List of Indonesian floral emblems

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Jasminum sambac, the national flower of Indonesia

Indonesian floral emblems are Indonesian endemic flora that gain the status as national animal symbol that represent Indonesia and describe Indonesian biodiversity. Next to national floral symbols, there are also more specific provincial floral emblems that represent each respective provinces of Indonesia.

In addition, Indonesia also recognised Teak as the national tree.

Indonesian national floral emblems[edit]

There are three categories of floral emblem that symbolise Indonesia:

  1. National flower (Indonesian: Puspa bangsa) of Indonesia is Melati putih (Jasminum sambac)[1]
  2. Flower of charm (Indonesian: Puspa pesona) is Anggrek Bulan (Moon Orchid) (Phalaenopsis amabilis))[2]
  3. Rare flower (Indonesian: Puspa langka) is Padma Raksasa Rafflesia (Rafflesia arnoldii). All three were chosen on World Environment Day in 1990.[3] On the other occasion Bunga Bangkai (Titan arum) was also added as puspa langka together with Rafflesia.

Melati putih (jasminum sambac), a small white flower with sweet fragrance, has long been considered as a sacred flower in Indonesian tradition, as it symbolises purity, sacredness, graceful simplicity and sincerity. Although the official adoption were announced only as early as 1990 during World Environment Day and enforced by law through Presidential Decree (Keputusan Presiden) No. 4 1993,[4] the importance of Jasminum sambac in Indonesian culture predates its official adoption. Since the formation of Indonesian republic during the reign of Sukarno, melati putih is always unofficially recognised as the national flower of Indonesia. The reverence and the elevated status of this flower mostly due to the importance of jasminum sambac in Indonesian tradition since ancient times.

Melati putih is also the most important flower in wedding ceremonies for ethnic Indonesians, especially in the island of Java.[5] Jasmine flower buds that haven't fully opened are usually picked to create strings of jasmine garlands called roncen melati. On wedding days, a traditional Javanese or Sundanese bride's hair is adorned with strings of jasmine garlands arranged as a hairnet to cover the konde (hair bun). The intricately intertwined strings of jasmine garlands are left to hang loose from the bride's head. The groom's kris is also adorned with five jasmine garlands called roncen usus-usus (intestine garlands) to refer its intestine-like form and also linked to the legend of Arya Penangsang. In Makassar and Bugis brides, the hair is also adorned with buds of jasmine that resemble pearls. Jasmine is also used as floral offerings for spirits and deities especially among Balinese Hindu, and also often present during funerals.

The jasmine has wide spectrums in Indonesian traditions; it is the flower of life, beauty and festive wedding, yet it is also often associated with spirit and death. In Indonesian patriotic songs and poems, the fallen melati often hailed as the representation of fallen heroes that sacrificed their life for the country. The Ismail Marzuki's patriotic song "Melati di Tapal Batas" (jasmine on the border) (1947) and Guruh Sukarnoputra's "Melati Suci" (sacred jasmine) (1974) clearly refer jasmine as the representation of fallen heroes, the eternally fragrance flower that adorned Ibu Pertiwi (Indonesian national personification).

The other two national flowers were chosen for different reasons. Moon Orchid was chosen for its beauty, while the other two rare flowers, Rafflesia arnoldii and Titan arum were chosen to demonstrate uniqueness and Indonesian floral biodiversity.

Indonesian provinces floral emblems[edit]

Each of 33 Provinces of Indonesia also have native plants used as floral emblems. This is a list of Indonesian floral emblems, which represent the provinces of Indonesia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ National, Native and Popular Flower of Indonesia
  2. ^ "ASEAN National Flowers". ASEAN. Retrieved 8 June 2007. 
  3. ^ http://www.asean.org/18203.htm
  4. ^ Keputusan Presiden No. 4 Tahun 1993
  5. ^ Toto Sutater & Kusumah Effendie. "Cut Flower Production in Indonesia". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  6. ^ "Michelia champaca". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  7. ^ "Cananga odorata". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  8. ^ "Morus macroura". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  9. ^ "Oncosperma tigillarium". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  10. ^ "Piper betle". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  11. ^ "Cyrtostachys renda". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  12. ^ "Lansium domesticum". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  13. ^ "Amorphophallus titanum". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  14. ^ "Palaquium rostratum". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  15. ^ "Mirabilis jalapa". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  16. ^ "Vatica bantamensis". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  17. ^ "Salacca edulis". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  18. ^ "Bouea macrophylla". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  19. ^ "Michelia alba". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  20. ^ "Stelechocarpus burahol". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  21. ^ "Polyanthes tuberosa". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  22. ^ "Shorea stenoptera". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  23. ^ "Mangifera casturi". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  24. ^ "Nephelium lappaceum". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  25. ^ "Coelogyne pandurata". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  26. ^ "Ficus minahasae". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  27. ^ "Vitex cofassus". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  28. ^ "Diospyros celebica". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  29. ^ "Dendrobium utile". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  30. ^ "Elmerrillia ovalis". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  31. ^ "Borassus flabellifer". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  32. ^ "Dysoxylum densiflorum". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  33. ^ "Diospyros macrophylla". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  34. ^ "Santalum album". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  35. ^ "Dendrobium phalaenopsis". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  36. ^ "Syzygium aromaticum". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  37. ^ "Pometia pinnata". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  38. ^ "Pandanus conoideus". Prosea. Retrieved 4 November 2007.