force composed of Abenaki, Kanienkehaka, Wyandot and Pocumtuck, accompanied by a small contingent of French-Canadian militia and led by Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville, sacked the town of Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing 56 civilians and taking more than 100 as captives.||56 (non-Indians)|||
|1711||September 22||Massacre at Bath||North Carolina||The Southern Tuscarora, Pamplico, Cothechneys, Cores, Mattamuskeets and Matchepungoes attacked settlers at several locations in and around the city of Bath, North Carolina. Hundreds of settlers were killed, and many more were driven off.||Hundreds (settlers)|||
|1712||Massacre at Fort Narhantes||North Carolina||The North Carolina militia and their Indian allies attacked the Southern Tuscarora at Fort Narhantes on the banks of the Neuse River. More than 300 Tuscarora were killed, and one hundred were sold into slavery.||300|||
|1712||May||Fox Indian Massacre||Michigan||French troops with Indian allies killed around 1,000 Fox Indians men, women and children in a five-day massacre near the head of the Detroit River.||1000|||
|1713||March 20–23||Fort Neoheroka||South Carolina||Militia volunteers and Indian allies under Colonel James Moore attacked Ft. Neoheroka, the main stronghold of the Tuscarora Indians. 200 Tuscaroras were burned to death in the village and 900–1000 others were subsequently killed or captured.||200–1200|||
|1715||April 15||Pocotaligo Massacre||South Carolina||Yamassee Indians killed 4 British traders and representatives of Carolina at Pocotaligo, near present-day Yemassee, South Carolina. 90 other traders were killed in the following weeks.||94 (traders)|||
|1715||April||Massacre at St Bartholemew's Parish||South Carolina||At the onset of the Yamasee War, Yamasee Indians attacked St Bartolehew's Parish in South Carolina, killing over 100 settlers. Subsequent attacks around Charles Town killed many more, and in total, about 7% of the colony's white population perished in the conflict.||100+ (settlers)|||
|1715||May||Schenkingh Plantation||South Carolina||A band of Catawba and Cherokee warriors attacked Benjamin Schenkingh's plantation where about 20 settlers had taken refuge. All were killed.||20 (settlers)|||
|1724||August 24||Norridgewock Massacre||Maine||Captains Jeremiah Moulton and Johnson Harmon led 200 rangers to the Abenaki village of Norridgewock, Maine to kill Father Sebastian Rale and destroy the Indian settlement. The rangers massacred 80 Abenakis including two dozen women and children and 26 warriors. The rangers suffered 3 dead.||80 (26 warriors)|||
|1729||November 29||Natchez Massacre||Mississippi||Natchez Indians attacked French settlements near present-day Natchez, Mississippi, killing more than 200 French colonists.||200 (French)|||
|1730||Massacre of Chawasha village||Louisiana||Governor Perrier ordered 80 black slaves to attack the village of the Chawasha Indians. At least 7 Indians were killed.||7|||
|1730||September 9||Massacre at Fox Fort||Quebec||A French army of 1,400 soldiers and their Indian allies massacred about 500 Fox Indians (including 300 women and children) as they tried to flee their besieged camp.||500|||
|1745||Massacre at Walden||New York||Upon hearing of an impending French and Indian attack upon the Ulster county frontiers, British colonists massacred several peaceful Munsee families near Walden, New York. On March 2, 1756, white vigilantes murdered 9 friendly Munsee Indians at Walden.||9+|||
|1747||October||Chama River||New Mexico||Spanish troops ambushed a group of Utes on the Chama River, killing 111 Indians and taking 206 as captives.||111|||
|1755||Jul 8||Draper's Meadow massacre||Virginia||5 settlers killed by Shawnee Indians at Draper's Meadow, Virginia||5 (settlers)|||
|1757||August 9||Battle of Fort William Henry||New York||Following the fall of Fort William Henry during the Seven Years' War, Indians allied with the French killed between 70 and 180 British and colonial prisoners.||70–180 (British)|||
|1758||March 16||San Saba Mission Massacre||Texas||A large party of Comanche, Tonkawa and Hasinai Indians attacked the mission of San Saba, Texas, killing 8 and burning down the mission.||8 (missionaries)|||
|1759||October 4||St. Francis Raid||Quebec||During the Seven Years' War, in retaliation for a rumored murder of a captured Stockbridge man and detention of Captain Quinten Kennedy of the Rogers' Rangers, Major Robert Rogers led a party of approximately 150 English regulars, volunteers and Mahican into the village of Odanak, Quebec. They killed up to 30 Abenaki people, among them women and children, as confirmed via conflicting reports.||30|||
|1763||May||Capture of Fort Sandusky||Ohio||During Pontiac's War, a group of Wyandots entered the British outpost Fort Sandusky under peaceful pretexts. The Wyandots then seized the fort and killed its 15-member garrison along with several British traders.||15+ (British)|||
|1763||June 23||Clendenin Massacre||West Virginia||Shawnee massacre of Clendenin adult males, captured women and children including John Ewing of Virginia.|
|1763||September 14||Devil's Hole Massacre||New York||During the Seven Years' War, Seneca allied with the French attacked a British supply train and soldiers just south of Fort Niagara. They killed 21 out of 24 teamsters from the supply train.||21 teamsters + 81 soldiers (British)|||
|1763||December||Killings by the Paxton Boys||Conestoga Town
|In response to Pontiac's Rebellion, frontier Pennsylvania settlers killed 20 peaceful Susquehannock.||20|||
|1764||July 26||Enoch Brown school massacre||Franklin County
|Four Lenape Indians killed a schoolmaster, 10 pupils and a pregnant woman. Two pupils were scalped but survived.||12 (non-Indians)|||
|1774||September||Spanish Peaks||New Mexico||Spanish troops surprised a large fortified Comanche village near Spanish Peaks (Raton, New Mexico). They killed nearly 300 Indians (men, women and children) and took 100 captives.||300|||
|1774||April 30||Yellow Creek Massacre||Hancock County,
|Daniel Greathouse killed members of Chief Logan's family.|||
|1778||July 3||Battle of Wyoming||Wyoming Valley,
|During the American Revolutionary War, following a battle with rebel defenders of Forty Fort, Iroquois allies of Loyalist forces hunted and killed those who fled; they were later accused of using ritual torture to kill those soldiers who surrendered. These claims were denied by Iroquois and British leaders at the time.||340|||
|1778||August 31||Stockbridge Massacre||Massachusetts||An ambush by the British during the American Revolutionary War that left nearly 40 natives dead.||40|||
|1778||November 11||Cherry Valley Massacre||New York||British and Seneca forces attacked the fort and village at Cherry Valley, New York, killing 16 rebel troops and more than 30 settlers.||46 (settlers)|||
|1780||June 27||Westervelt Massacre||Kentucky||Seventeen Dutch settlers killed and two taken captive out of a caravan of 41. The settler caravan was traveling between Low Dutch Station, Kentucky and Harrod's Town, Kentucky. The victims were all scalped and sold to the British for a bounty.||41 (Dutch)|||
|1781||September 1||Dietz Massacre||New York||During the Revolution, Iroquois allied with the British attacked the home of Johannes Dietz, Berne, New York, killing and scalping Dietz, his wife, their daughter-in-law, four children of their son's family, and a servant girl.||8 (Dutch)|||
|1781||September 1||Long Run Massacre||Jefferson County,
|Thirty-two settlers killed by 50 Miami people while trying to move to safety, additionally approximately 15 settlers and 17 soldiers were killed attempting to bury the initial victims.||64 (settlers)|||
|1782||March 8||Gnadenhütten massacre||Gnadenhutten,
|During the Revolution, Pennsylvania militiamen massacred nearly 100 non-combatant Christian Lenape, mostly women and children; they killed and scalped all but two young boys.||100|||
