List of Indian residential schools in Canada

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Abbreviation Religious denomination
(AN) Anglican Church
(BP) Baptist
(MD) Methodist
(OO) Other
(PB) Presbyterian Church
(RC) Roman Catholic Church
(UC) United Church of Canada

The following is a list of schools that operated as part of the Canadian Indian residential school system.[nb 1][1][2] The first opened in 1828, and the last closed in 1997.[3][4][5] These schools operated in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick.[6]

The Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement (IRSSA) has formally recognized 139 residential schools across Canada, but this number excludes schools that operated without federal support.[6]

The last school to close was Kivalliq Hall in Rankin Inlet, in what's now Nunavut, which closed in 1997; it became a IRSSA-recognized school in 2019 following a court ruling, which is why earlier accounts describe the last school closing in 1996.[6]

Schools in Newfoundland and Labrador were not included in the original settlement by the Harper government and instead reached a compensation deal with the federal government after a lawsuit in 2016.[7][8][9]

List[edit]

Name[1][2] Location Province/Territory Opened Closed Denomination
Assumption (Hay Lakes) Indian Residential School[10] Assumption

(Hay Lake)

AB 1951 1970 RC
Blue Quill's (Lac la Biche/Saddle Lake/Sacred Heart) Indian Residential School

(Hospice of St. Joseph; Lac la Biche/St. Paul's Boarding School)[11]

Lac la Biche (1862-1898)

Saddle Lake (1898-1931)

(Saddle Lake)

St. Paul (1898-1931)

AB 1862 1970 (became the first Native-administered school in Canada) RC
Holy Angels Indian Residential School

(École des Saints-Anges / Our Lady of Victoria Indian Residential School)

Fort Chipewyan AB 1902 1974 RC
Crowfoot (St. Joseph's) Indian Residential School

(Blackfoot Residential School)[12]

Blackfoot Crossing (1900-1909)

Cluny

(Siksika 146)

AB 1900 1968 RC
St. Joseph's (Dunbow) Industrial School

(High River Industrial School)

High River AB 1884 1922 RC
Edmonton (Poundmaker) Residential School[13][14] St. Albert

(Poundmaker)

AB 1924 (formerly Red Deer Industrial School) 1968 MD
Ermineskin Indian Residential School Hobbema

(Ermineskin)

AB 1915 1973 RC
St. Mary’s (Blood) Indian Residential School (Immaculate Conception Boarding School)[15] Stand-Off

(Blood)

AB 1898 1988 RC
Morley (Stoney) Residential School

(McDougall Orphanage and Training Institution)

Morley

(Stoney)

AB 1926 1949 MD
Old Sun (Blackfoot) Residential School[16]

(North Camp Residential School / White Eagle's Boarding School / Short Robe Boarding School)

Gleichen

(Blackfoot)

AB 1894 1971 AN
Sacred Heart (Peigan) Residential School[17] Brocket

(Peigan)

AB 1892 1961 RC
Red Deer Industrial School Red Deer AB 1893 1919 (Poundmaker school opened 5 years later) MD
Sarcee (St. Barnabas) Residential School[18] Sarcee Junction, Calgary

(Sarcee/T’suu Tina)

AB 1892 1921 AN
St. Albert (Youville) Residential School[19] St. Albert AB 1873 1948 RC
Whitefish Lake (St. Andrew's) Residential School Whitefish Lake

(Whitefish Lake)

AB 1895 1950 AN
Grouard (St. Bernard’s) Residential School Grouard AB 1894 1957 RC
Joussard (St. Bruno's) Residential School Joussard AB 1913 1969 RC
St. Cyprian's (Queen Victoria’s Jubilee Home) Residential School

(Victoria Jubilee Home for Indian Children)[20]

Brocket

(Peigan)

AB 1900 (new school built in 1926) 1962 AN
Sturgeon Lake (Calais) Residential School

(St. François/Francis Xavier Boarding school)[21]

Calais AB 1907 1961 RC
Fort Vermilion (St. Henri) Residential School[22] Fort Vermilion AB 1903 1968 RC
Wabasca (St. John’s) Residential School[23] Wabasca AB 1902 (new school built in 1949) 1966 AN
Desmarais (St. Martin’s) Residential School Desmarais-Wabasca AB 1901 1973 RC
St. Paul's (Blood) Residential School