|1788||Kirk Family Massacre||Tennessee||A party of Indians killed 11 members of the Kirk family (1 woman and 10 children) on Nine Mile Creek 12 miles south of present-day Knoxville.||11 (settlers)|||
|1788||Massacre of the Old chiefs||Tennessee||In retaliation to the Kirk Massacre, Old Tassel and 4 other chiefs of the Cherokee peace faction were lured into a trap and axed under a flag of truce in Chilhowee.||5|||
|1791||January 2||Big Bottom massacre||Ohio||14 settlers were killed by an Indian war party in Stockport, Morgan County, Ohio.||14 (settlers)|
|1791||November 4||Fort Recovery Massacre||Ohio||At present day Fort Recovery, Ohio, an army of 1,500 Americans led by Arthur St. Clair, was ambushed by an army of Miami Indians led by chief Little Turtle. 200 to 250 civilians were killed.||200–250 (Americans)|||
|1805||January||Canyon del Muerto||Arizona||Spanish soldiers led by Antonio Narbona massacred 115 Navajo Indians (mostly women, children and old men) in Canyon del Muerto, northeastern Arizona.||115|||
|1812||August 15||Fort Dearborn Massacre
(Battle of Fort Dearborn)
|Illinois||During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed American soldiers and settlers evacuating Fort Dearborn (site of present-day Chicago, Illinois). In all, 26 soldiers, two officers, two women and 12 children, and 12 trappers and settlers hired as scouts, were killed.||54 (non-Indians)|||
|1812||September 3||Pigeon Roost Massacre||Indiana||During the War of 1812, twenty four settlers, including fifteen children, were massacred by a war party of Native Americans (mostly Shawnee, but possibly including some Lenape and Potawatomis) in a surprise attack on a small village located in what is today Scott County, Indiana.||24 (settlers)|||
|1813||January 22||River Raisin Massacre||Kentucky||During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed between 30 and 60 Kentucky militia after their surrender.||30-60 (Americans)|||
|1813||August 30||Fort Mims Massacre||Alabama||After a Creek victory at the Battle of Burnt Corn, a band of Creek Red Sticks attacked Fort Mims, in what today is Alabama, killing 400-500 settlers, slaves, militiamen, and Creek loyalists and taking 250 scalps. This action brought the US into the internal Creek War, at the same time as the War of 1812.||400-500 (settlers)|||
|1813||September 1||Kimbell-James Massacre||Mississippi||Immediately after departing Fort Mims, Red Sticks warriors led by Josiah Francis (Prophet Francis) attacked the Kimbell and James families seeking refuge near Fort Sinquefield. At least 15 were killed, mostly women and children.||15 (settlers)|||
|1813||November 3||Battle of Tallushatchee||Tennessee||900 Tennessee troops under General John Coffee, and including Davy Crockett, attacked an unsuspecting Creek town. About 186-200 Creek warriors were killed, and an unknown number of women and children were killed, some burned in their houses.||300|||
|1813||November 18||Hillabee Massacre||Alabama||Tennessee troops under General White launched a dawn attacked on an unsuspecting Creek town (the village leaders were engaged in peace negotiations with General Andrew Jackson). About 65 Creek Indians were shot or bayoneted.||65|||
|1813||November 29||Autossee Massacre
(Battle of Autossee)
|Alabama||Georgia Militia General Floyd attacked a Creek town on Tallapoosa River, in Macon County, Alabama, killing 200 Indians before setting the village afire.||200 (including warriors)|||
|1817||Late September||Scott Massacre||Florida||A supply boat under the command of Lt. Richard W. Scott was attacked by Seminole Indians on the Apalachicola River. 40-50 people on the boat were killed, including twenty sick soldiers and seven wives of soldiers. One woman was taken prisoner, and six survivors made it to Fort Scott.||40-50 (settlers)|||
|1823||February||Skull Creek Massacre||Texas||After Coco Indians killed two colonists under unclear circumstances, the colonists got together twenty-five men and found a Karankawa people village on Skull Creek. They killed at least nineteen inhabitants of the village before the rest could flee, then stole their possessions and burned their homes to the ground.||19+|||
|1824||March 22||Fall Creek Massacre||Indiana||Six settlers in Madison County, Indiana killed and robbed eight Seneca. One suspect escaped trial and another was a witness at subsequent trial. Of those charged with murder, one man was hanged January 12, 1825, and two were hanged June 2, 1825. The last defendant was pardoned at the last minute.||8|||
|1826||Dressing Point Massacre||Texas||A posse of Anglo-Texan settlers massacred a large community of Karankawa Indians near the mouth of the Colorado River in Matagorda County, Texas. Between 40 and 50 Karankawas were killed.||40-50|||
|Year||Date||Name||Current location||Description||Reported casualties||Claimants|
|1832||May 20||Indian Creek Massacre||Illinois||A party of Potawatomi, with a few Sauk allies, killed fifteen men, women and children and kidnapped two young women, who were later ransomed.||15 (settlers)|||
|1832||August 1||Battle of Bad Axe||Wisconsin||Soldiers under General Henry Atkinson, armed volunteers and Dakota Sioux killed around 150 Indian men, women and children near present-day Victory, Wisconsin. The US suffered 5 dead.||150 (including warriors)|||
|1833||Exact date unknown||Cutthroat Gap Massacre||Oklahoma||The Osage tribe attacked a Kiowa camp west of the Wichita Mountains in southwest Oklahoma, killing 150 Kiowa Indians.||150|||
|1836||May 19||Fort Parker Massacre||Texas||Comanche killed seven European Americans in Limestone County, Texas. The five captured included Cynthia Ann Parker.||7 (Europeans)|||
|1837||Amador Massacre||California||Mexican colonists under Jose Maria Amador captured an entire rancheria of friendly Miwok Indians in Northern California and killed their 200 prisoners in two mass executions.||200|||
|1837||April 22||Johnson Massacre||New Mexico||At least 20 Apaches were killed near Santa Rita del Cobre, New Mexico while trading with a group of American settlers led by John Johnson. The Anglos blasted the Apaches with a canon loaded with musket balls, nails and pieces of glass and finished off the wounded.||20|||
|1838||October 5||Killough Massacre||Texas||Indians massacred eighteen members and relatives of the Killough family in Texas.||18 (settlers)|||
|1838 or 1839||Exact date unknown||Webster Massacre||Texas||The Comanche killed a party of settlers attempting to ford the Bushy Creek near present-day Leander, Texas. All of the Anglo men were killed and Mrs. Webster and her two children were captured.|||
|1840||March 19||Council House Massacre||Texas||The 12 leaders of a Comanche delegation were shot in San Antonio, Texas, while trying to escape the local jail. 23 others including 5 women and children were killed in or around the city. 65 Comanche including 35 women and children were present. 7 Texas militia were also killed at the court house mostly from friendly fire. 13 captives were killed in retaliation by the Comanche.||35 (Indians) + 13 (Whites)|||
|1840||August 7||Indian Key Massacre||Florida||During the Seminole Wars, Spanish-speaking Indians attacked and destroyed an Indian Key settlement, killing 13 inhabitants, including noted horticulturist Dr. Henry Perrine.||13 (settlers)|||
|1840||October 24||Red Fork of the Colorado River||Texas||Volunteer Rangers under Colonel Moore massacred 140 Comanches (men, women and children) in their village on the Colorado and captured 35 others (mostly small children).||140|||
|1840||Exact date unknown||Clear Lake Massacre||California||A posse led by Mexican Salvador Vallejo massacred 150 Pomo and Wappo Indians on Clear Lake, California.||150|||
|1846||April 6||Sacramento River massacre||California||Captain Frémont's men attacked a band of Indians (probably Wintun) on the Sacramento River in California, killing between 120 and 200 Indians.||120-200|||
|1846||May 12||Klamath Lake massacre||California||Captain Frémont's men, led by Kit Carson attacked a village of Klamath Indians) on the banks of Klamath Lake, killing at least 14 Klamath people.||14+|||