(Church of England)

Cardston

(Blood)

AB 1893 1975 AN
Lesser Slave Lake (St. Peter's) Residential School Slave Lake AB 1895 1932 AN
Alberni Indian Residential School Port Alberni BC 1920 (burned in 1917, rebuilt in 1920; burned in 1937, rebuilt in 1939) 1973 UC
Ahousaht Indian Residential School Ahousaht BC 1901 1950 PB
Anahim Lake Dormitory (Ulkatcho) Residential School Anahim Lake

(Ulkatcho)

BC 1968 1977 RC
Christie (Clayoquot/Kakawis) Residential School[24] Meares Island (1900-1971)

Tofino (1971-1983)

BC 1900 1983 RC
Kamloops (St. Louis) Residential School

(Kamloops Industrial School)

Kamloops

(Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc)

BC 1890 1978 RC
Kitimaat Indian Residential School

(Elizabeth Long Memorial School for Girls)[25]

Kitimaat BC 1908 1941 MD
Kootenay (St. Eugene's/St. Mary's Residential School) Cranbrook BC 1867 1984 RC
Kuper Island Indian Residential School Penelakut Island BC 1890 1975 RC
Lejac (Stuart Lake) Residential School Fraser Lake BC 1917 (new building in 1922) 1976 RC
Lower Post Indian Residential School Lower Post BC 1951 1975 RC
Coqualeetza (Chilliwack Home) Residential School Chilliwack BC 1889 1940 (later became the Coqualeetza Hospital and is now the Coqualeetza Cultural Education Centre) MD
Metlakatla Indian Residential School (Metlakatla Indian Girls' School) Metlakatla BC 1891 1962 OO
Port Simpson Residential School

(Crosby Home for Girls)