|1846||June||Sutter Buttes massacre||California||Captain Frémont's men attacked a rancheria on the banks of the Sacramento River near Sutter Buttes, killing several Patwin people.||14+|||
|1846||December||Pauma massacre||California||11 Californios were killed by Indians at Escondido, California, leading to the Temecula massacre.||11 (settlers)|||
|1846||December||Temecula massacre||California||33 to 40 Indians killed in revenge for the Pauma Massacre at Escondido, California.||33-40|||
|1847||February 3–4||Storming of Pueblo de Taos||New Mexico||In response to a New Mexican-instigated uprising in Taos, American troops attacked the heavily fortified Pueblo of Taos with artillery, killing nearly 150 rebels, some being Indians. Between 25 and 30 prisoners were shot by firing squads.||25-30|||
|1847||March||Rancheria Tulea massacre||California||White slavers retaliate to a slave escape by massacring five Indians in Rancheria Tulea.||5|||
|1847||March 29||Kern and Sutter massacres||California||In response to a plea from White settlers to put an end to raids, U.S. Army Captain Edward Kern and rancher John Sutter led 50 men in attacks on three Indian villages.||20|||
|1847||late June/early July||Konkow Maidu slaver massacre||California||Slavers kill 12-20 Konkow Maidu Indians in the process of capturing 30 members of the tribe for the purpose of forced slavery.||12-20|||
|1847||November 29||Whitman massacre||Washington||Cayuse and Umatilla warriors killed the missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, Mrs. Narcissa Whitman and 12 others at Walla Walla, Washington, in retaliation for the belief that Whitmans were responsible for the deaths of 200 natives from measles, triggering the Cayuse War. Subsequently the U.S hanged 5 volunteers, including tbeWaiilatpu Leader Tiloukaikt.||14 (missionaries)|||
|1848||April||Brazos River||Texas||A hunting party of 26 friendly Wichita and Caddo Indians was massacred by Texas Rangers under Captain Samuel Highsmithe, in a valley south of Brazos River. 25 men and boys were killed, and only one child managed to escape.||26|||
|1849||March 5||Battle Creek massacre||Utah||In response to some cattle being stolen, Governor Brigham Young sent members of the Mormon militia to "put a final end to their depredations". They were led to a band, where they attacked them, killing the men and taking the women and children as captives.||4 (more by some accounts)|||
|1850||Feb 8||Battle at Fort Utah||Utah||Governor Brigham Young issued a partially extermination order of the Timpanogos who lived in Utah Valley. In the north, the Timpanogos were fortified. However, in the south, the Mormon militia told them they were friendly before lining them up to execute them. Dozens of women and children were enslaved and taken to Salt Lake City, Utah, where many died.||102 + "many" in captivity|||
|1850||May 15||Bloody Island Massacre||California||Nathaniel Lyon and his U.S. Army detachment of cavalry killed 60–100 Pomo people on Bo-no-po-ti island near Clear Lake, (Lake Co., California); they believed the Pomo had killed two Clear Lake settlers who had been abusing and murdering Pomo people. (The Island Pomo had no connections to the enslaved Pomo). This incident led to a general outbreak of settler attacks against and mass killing of native people all over Northern California. Site is California Registered Historical Landmark #427||60-100|||
|1851||January 11||Mariposa War||California||The gold rush increased pressure on the Native Americans of California, because miners forced Native Americans off their gold-rich lands. Many were pressed into service in the mines; others had their villages raided by the army and volunteer militia. Some Native American tribes fought back, beginning with the Ahwahneechees and the Chowchilla in the Sierra Nevada and San Joaquin Valley leading a raid on the Fresno River post of James D. Savage, in December 1850. In retaliation Mariposa County Sheriff James Burney led local militia in an indecisive clash with the natives on January 11, 1851 on a mountainside near present-day Oakhurst, California.||40+|
|1851||March||Oatman Massacre||Arizona||Royce Oatman's emigrant party of 7 was killed by Mohave or Yavapai Indians. The survivors, Olive and Mary Ann Oatman were enslaved. Olive escaped five years later and spoke extensively about the experience.||7 (settlers)|||
|1851||Old Shasta Town||California||Miners killed 300 Wintu Indians near Old Shasta, California and burned down their tribal council meeting house.||300|||
|1852||Hynes Bay Massacre||Texas||Texas militiamen attacked a village of 50 Karankawas, killing 45 of them.||45|||
|1852||April 23||Bridge Gulch Massacre||California||70 American men led by Trinity County sheriff William H. Dixon killed more than 150 Wintu people in the Hayfork Valley of California, in retaliation for the killing of Col. John Anderson.||150|||
|1852||November||Wright Massacre||California||White settlers led by a notorious Indian hunter named Ben Wright massacred 41 Modocs during a "peace parley".||41|||
|1853||Howonquet Massacre||California||Californian settlers attacked and burned the Tolowa village of Howonquet, massacring 70 people.||70|||
|1853||Yontoket Massacre||California||A posse of settlers attacked and burned a Tolowa rancheria at Yontocket, California, killing 450 Tolowa during a prayer ceremony.||450|||
|1853||Achulet Massacre||California||White settlers launched an attack on a Tolowa village near Lake Earl in California, killing between 65 and 150 Indians at dawn.||65-150|||
|1853||Before December 31||"Ox" incident||California||U.S. forces attacked and killed an unreported number of Indians in the Four Creeks area (Tulare County, California) in what was referred to by officers as "our little difficulty" and "the chastisement they have received".|||
|1854||January 28||Nasomah Massacre||Oregon||40 white settlers attacked the sleeping village of the Nasomah Indians at the mouth of the Coquille River in Oregon, killing 15 men and 1 woman.||16|||
|1854||February 15||Chetco River Massacre||Oregon||Nine white settlers attacked a friendly Indian village on the Chetco River in Oregon, massacring 26 men and a few women. Most of the Indians were shot while trying to escape. Two Chetco who tried to resist with bows and arrows were burned alive in their houses. Shortly before the attack, the Chetco had been induced to give away their weapons as "friendly relations were firmly established".||36+|||
|1854||May 15||Asbill Massacre||Missouri||Six white settlers from Missouri attacked previously uncontacted Indians in the Round Valley, massacring approximately 40 of them.||40|||
|1854||August 20||Ward Massacre||Idaho||Shoshone killed 18 of the 20 members of the Alexander Ward party, attacking them on the Oregon Trail in western Idaho. This event led the U.S. eventually to abandon Fort Boise and Fort Hall, in favor of the use of military escorts for emigrant wagon trains.||18 (settlers)|||
|1854||Dec 25||Fort Pueblo Massacre||Colorado||16 settlers were killed by Utah & Apache||16 (settlers)|
|1855||January 22||Klamath River massacres||California||In retaliation for the murder of six settlers and the theft of some cattle, whites commenced a "war of extermination against the Indians" in Humboldt County, California.|||
|1855||September 2||Harney Massacre||Nebraska||US troops under Brigadier General William S. Harney killed 86 Sioux, men, women and children at Blue Water Creek, in present-day Nebraska. 27 US soldiers also died in the skirmish. About 70 women and children were taken prisoner. Women and children accounted for about half of the Sioux deaths.||86 (including warriors)|||
|1855||October 8||Lupton Massacre||Oregon||A group of settlers and miners launched a night attack on an Indian village near Upper Table Rock, Oregon, killing 23 Indians (mostly elderly men, women and children).||23|||
|1855||December 23||Little Butte Creek||Oregon||Oregon volunteers launched a dawn attack on a Tututni and Takelma camp on the Rogue River. Between 19 and 26 Indians were killed.||19-26|||
|1856||June||Grande Ronde River Valley Massacre||Oregon||Washington Territorial Volunteers under Colonel Benjamin Shaw attacked a peaceful Cayuse and Walla Walla Indians on the Grande Ronde River in Oregon. 60 Indians, mostly women, old men and children were killed.||60|||
|1856||March||Shingletown||California||In reprisal for Indian stock theft, white settlers massacred at least 20 Yana men, women and children near Shingletown, California.||20|||
|1856||March 26||Cascades Massacre||Oregon/Washington||Yakama, Klickitat and Cascades warriors attacked white soldiers and settlers at the Cascades of the Columbia River for controlling portage of the river and denying them their source of nutrition. Nine Cascades Indians who surrendered without a fight, including Chenoweth, Chief of the Hood River Band, were improperly charged and executed.||17 (settlers)|||
|1857||Mar 8–12||Spirit Lake Massacre||Iowa||Thirty-five to 40 settlers were killed and 4 taken captive by Santee Sioux in the last Indian attack on settlers in Iowa.||35–40 (settlers)|||
|1856–1859||Round Valley Settler Massacres||California||White settlers killed over a thousand Yuki Indians in Round Valley over the course of three years in an uncountable number of separate massacres.||1000+|||
|1859–1860||Jarboe's War||California||White settlers calling themselves the "Eel River Rangers", led by Walter Jarboe, kill at least 283 Indian men and countless women and children in 23 engagements over the course of six months. They are reimbursed by the U.S. government for their campaign.||283+|||
|1859||September||Pit River||California||White settlers massacred 70 Achomawi Indians (10 men and 60 women and children) in their village on Pit River in California.||70|||
|1859||Chico Creek||California||White settlers attacked a Maidu camp near Chico Creek in California, killing indiscriminately 40 Indians.||40|||
|1860||Exact date unknown||Massacre at Bloody Rock||California||A group of 65 Yuki Indians were surrounded and massacred by white settlers at Bloody Rock, in Mendocino County, California.||65|||
|1860||February 26||Indian Island Massacre||California||In three nearly simultaneous assaults on the Wiyot, at Indian Island, Eureka, Rio Dell, and near Hydesville, California white settlers killed between 80 and 250 Wiyot in Humboldt County, California. Victims were mostly women, children and elders, as reported by Bret Harte at Arcata newspaper. Other villages massacred within two days. The main site is National Register of Historic Places in the United States #66000208.||80–250|||
|1860||December 18||Battle of Pease River||Texas||Texas Rangers under Captain Sul Ross attacked a Comanche village in Foard County, Texas, killing at least 14 unarmed people.||14|||
|1860||September 8||Otter Massacre||Idaho||Near Sinker Creek Idaho, 11 persons of the last wagon train of the year were killed by Indians and several others were subsequently killed. Some that escaped the initial massacre starved to death||11+ (settlers)|||
|1861||Horse Canyon Massacre||California||White settlers and Indian allies attacked a Wailaki village in Horse Canyon (Round Valley, California), killing up to 240 Wailakis.||240|||
|1861||Cookes Canyon Massacres||New Mexico||Apaches massacred hundreds of Americans and Mexicans in and around Cookes Canyon, New Mexico over the course of several months.||Hundreds (Americans and Mexicans)|||
|1861||September 21||Fort Fauntleroy Massacre||New Mexico||Soldiers massacred between 12 and 20 Navajos at Fort Fauntleroy, following a dispute over a horse race.||12-20|||
|1862||Upper Station Massacre||California||California settlers killed at least 20 Wailakis in Round Valley, California.||20|||
|1862||Big Antelope Creek Massacre||California||California settlers led by notorious Indian hunter Hi Good launched a dawn attack on a Yana village, massacring about 25 Indians.||25|||
|1862||August||Kowonk Massacre||California||A posse of 25 California settlers killed 45 Konkow Indians on their reservation in Round Valley, California.||45|||
|1862||August–September||Dakota War of 1862||Minnesota||As part of the U.S.-Dakota War, the Sioux killed as many as 800 white settlers and soldiers throughout Minnesota. Some 40,000 white settlers fled their homes on the frontier.||450–800 (settlers)|||
|1862||October||Massacre at Gallinas Springs||New Mexico||Soldiers under Capt. James Graydon's shot an aged Mescalero leader who was approaching with his hand up as a sign of peace. 11 other Mescaleros were also killed, including a woman.||12|||
|1862||October 24||Tonkawa Massacre||Oklahoma||During the U.S. Civil War, a detachment of irregular Union Indians, mainly Kickapoo, Lenape and Shawnee, accompanied by Caddo allies, attempted to destroy the Tonkawa tribe in Indian Territory. They killed 240 of 390 Tonkawa, leaving only 150 survivors.||240|||
|1863||January 29||Bear River Massacre||Idaho||Col. Patrick Connor led a United States Army regiment killing up to 280 Shoshone men, women and children near Preston, Idaho. 21 US soldiers were also killed in the fight.||246-280 (including warriors)|||
|1863||April 19||Keyesville Massacre||California||American militia and members of the California cavalry killed 35 Tübatulabal men in Kern County, California.||35|||
|1863-1865||Mowry massacres||Arizona||16 settlers were killed in a series of Indian raids at Mowry, Arizona Territory||16 (settlers)|||
|1864||Cottonwood||California||20 Yanas of both sexes were killed by white settlers in the town of Cottonwood, California.||20|||
|1864||Massacre at Bloody Tanks||Arizona||A group of white settlers led by King S. Woolsey killed 19 Apaches at a "peace parley".||19|||
|1864||Oak Run Massacre||California||California settlers massacred 300 Yana Indians who had gathered near the head of Oak Run, California for a spiritual ceremony.||300|||
|1864||Skull Valley Massacre||Arizona||A group of Yavapai families was lured into a trap and massacred by soldiers under Lt. Monteith in a valley west of Prescott, Arizona (Arizona). The place was named Skull Valley after the heads of the dead Indians left unburied.|||
|1864||November 29||Sand Creek Massacre||Colorado||Members of the Colorado Militia attacked a peaceful village of Cheyenne, killing up to 163 men, women and children at Sand Creek in Kiowa County.||70-163|||
|1865||March 14||Mud Lake Massacre||Nevada||US troops under Captain Wells attacked a Paiute camp near Winnemucca Lake, killing 32 Indians. One soldier was slightly wounded during the attack.||32 (including warriors)|||
|1865||July 18||The Squaw Fight/The Grass Valley Massacre||Utah||While searching for Antonga Black Hawk, the Mormon militia came upon a band of Ute Indians. Thinking they were part of Black's Hawks band, they attacked them. They killed 10 men and took the women and children captive. After the women and children tried to escape, the militia shot them too.||10 men + unknown women and children|||
|1865||Owens Lake Massacre||California||White vigilantes attacked a Paiute camp on Owens Lake in California, killing about 40 men, women and children.||40|||
|1865||Three Knolls Massacre||California||White settlers massacred a Yana community at Three Knolls on the Mill Creek, California.|||
|1865||September||Bloody Point Massacre||Oregon||A wagon train of 65 settlers was massacred by Modoc Indians near Lake Tule in Oregon. One man survived and alerted the Oregon militia who buried the bodies.||65 (settlers)|||
|1866||April 21||Circleville Massacre||Utah||Mormon militiamen killed 16 Paiute men and women at Circleville, Utah. 6 men were shot, allegedly while trying to escape. The others (3 men and 7 women) had their throats cut. 4 small children were spared.||16|||
|1867||Aquarius Mountains||Arizona||Yavapai County Rangers killed 23 Indians (men, women and children) in the southern Aquarius Mountains, Arizona.||23|||