Port Simpson BC 1892 1948 MD
Presbyterian Coqualeetza Indian Residential School Chilliwack BC 1861 1940 PB
Roman Catholic Coqualeetza Indian Residential School Chilliwack BC 1890 1941 RC
St. Augustine's Indian Residential School Sechelt BC 1912 1975 RC
St. Paul’s Indian Residential School North Vancouver BC 1898 1959 RC
St. George's (Lytton) Indian Residential School Lytton BC 1901 (new school built in 1928) 1979 AN
St. Mary's Mission Indian Residential School Mission (Pekw'Xe:yles) BC 1861 1984 RC
St. Michael's (Alert Bay) Indian Residential School Alert Bay BC 1929 1975 AN
Williams Lake Indian Residential School (Williams Lake Industrial School) Cariboo BC 1890 1981 RC
Yale Indian Residential School Yale BC 1900 1920 AN
Yuquot Indian Residential School Yuquot BC 1901 1913 RC
Assiniboia Indian Residential School (Assiniboia Hostel) Winnipeg MB 1958 (September 2) 1973 (June 30) RC
Birtle Indian Residential School Birtle MB 1888 (December 3) 1970 PB
Brandon Indian Residential School (Brandon Industrial School) Brandon MB 1895 (May 23) 1972 (June 30) MD
Cross Lake Indian Residential School (Norway House Roman Catholic Indian Residential School) Cross Lake MB 1915(March 9) 1969 (July 30) RC
Elkhorn Indian Residential School (Elkhorn Industrial School / Washakada Indian Residential School) Elkhorn MB 1888 1919 (as CP Railway purchased land on which school was built) AN
Elkhorn Indian Residential School (Washakada Indian Residential School) Elkhorn MB 1925 1949 AN
Fort Alexander Indian Residential School Pine Falls MB 1905 1970 (June) RC
Guy Hill Indian Residential School The Pas and Clearwater Lake MB 1952 (Students were relocated from Sturgeon Landing, Saskatchewan to a temporary school in The Pas until a newly built school in Clearwater Lake in 1958) 1979 (June 30) RC
Lake St. Martin Indian Residential School Fisher River MB 1874 (new school built in 1948) 1963 AN
MacKay Indian Residential School The Pas MB 1915 1933 AN
MacKay Indian Residential School Dauphin MB 1955 1989 AN
Norway House Methodist Indian Residential School Norway House MB 1900 1967 (June 30) MD
Pine Creek Indian Residential School (Camperville Indian Residential School) Camperville MB 1890 1969 (August 31) RC
Portage la Prairie Methodist Indian Residential School Portage la Prairie MB 1891 1975 (June 30) MD
Portage la Prairie Presbyterian Indian Residential Portage la Prairie MB 1895 1950 PB
Sandy Bay Indian Residential School Sandy Bay Reserve MB 1905 1970 (June 30) RC
St. Boniface Industrial School St. Boniface MB 1891 1909 RC
St. Paul's Industrial School (St. Rupert's Land Industrial School) Selkirk MB 1886 1906 AN
Waterhen Indian Residential School Waterhen MB 1890 1900 RC
Lockwood School* Cartwright NL 1964 OO
Makkovik Boarding School* Makkovik NL 1960 OO
Nain Boarding School* Nain NL 1973 OO
St. Anthony's Orphanage* St. Anthony NL 1979 OO
Yale School* North West River NL 1980 OO
Aklavik Anglican Indian Residential School (All Saints Indian Residential School) Shingle Point NWT 1927 (moved to Aklavik in 1934 due to overcrowding 1959 AN
Aklavik Catholic Indian Residential School (later Inuvik Indian Residential School) Aklavik NWT 1925 (relocated to Inuvik in 1959; Stringer Hall was Anglican Residence and Grollier Hall the RC residence) 1996 (June 1975 (Stringer Hall); June 30 1996 (Grollier Hall)) RC
Fort McPherson Indian Residential School; (Including residence, Fleming Hall); Fort McPherson NWT 1898 1970 OO (non-denominational)
Fort Providence Indian Residential School (Providence Mission Indian Residential School) Fort Providence NWT 1867 1953 RC
Fort Resolution Indian Residential School Fort Resolution NWT 1867 ? RC
Fort Simpson Indian Residential School (Fort Simpson Boarding School, including residences Bompas Hall, Lapointe Hall, St. Margaret's Hall) Fort Simpson NWT 1920 1970 RC
Fort Smith Indian Residential School (Breynat Hall) Fort Smith NWT 1957 1970 RC
Hay River Indian Residential School (St. Peter's Mission Indian Residential School) Hay River NWT 1898 1949 AN
Akaitcho Hall (dormitory for Sir John Franklin High School) Yellowknife NWT 1958 1994 Federal/GNWT
Shubenacadie Indian Residential School Shubenacadie NS 1922 1968 RC
Chesterfield Inlet Indian Residential School (including residence: Turquetil) Chesterfield Inlet NU 1929 1970 RC
Frobisher Bay Indian Residential School Frobisher Bay NU 1965 ? RC
Kivalliq Hall Rankin Inlet NU 1985 1997 OO
Albany Mission Indian Residential School (Fort Albany Residential School) Fort Albany ON 1912 1963 RC
Alexandra Industrial School for Girls Toronto ON 1897 1910[26] OO
Alnwick Industrial School (in partnership with Mount Elgin Indian Residential School) Alderville ON 1838 1966 MD
Bishop Horden Memorial School (Moose Factory Indian Residential School; Moose Fort Indian Residential School) Moose Factory ON 1907 1963 AN
Cecilia Jeffrey Indian Residential School Kenora ON 1900 1966 PB
Chapleau Indian Residential School (Saint John's Indian Residential School) Chapleau ON 1907 1950 AN
Fort Frances Indian Residential School (St. Margaret's Indian Residential School) Fort Frances ON 1902 1974 RC
Kenora Indian Residential School Kenora ON 1949 1963 RC
McIntosh Indian Residential School Kenora ON 1924 1969 RC
Mohawk Institute Residential School (Mohawk Manual Labour School; Mush Hole Indian Residential School) Brantford ON 1828 1970 AN
Mount Elgin Indian Residential School (in partnership with Alnwick) Muncey Town ON 1848 1948 MD
Shingwauk Indian Residential School Garden River ON 1873 1873 (burned down six days after opening) AN
Shingwauk Indian Residential School Sault Ste. Marie ON 1873 (merged with Wawanosh to form a larger school in 1900) 1971 (currently houses Algoma University) AN
Wawanosh School for Girls Sault Ste Marie ON 1877 1900 (merged with Shingwauk) AN
Sioux Lookout Indian Residential School (Pelican Lake Day School) Sioux Lookout ON 1911 1973 AN
Spanish Indian Residential Schools; St. Joseph Residential School 1916–1962 (girls school) still standing; St Charles Garnier College 1913–1958 (boys school)now demolished Spanish ON 1883 1965 RC
St. Anne’s Indian Residential School Fort Albany ON 1936 1964 RC
St. Joseph's Orphanage and Boarding School (for Indigenous and White Children) Fort William ON 1870 1968 RC
St. Mary's Indian Residential School Kenora ON 1894 1962 RC
Wikwemikong Indian Residential School (Wikwemikong Day School) Manitowaning ON 1840 (day school); 1879 (residential school) 1963 RC
Armstrong Indian Residential School (Armstrong Residential School; Armstrong Home and School) Armstrong ON 1880 1891 RC
Amos Indian Residential School (St. Marc's Indian Residential School) St. Marc-de-Figuery (Amos) QC 1948 1965 RC
Federal Hostel at George River Kangirsualujjuaq QC 1960 1960 OO (Non-Denominational)
Federal Hostel at Great Whale River Kuujjuarapik (Poste-de-la-Baleine) QC 1960 1970 OO (Non-Denominational)
Federal Hostel at Payne Bay Kangirsuk (Bellin) QC 1960 1960 OO (Non-Denominational)
Federal Hostel at Port Harrison Inukjuak QC 1960 1971 OO (Non-Denominational)
Fort George Hostels Fort George QC 1975 1978 OO (Non-Denominational)
St. Philip's Indian Residential School Fort George QC 1933 (burned in 1943, rebuilt in 1944) 1979 AN
Fort George (St. Joseph's Mission, Residence Couture, Sainte-Thérèse-de-l'Énfant-Jésus) Fort George QC 1936 1952 RC
La Tuque Indian Residential School La Tuque QC 1963 1978 AN
Pointe Bleue Indian Residential School Mashteuiatsh QC 1956 1965 RC
Sept-Iles Indian Residential School (Seven Islands, Notre Dame, Maliotenam) Sept-Îles QC 1952 1967 RC
Battleford Industrial School Battleford SK 1883 1914 AN
Beauval Indian Residential School Beauval SK 1895 1983 (became Meadow Lake Tribal Council's Beauval Indian Education Centre which closed in 1995) RC
Cowesses Indian Residential School (Marieval Indian Residential School) Marieval SK 1899 1981 (First Nation Operated 1981-1997) RC
Crowstand Indian Residential School Kamsack SK 1888 1916 PB
St. Michael's Indian Residential School (Duck Lake Indian Residential School)[27] Duck Lake SK 1894 1982, turned over to the Saskatoon District Tribal Council. Closed in 1996. RC
Emmanuel College Prince Albert SK 1879 1923 AN
File Hills Indian Residential School (File Hills Colony School) Okanese Reserve SK 1889 1949 PB
Gordon Indian Residential School Punnichy SK 1889 (new school built in 1911, burned down in 1929) 1996 AN
Guy Hill Indian Residential School Sturgeon Landing SK 1926 1952 (burned down September 4, 1952; students were relocated to temporary school in The Pas until a newly built school opened in Clearwater Lake in 1958) RC
Île-à-la-Crosse Indian Residential School Île-à-la-Crosse SK 1878 1976 (the boarding school section) RC
Lake La Ronge Mission Indian Residential School La Ronge SK 1914 (new school built in 1920) 1947 AN
Muscowequan Indian Residential School Lestock SK 1932 1981 RC
St. Albans Indian Residential School Prince Albert SK ? 1951 (amalgamated with All Saints to become Prince Albert Indian Residential School) AN
All Saints Indian Residential School Prince Albert SK 1865 1951 (amalgamated with St. Albans to become Prince Albert Indian Residential School) AN
Prince Albert Indian Residential School Prince Albert SK 1951 (merger of All Saints and St. Albans) 1964 AN
Qu'Appelle Indian Residential School (Qu'Appelle Industrial School); Lebret Indian Residential School; (Added St. Paul's High School in 1951) Lebret SK 1884 (burned down in 1904, 1932) 1969 (Re-opened under the operations of the reserve in 1973 as White Calf Collegiate, but that closed in August 1998) RC
Regina Indian Residential School Regina SK 1890 1910, demolished in 1948 PB
Round Lake Indian Residential School Whitewood SK 1886 1950 MD
St. Anthony's Indian Residential School (Onion Lake Catholic Indian Residential School) Onion Lake SK 1891 1968 RC
St. Barnabas Indian Residential School (Onion Lake Indian Residential School) Onion Lake SK 1893 (burned down in 1943) 1951 AN
St. Phillips Indian Residential School (Keeseekoose Day School) Kamsack SK 1899 1965 RC
Thunderchild Indian Residential School (Delmas Indian Residential School) Delmas SK 1933 1948 (burned down by students) RC
Aklavik Anglican Indian Residential School (All Saints Indian Residential School) Shingle Point YT 1927 1934 (moved to Aklavik due to overcrowding) AN
Baptist Indian Residential School (Yukon Indian Residential School) Whitehorse YT 1900 1968 BP
Carcross Indian Residential School (Forty Mile Boarding School) Fortymile YT 1891 1910 (moved to Carcross) AN
Carcross Indian Residential School (Chooutla Indian Residential School; Caribou Crossing Indian Residential School) Carcross YT 1910 1969 AN
St. Paul's Indian Residential School (St. Paul's Hall) Dawson YT 1920 1943 AN
Yukon Hall (residences for local day school students) Whitehorse YT 1956 1965 AN