|1868||Campo Seco||California||A posse of white settlers massacred 33 Yahis in a cave north of Mill Creek, California.||33|||
|1868||September 24||Massacre at La Paz||Arizona||A group of teamsters attacked a sleeping Yavapai camp in the outskirts of La Paz, Arizona, killing 15 Indians.||15|||
|1868||November 27||Washita Massacre
(Battle of Washita River)
|Oklahoma||During the American Indian Wars, Lt. Col. G.A.Custer's 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, "some" women and "few" children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75 and as low as 17. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village. 21 US soldiers were also killed.||17-75|||
|1870||January 23||Marias Massacre||Montana||US troops killed 173 Piegan, mainly women, children and the elderly after being led to the wrong camp by a soldier who wanted to protect his Indian wife's family.||173-217|||
|1871||Kingsley Cave Massacre||California||4 settlers killed 30 Yahi Indians in Tehama County, California about two miles from Wild Horse Corral in the Ishi Wilderness. It is estimated that this massacre left only 15 members of the Yahi tribe alive||30|||
|1871||April 30||Camp Grant Massacre||Arizona||Led by the ex-Mayor of Tucson, William Oury, eight Americans, 48 Mexicans and more than 100 allied Pima attacked Apache men, women and children at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory killing 144, with 1 survivor at scene and 29 children sold to slavery. All but eight of the dead were Apache women or children.||144|||
|1871||November 5||Wickenburg massacre||Arizona||Indians attacked an Arizona stagecoach, killing the driver and his five passengers, leaving two wounded survivors.||6 (settlers)|||
|1872||December 28||Skeleton Cave Massacre||Arizona||U.S. troops and Indian scouts killed 76 Yavapai Indians men, women and children in a remote cave in Arizona's Salt River Canyon.||76|||
|1873||June 1||Cypress Hills Massacre||Saskatchewan||Following a dispute over stolen horses, American wolfers killed approximately 20 Nakoda in Saskatchewan.||20|||
|1875||April||Sappa Creek Massacre||Kansas||Soldiers under Lt Austin Henly trapped a group of 27 Cheyenne, (19 men, 8 women and children) on the Sappa Creek, in Kansas and killed them all.||27|||
|1877||August 8||Battle of the Big Hole||Montana||US troops under Colonel John Gibbon attacked a Nez Perce village at Big Hole, in Montana Territory. They killed 70 to 90 including 33 warriors before being repulsed by the Indians. 31 US soldiers were killed.||70-90 (33 warriors)|||
|1879||January 9–21||Fort Robinson Massacre||Nebraska||Northern Cheyenne under Dull Knife attempted to escape from confinement in Fort Robinson, Nebraska; U.S. Army forces hunted them down, killing between 32 and 77 of them including at least 14 women and children. The remains of those killed were repatriated in 1994. 12 U.S. soldiers were also killed.||32-77 (including warriors)|||
|1879||September 30||Meeker Massacre||Colorado||In the beginning of the Ute War, the Ute killed the US Indian Agent Nathan Meeker and 10 others. They also attacked a military unit, killing 13 and wounding 43.||11|||
|1880||April 28||Alma Massacre||New Mexico||The Apache chief Victorio led warriors in an attack on settlers at Alma, New Mexico. On December 19, 1885, the Apache killed an officer and four enlisted men of the 8th Cavalry Regiment near Alma.||35-41 (settlers)|||
|1890||December 10||Buffalo Gap Massacre||South Dakota||Several wagonloads of Sioux were killed by South Dakota Home Guard militiamen near French Creek, South Dakota, while visiting a white friend in Buffalo Gap.|||
|1890||December||Stronghold||South Dakota||South Dakota Home Guard militiamen ambushed and massacred 75 Sioux at the Stronghold, in the northern portion of Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.||75|||
|1890||December 29||Wounded Knee Massacre||South Dakota||Members of the U.S. 7th Cavalry attacked and killed between 130 and 250 Sioux men, women and children at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.||130–250|||
|1911||January 19||Last Massacre||Nevada||A group of Shoshone killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. On February 26, 1911, an American posse killed eight of the Shoshone suspects and captured four children from the band.||5 (4 ranchers & 1 policeman) + 8 (Indians)|||
- American Indian Wars
- Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
- List of events named massacres
- List of massacres in the United States
- List of conflicts in the United States
- Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia; Peter Knight; ABC-CLIO, 2003; Pg. 523
- American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World; David E. Stannard; Oxford University Press, 1993; Pg. 130
- Genocide and International Justice; Rebecca Joyce Frey; InfoBase Publishing, 2009; Pgs. 7-12, 31-54
- Genocide and American Indian History; Jeffrey Ostler; University of Oregon, 2015
- Osborn, William M. (2001). The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During The American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee. Garden City, NY: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50374-0.
- Madley 2016, p.11, p.351
- National Park Service (January 23, 2007). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- Duncan, David Ewing (1997). Hernando de Soto: A Savage Quest in the Americas. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 286–291, 376–384.
- Clayton, Lawrence A., "Hernando de Soto: A Brief".
- Wilford, John Noble, "De Soto's Trail: Courage and Cruelty Come Alive", New York Times, May 19, 1987
- Steele, Ian Kenneth, Warpaths: Invasions of North America, Oxford University Press, 1994. pp. 15, 47, 116.
- Sauer, C., Sixteenth Century North America; the land and the people as seen by the Europeans, University of California Press, 1971, p. 141.
- Flint, R., No settlement, no conquest : a history of the Coronado Entrada, University of New Mexico Press, 2008, pp. 144–153.
- Brooke, James (February 9, 1998). "Conquistador Statue Stirs Hispanic Pride and Indian Rage" – via query.nytimes.com.
- Weber, David J., The Spanish Frontier in North America, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1992, pp. 85–86.
- Riley, Carroll, L., Rio del Norte: People of the Upper Rio Grande from Earliest Times to the Pueblo Revolt, University of Utah Press, 2007, p. 252, ISBN 978-0-87480-496-6
- Staff, Times-Dispatch. "Highway marker dedicated for Paspahegh tribe".
- Schlotterbeck, J., Daily Life in the Colonial South, Greenwood, 2013, p. 333, ISBN 978-0313340697
- "Research Jamestown: Legacy of the Massacre of 1622 - Americans at War". www.bookrags.com.
- Spencer C. Tucker; James R. Arnold; Roberta Wiener (30 September 2011). 'The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 332. ISBN 978-1-851096-97-8.
- Miller, D.W. The Forced Removal of American Indians from the Northeast: A History of Territorial Cessions and Relocations, 1620–1854, McFarland, 2011, p. 14., ISBN 978-0-786464-96-8
- Adams, D. Jr., Charles F., Wessagusset and Weymouth, Nabu Press, pp. 24–26, ISBN 978-1-248636-92-3
- Muehlbauer, Matthew S.; Ulbrich, David J. (2013). Ways of War: American Military History from the Colonial Era to the Twenty-First Century. Routledge. p. 29. ISBN 9781136756047. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Lucas, Beverly (2008). Wethersfield. Arcadia Publishing. p. 69. ISBN 9780738563459. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Cave, Alfred A., The Pequot War, University of Massachusetts Press, 1996, pp. 144–154.
- Grumet, Robert S. First Manhattans: A History of the Indians of Greater New York, University of Oklahoma Press, 2011, p33-34, ISBN 978-0-806141-63-3
- "William Keift". www.njcu.edu.
- Winkler, David F. (1998). Revisiting the Attack on Pavonia. New Jersey Historical Society.
- Beck, Sanderson (2006). "New Netherland and Stuyvesant 1642–64".
- Churchill 1997, p. 198
- LaPlante, Eve (2004). American Jezebel, the Uncommon Life of Anne Hutchinson, the Woman who Defied the Puritans. San Francisco: Harper Collins. p. 231. ISBN 0-06-056233-1.
- Tucker, S.C. The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History, ABC-Clio, p. 414, ISBN 978-1-851096-97-8
- Major, D.C., Major, J.S. A Huguenot on the Hackensack: David Demarest and His Legacy, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2007, p. 55, ISBN 978-1-611473-68-1
- Spencer C. Tucker; James R. Arnold; Roberta Wiener (30 September 2011). 'The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 332. ISBN 978-1-851096-97-8.
- Trelease, A., Indian Affairs in Colonial New York; The Seventeenth Century, pp. 79–80.
- Karnoutsos, Carmela (2007). "Peach Tree War". Jersey City A to Z. New Jersey City University. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- Murrin, John M., Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People, p85, Wadsworth Publishing Co Inc, 2010, p. 85, ISBN 978-0495904991
- "King Philip's War Breaks Out". www.massmoments.org.
- Ellis, George W., Morris, John E., King Philip's War, Grafton Historical Series, The Grafton Press, 1906, pp. 152–155
- Rajtar, Steve, Indian War Sites: A Guidebook to Battlefields, Monuments, and Memorials, McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, 1999
- Nine Men's Misery Marker, Joseph Bucklin Society, accessdate February 17, 2013
- Franko, Victor, Nine Men's Misery Part 2 Historical Research, 2003, Joseph Bucklin Society, accessdate February 17, 2013
- Demallie, Raymond J. Tutelo and Neighboring Groups. Sturtevant, William C., general editor and Raymond D. Fogelson, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Southeast. Volume 14. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004, ISBN 0-16-072300-0
- Mandell, Daniel R., King Philip's War: the conflict over New England, Chelsea House Publishers, 2007, p. 100, ISBN 978-0-7910-9346-7
- Kiernan 2007, p. 239
- Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico Archived September 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- George, Charles; Douglas Roberts (1897). A History of Canada. Boston: The Page Company. pp. 93–94.
- Preucel, Robert W., Archaeologies of the Pueblo revolt: identity, meaning, and renewal in the Pueblo world, University of New Mexico Press, 2007, p. 56, ISBN 978-0-8263-2247-0
- Konstantin 2002, p. 33
- Banks, Charles Edward, History of York, Maine, successively known as Bristol (1632), Agamentious (1641), Gorgeana (1642), and York (1652). With contributions on topography and land titles by Angevine W. Gowen. Sketches by the author. Baltimore, Regional Publishing Company, 1967 reprint of first edition: Charles E. Banks, Boston, 1931 Vol. 1
- Gallay 2003, pp. 147–148
- Konstantin 2002, p. 48
- "The Tuscarora War (1711–1715)".
- Ashlee, Laura R. Traveling Through Time: A Guide to Michigan's Historical Markers, University of Michigan Press, 2005, p. 502, ISBN 978-0-47203-066-8
- Gallay 2003, p. 284
- Read, Milton, The tar heel state: a history of North Carolina, University of South Carolina Press, 2005, pp. 36–37, ISBN 978-1-57003-591-3
- Gallay 2003, p. 328
- Reynolds, William R. The Cherokee Struggle to Maintain Identity in the 17th and 18th Century, McFarland and Company, Inc, 2015, pp. 34–35, ISBN 9780786473175
- Grenier, John The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710–1760, University of Oklahoma Press, 2008, p. 84, ISBN 978-0-80613-876-3
- Barnett, James F., The Natchez Indians: a history to 1735, University Press of Mississippi, 2007, p. 105, ISBN 978-1-57806-988-0
- Onofrio, J. Dictionary of Indian Tribes of the Americas, Volume 1, American Indian Publishers, Inc., 1993, p. 250, ISBN 9780937862285
- Edmunds, R. Davids and Peyser, Joseph L. The Fox Wars: Mesquakie Challenge to New France, University of Oklahoma Press, 1993, pp. 151-156, ISBN 978-0-80612-551-0
- Maxson, Thomas F. Mount Nimham: The Ridge of Patriots, Rangerville Press, 2010, p. 22, ISBN 978-0578025810
- Grumet, Robert S. The Munsee Indians: A History, University of Oklahoma Press, 2014, p. 263
- Blackhawk, Ned, Violence over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West, Harvard University Press, 2006, p. 50, ISBN 978-0-67402-290-4
- "Drapers Meadow: Few traces remain of the site of a bloody 1755 Indian attack". The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on September 30, 2012. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
- Konstantin 2002, p. 224
- Hamalainen 2008, pp. 58-59
- Bruchac, Marge, Reading Abenaki Traditions and European Records of Rogers' Raid Archived September 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, August 2006, pp. 3-4
- Nester, "Haughty Conquerors", 86, gives the number of traders killed at Sandusky as 12; Dixon, Never Come to Peace, mentions "three or four", while Dowd, War under Heaven, 125, says that it was "a great many".
- Konstantin 2002, p. 260
- Taylor, Alan, American Colonies, New York: Viking Press, 2001
- "A Narrative of the Late Massacres..." Archived April 27, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Benjamin Franklin's account of the massacre and criticism of the Paxton Boys
- "A Disquisition Portraying the History Relative to the Enoch Brown Incident", Greencastle Museum
- Hamalainen 2008, p. 78
- Konstantin 2002, p. 106
- Konstantin 2002, p. 181
- "Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission - The Battle of Wyoming and Hartley's Expedition".
- Wallace, Paul A. W., Indians in Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission, 2007, 200 pages, pp. 162–164, ISBN 978-0-89271-017-1
- Konstantin 2002, p. 246
- Konstantin 2002, p. 321
- Belcher, Ronald Clay, (2011) Westervelt Massacre in Kentucky in 1780. Blue Grass Roots. Quarterly Journal of the Kentucky Genealogical Society. Frankfurt, Kentucky. Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 30-37.
- Priest, Josiah, Stories of the Revolution with an account of the lost child of the Delaware, 1836, Hoffman and White Albany, New York, accessdate February 17, 2013
- "Dietz Massacre". Archived from the original on February 15, 2008.
- Wilcox, G.T., An account of the Long Run Massacre and Floyd's Defeat as told by G. T. Wilcox, Squire Boone's Grandson in a letter to Hon. Thos. W. Bullitt. Kentucky Genealogy 28, June 2000, accessdate December 28, 2012.
- Akers, Vincent J. History of Painted Stone Station. Painted Stone Settlers Organization. 2012, accessdate December 28, 2012.
- Asche, J. L. "Tuscarawas County, Ohio". freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com.
- Konstantin 2002, p. 57
- Reynolds 2015, p. 357
- Reynolds 2015, p. 358
- Fairfax Downed, Indian Wars of the U.S. Army 1776–1865 (1963), pp. 54–59
- Denetdale, Jennifer Nez, Reclaiming Diné History: The Legacies of Navajo Chief Manuelito and Juanita, University of Arizona Press; 2007, p. 56. ISBN 978-0-81652-660-4.
- Konstantin 2002, p. 231
- Allison, Harold (©1986, Harold Allison). The Tragic Saga of the Indiana Indians. Turner Publishing Company, Paducah.
- Konstantin 2002, p. 20
- Konstantin 2002, p. 245
- "Fort Sinquefield". Clarke County Historical Museum. Retrieved November 27, 2008.
- Borneman, Walter R. (2004). 1812: The War That Forged a Nation. page 149. Harper. ISBN 9780060531126.
- Tom Kanon. 2014. Tennesseans at War, 1812–1815: Andrew Jackson, the Creek War, and the Battle of New Orleans. University of Alabama Press p. 75-76
- Steve Rajtar. 1999 Indian War Sites: A Guidebook to Battlefields, Monuments, and Memorials, State by State with Canada and Mexico. McFarland.