See also[edit]

Notes on terminology[edit]

  1. ^ Indian has been used because of the historical nature of the article and the precision of the name. It was, and continues to be, used by government officials, Indigenous peoples and historians while referencing the school system. The use of the name also provides relevant context about the era in which the system was established, specifically one in which Indigenous peoples in Canada were homogeneously referred to as Indians rather than by language that distinguishes First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples. Use of Indian is limited throughout the article to proper nouns and references to government legislation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "List of residential schools". Indian Residential Schools Settlement - Official Court Website. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
  2. ^ a b "Search by School." National Student Memorial Register. National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation.
  3. ^ "Residential Schools". Assembly of First Nations. 3 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 May 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
  4. ^ "Prince Albert Grand Council Indian Residential School Virtual Museum". 2015. Archived from the original on 18 December 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  5. ^ "Mission and Justice Relationships (Anglican Indian and Eskimo Residential Schools)". Anglican Church of Canada. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  6. ^ a b c "Your questions answered about Canada's residential school system". CBC News. 4 June 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "Newfoundland and Labrador residential schools healing and commemoration". 24 November 2017.
  8. ^ "Tearful Justin Trudeau apologizes to N.L. residential school survivors | CBC News".
  9. ^ "N.L. residential school survivors' lawyers reach $50M settlement with Ottawa | CBC News".
  10. ^ "Memorial".
  11. ^ "Memorial".
  12. ^ "Memorial".
  13. ^ "Memorial".
  14. ^ Larsson, Paula. 2013 October 26. "Edmonton Industrial School." Eugenics Archive. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  15. ^ "Memorial".
  16. ^ Old Sun (Blackfoot) Residential School
  17. ^ Sacred Heart (Peigan) Residential School
  18. ^ Sarcee (St. Barnabas) Residential School
  19. ^ St. Albert (Youville) Residential School
  20. ^ St. Cyprian's Residential School
  21. ^ Sturgeon Lake (Calais) Residential School
  22. ^ Fort Vermilion (St. Henri) Residential School
  23. ^ Wabasca (St. John’s) Residential School
  24. ^ "Memorial".
  25. ^ "Memorial".
  26. ^ "East End school for wayward girls flourished". 19 October 2011.
  27. ^ "St. Michael's (Duck Lake)". 28 January 2021.

External links[edit]