- Heidler D.S., Heidler J.T., Encyclopedia of the War of 1812, Naval Institute Press, 2004, p. 239, ISBN 978-0-87436-968-7
- McKenney, T.L., Indian Tribes of America, Applewood Books, 2010, p. 307, ISBN 978-1-4290-2265-1
- Missall, John (2004). The Seminole Wars: America's Longest Indian Conflict. Florida: University Press of Florida. pp. 36–37.
- Himmel, Kelly F. (1999). The conquest of the Karankawas and the Tonkawas, 1821-1859. College Station: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-0-89096-867-3.
- "The Fall Creek Massacre". Conner Prairie. Archived from the original on April 23, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
- Himmel 1999, p. 50
- Konstantin 2002, p. 128
- Konstantin 2002, p. 213
- May, Jon D., "Battle of Cutthroat Gap" Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, retrieved May 24, 2012.
- Konstantin 2002, p. 127
- Madley 2016, p.40
- Sweeney, Edwin R. Cochise: Chiricahua Apache Chief, University of Oklahoma Press, 1995, p. 33, ISBN 978-0806126067
- Dean, Kenneth Remembering The Killough Massacre, June 21, 2010, East Texas News, Tyler Paper, accessed February 16, 2013.
- Abbott, Peyton O., Webster massacre, Texas State Historical Association, Handbook of Texas Online, accessed February 16, 2013.
- Anderson 2005, pp. 182–183
- Knetsch, Joe., Florida's Seminole Wars 1817–1858, Arcadia Publishing (September 18, 2012), p. 128
- Anderson 2005, pp. 190–191
- Perez, Vincent, Remembering the Hacienda: History and Memory in the Mexican American Southwest, Texas A&M University Press, 2006, p. 85, ISBN 978-1-58544-511-0
- Kiernan 2007, p. 352
- Madley, Benjamin An American Genocide: The United States and the California India Catastrophe, 1846–1873, Yale University Press, 2016.
- Parker, Horace, The Historic Valley of Temecula. The Temecula Massacre 24 pages, Paisano Press (1971), 286593
- Mcwilliams, Carey, North From Mexico: The Spanish-Speaking People of the United States, Praeger, 1990, p. 115, ISBN 978-0275932244
- Konstantin 2002, p. 336
- Anderson 2005, pp. 226–227
- Diary of Oliver B. Huntington, Vol. 2 (BYU Special Collections)
- Farmer, Jared (2008). On Zion's Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape. Harvard University Press. p. 76. ISBN 9780674027671.
- Letter, Brevet Capt. N. Lyon to Major E.R.S. Canby, May 22, 1850
- Heizer 1993, pp. 244–246
- Key, Karen. Bloody Island (Bo-no-po-ti) The Historical Marker Database. June 18, 2007, accessdate December 26, 2012
- The Tucson Citizen, September 26, 1913
- Heizer, Robert, Handbook of North American Indians: California, Volume 8, William Sturtevant, General Editor, Smithsonian Institution, 1978, pp. 324–325
- Himmel 1999, p. 101
- Norton 1979, pp. 51–54
- Thrapp, Dan L, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography, Volume 3: P–Z, University of Nebraska Press, 1991, p. 1276, ISBN 978-0803294202
- Collins, James, Understanding Tolowa Histories: Western Hegemonies and Native American Responses, Routledge, 1997, p. 35, ISBN 978-0-41591-2082
- Thornton 1990, p. 206
- Norton 1979
- Norton 1979, pp. 56–57
- Heizer 1993, Letter, Bvt. 2nd Lieut. John Nugens to Lieut T. Wright, December 31, 1853, pp. 12–13,.
- Schwartz 1997, pp. 61–62
- Schwartz 1997, p. 63
- Madley, Benjamin California's Yuki Indians: Defining Genocide in Native American History in Western Historical Quarterly 39 (Autumn 2008): 303–332, pp. 303–304
- Oregon Trail in Idaho—Ward Massacre Site idahohistory.net
- Ward Massacre Archived June 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine washingtonwars.net
- Michno 2003, pp. 28–29
- Heizer 1993, Crescent City Herald, quoted in Sacramento newspaper., pp. 35–36
- Sprague, Donovin A. Rosebud Sioux (Images of America: South Dakota), Arcadia Publishing, 2005, p. 21. 978-0738534473
- Schwartz 1997, pp. 86–88
- Madley 2012, p. 121
- Massacre on the Grande Ronde River in Oregon, sos.wa.gov
- Madley 2012b, pp. 21–22
- "Native Americans attack Americans at the Cascades of the Columbia on March 26, 1856. – HistoryLink.org". www.historylink.org.
- Gardner-Sharp, Abbie History of the Spirit Lake Massacre and Captivity of Miss Abbie Gardner, Des Moines: Iowa Printing, 1885 (reprinted 1892, 1910), accessdate December 28, 2012
- Madley, Benjamin California's Yuki Indians: Defining Genocide in Native American History in Western Historical Quarterly 39 (Autumn 2008): 303–332, pp. 317–318
- Lindsay, Brendan C., Murder State: California's Native American Genocide, 1846–1873, University of Nebraska Press, 2012, p.192–193, ISBN 978-0803224803
- Madley 2012, pp. 118–119
- Madley 2012, p. 117
- "65 Yuki Indians Killed at Bloody Rock - Find A Grave Memorial". www.findagrave.com.
- Heizer 1993
- Rohde, Jerry (February 25, 2010). "Genocide and Extortion: 150 years later, the hidden motive behind the Indian Island Massacre". North Coast Journal. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- "In 1860 six murderers nearly wiped out the Wiyot Indian tribe—in 2004 its members have found ways to heal", SFGate.com
- Michno 2003, pp. 72–73
- Anderson 2005, pp. 331–332
- Owyhee County Cattlemen, pages 172–180
- Baumgardner 2006, pp. 204–206
- Thrapp, Dan L. (1979). The Conquest of Apacheria. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1286-7.
- Sonneborn, L. Chronology of American Indian History, Facts on File, p. 164, ISBN 978-0-816067701
- Baumgardner 2006, p. 243
- Madley 2012b, p. 34
- Heizer, Robert, Handbook of North American Indians: California, Volume 8, William Sturtevant, General Editor, Smithsonian Institution, 1978, p. 111
- Kunnen-Jones, Marianne (August 21, 2002). "Anniversary Volume Gives New Voice To Pioneer Accounts of Sioux Uprising". University of Cincinnati. Archived from the original on June 19, 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- University of Cincinnati News: Tolzmann Edits Pioneer Accounts of Sioux Archived June 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Sonnichsen, C. L. The Mescalero Apaches (The Civilization of the American Indian Series), University of Oklahoma Press, 1979, pp. 111-112, ISBN 978-0806116150
- Michno 2003, pp. 105–106
- Kiernan 2007, p. 356
- Hart, Newell, The Bear River Massacre. Cache Valley Newsletter Publishing Company, Preston, Idaho. 1982. ISBN 0-941462-01-3
- Vredenburgh, Larry. "Keyesville Indian Massacre of April 19, 1863". vredenburgh.org.
- Browne, R. John, Adventures in the Apache County: a tour through Arizona and Sonora with notes on the silver regions of Nevada. 1869. New York: Harpers & Brothers Publishers.
- Madley 2012b, p. 40
- McGinnis, Ralph and Smith, Calvin, Abraham Lincoln and the western territories, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1994, p. 90, ISBN 978-0-8304-1247-1
- Thrapp 1975, pp. 29–31
- Braatz 2003, pp. 89-90, p. 105
- Newton C.H., The reasons why place names in Arizona are so named, Tecolote Press, 1978, p. 40, ISBN 978-0-915030-25-5
- Michno 2003, pp. 157–159
- Smiley, Brenda "Sand Creek Massacre", Archeology magazine. Archaeological Institute of America, accessdate December 26, 2012.
- Egan, Ferol Sand in a whirlwind, 30th Anniversary Edition: The Paiute Indian War of 1860, University of Nevada Press, 1985, p. 226. ISBN 978-0-87417-097-9
- Peter Gottfredson. History of Indian depredations in Utah. Fenestra Books. ISBN 978-1587361272.
- Fradkin, Philip L., The seven states of California: a natural and human history, University of California Press, 1997, p. 31, ISBN 978-0-520-20942-8
- Thornton 1990, p. 110
- Scheper-Hughes 2003, p. 55
- Modoc NF History, 1945 – Chapter I, General Description United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.
- Knack, Martha, Boundaries Between: The Southern Paiutes, 1775–1995, University of Nebraska Press, 2004, p. 85, ISBN 0-8032-7818-7
- Thrapp 1975, pp. 37–38
- Thornton 1990, p. 111
- ScheperHughe 2003, p. 56
- Braatz 2003, p. 105
- "Headlines: Error Page". www.historyandtheheadlines.abc-clio.com.
- Andrist, Ralph K., The Long Death: The Last Days of the Plains Indians, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001, 371 pages, pp 157-162, ISBN 978-0-8061-3308-9
- Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Henry Holt and Co., 2007, 487 pages, pp 167-169, ISBN 978-0-8050-8684-3
- Churchill 1997, p. 236
- "Colorado Humanities - Sand Creek Memorial and Washita Sites". Archived from the original on February 27, 2012.
- "Washita Battlefield, Oklahoma", ExploreSouthernHistory.com
- Giago, Tim, "Honoring Those Who Died at Washita"
- "The 140th Anniversary of the Washita Massacre of Nov. 27, 1868 - Native American Netroots". www.nativeamericannetroots.net.
- "Washita", The West, PBS
- "Cherry Creek Massacre recognized in magazine", The Saint Francis Herald (St. Francis, KS), November 17, 2005
- Zeman, Scott C., Chronology of the American West from 23,000 B.C.E. through the Twentieth Century, ABC-CLIO, 2002, 381 pages, p. 155, ISBN 978-1-57607-207-3
- Michno 2003, p. 241
- Ishi in Two Worlds California State Parks Video Transcript
- Terrell, J., Land Grab, pp. 4–10.
- Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip, Western Apache Oral Histories and Traditions of the Camp Grant Massacre. The American Indian Quarterly - Volume 27, Number 3&4, Summer/Fall 2003, pp. 639–666., accessdate December 26, 2012
- "The Indian Attack Upon an Arizona Stage The Driver and Five Passengers Killed". The New York Times. November 20, 1871.
- "The Late Frederick W. Loring" (PDF). The New York Times. November 24, 1871. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Braatz 2003, pp. 2–3; p. 138
- Hildebrandt, Walter. "Cypress Hills Massacre". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. University of Regina. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- Churchill 1997, p. 237
- Greene, Jerome A. (2000). "6". Nez Perce Summer 1877: The U.S. Army and the Nee-Me-Poo Crisis. Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-917298-68-3.
- Michno 2003, pp. 322–323
- Boye, Alan, Holding Stone Hands: On the Trail of the Cheyenne Exodus, University of Nebraska Press, 2001, pp. 66–67, ISBN 978-0-8032-1294-7
- "Milk Creek battlefield". National Park Service, US Department of the Interior. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
- "Milk Creek battle (or Meeker Massacre)". Meeker Colorado Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on November 17, 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2008.
- "Alma Massacre, Pioneer Story, New Mexico". October 7, 2008. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008.
- Gonzalez 1998, p. 294
- Michno 2003, p. 351
- Jensen, Richard, Paul, Eli and Hanson, James, Eyewitness at Wounded Knee, University of Nebraska Press, 1991, p. 20, ISBN 978-0-8032-1409-5
- Early Native Americans nevada-history.org
- "Book Review, The Last Massacre". The New York Times. January 17, 1988.
- "Policeman Edward Hogle, Nevada State Police" The Officer Down Memorial Page
- Anderson, Gary C., The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic cleansing in the Promised Land, 1820-1875, University of Oklahoma Press, 2005, 544 pages, ISBN 978-0-89096-867-3
- Baumgardner, Frank, Killing for Land in Early California – Indian Blood at Round Valley, Algora Publishing, 2006, 312 pages, ISBN 978-0-87586-364-1
- Braatz, Timothy, Surviving conquest: a history of the Yavapai peoples, University of Nebraska Press, 2003, 336 pages, ISBN 978-0-8032-2242-7
- Churchill, Ward, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present, City Lights, 1997, 381 pages, ISBN 978-0-87286-323-1
- Heizer, Robert F., The Destruction of California Indians, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1993, 321 pages, ISBN 978-0-8032-7262-0
- Gallay, Alan, The Indian Slave Trade: The rise of the English Empire in the American South, Yale University Press, 2003, 464 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-10193-5
- Gonzalez, Mario and Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth, The Politics of Hallowed Ground: Wounded Knee and the Struggle for Indian Sovereignty, University of Illinois Press, 1998, 448 pages, ISBN 978-0-25206-669-6
- Hamalainen, Pekka, The Comanche Empire, Yale University Press, 2008, 512 pages, ISBN 978-0-30012-654-9
- Himmel, Kelly F., The Conquest of the Karankawas and the Tonkawas, 1821–1859, TAMU Press, 1999, 216 pages, ISBN 978-0-89096-867-3
- Kiernan, Ben, "Blood and Soil: a World History of Genocide and Massacre from Sparta to Darfur", Yale University Press, 2007, 768 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-10098-3
- Konstantin, Phil, This Day in North American Indian History: Events in the History of North America's Native Peoples, Da Capo Press, 2002, 480 pages, ISBN 978-0-306-81170-8
- Madley, Benjamin, Tactics of Nineteenth Century Colonial Massacre: Tasmania, California and Beyond in Philips G. Dwyer and Lyndall Ryan, eds., Theatres of Violence: Massacres, Mass Killing and Atrocity Throughout History, Berghan Books, 2012, 350 pages, ISBN 978-0-85745-299-3
- Madley, Benjamin, The Genocide of California's Yana Indians in Samuel Totten and Williams S. Parsons, eds., Centuries of Genocide: Essays and Eyewitness Accounts, Routledge, 2012, pp. 16-53, 611 pages, ISBN 978-0-415871-921
- Madley, Benjamin, An American Genocide, The United States and the California Catastrophe, 1846-1873, Yale University Press, 2016, 692 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-18136-4
- Michno, Gregory F., Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes 1850–1890, Mountain Press Publishing Co., 2003, 448 pages, ISBN 978-0-87842-468-9
- Norton, Jack, "Genocide in Northwestern California : when our worlds cried", Indian Historian Press, San Francisco, 1979, ISBN 0-913436-26-2
- Reynolds, W.R., The Cherokee Struggle to Maintain Identity in the 17th and 18th Centuries, McFarland, 2015, 436 pages, ISBN 978-0-78647-317-5
- Scheper-Hughes, Nancy, Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology, Wiley-Blackwell, 2003, 512 pages, ISBN 978-0-631-22349-8
- Schwartz, E. A, The Rogue River Indian War and its aftermath, 1850–1980, University of Oklahoma Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-8061-2906-8
- Thornton, Russell, "American Indian Holocaust and Survival: a Population History since 1492", University of Oklahoma Press, 1990, 312 pages, ISBN 978-0-8061-2220-5
- Thrapp, Dan, "The Conquest of Apacheria", University of Oklahoma Press, 1975, 422 pages, ISBN 978-0-8061-1286-2