List of International Labour Organization Conventions

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Established by the Versailles Peace Treaty in 1919, the ILO's primary task is to develop, adopt and promote labour standards

The list of International Labour Organization Conventions contains 191 codifications of worldwide labour standards. International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions are developed through tripartite negotiations between member state representatives from trade unions, employers' organisations and governments, and adopted by the annual International Labour Conference (ILC). Member state governments subsequently ratify Conventions and incorporate their provisions into national legislation.

The first Convention was adopted in 1919 and covers hours of work, the most recent Convention, adopted in 2019, covers violence and harassment in the world of work. The Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, adopted by the member states in 1998, identified eight fundamental Conventions as binding on all members; four prohibit forced labour and child labour, and four provide rights to organize, to collectively bargain, to equal pay and to freedom from discrimination at work. There are also important Recommendations, which are widely adopted as standards, but do not have the same binding effect as Conventions, such as the Employment Relationship Recommendation, 2006 (No. 198) that ensures universal protection of workers for rights, and requires clear identification in national law for the employer, state or other party responsible for the right.[1]

The ILO monitors the application of the Conventions and makes observations regarding member state compliance, however, there are no enforcement mechanisms within the ILO for non-compliance or breaches of the Conventions. The enforcement of Conventions depends on the jurisprudence of courts recognized by the respective member states.

Classification of the Conventions[edit]

The ILO classifies Conventions by type, subject and status.

  • Type relates to whether the convention is fundamental, covers governance matters or is technical (generally issues of working conditions).
  • Subjects covered by the Conventions:
    1. Individual rights at work, mainly on safety, wage standards, working time, or social security, and the rights to freedom from forced to work or work during childhood.
    2. Collective labour rights to participation in the workplace, particularly to join a trade union, collectively bargain and take strike action, as well as direct representation within the management of organizations.
    3. Rights to equal treatment, that are referential to the terms and conditions of people in comparable situations, with special protections for indigenous communities and migrants.
    4. Promotion of job security, through standards for dismissals, protection upon an employer's insolvency, regulation of employment agencies and requirements upon member states to promote full and fulfilling employment.
    5. Requirements for administrative apparatus by governments to enforce and promote labour standards, through inspections, the collection of statistics, training and consulting with unions and employers before the passage of legislation.
    6. Sectoral Conventions specific to certain industries, these include seafaring, fishing, plantations, hotels, nursing, home and domestic work, where employees may be particularly vulnerable.
  • Status relates to whether a Convention is up to date, requires revision or has been abrogated (withdrawn).

List of the Conventions[edit]

Key: Convention Status
Fundamental convention Up to date Partly up to date
Key: Convention Subjects
1. Labour rights 2. Workplace participation 3. Equality 4. Job security 5. Administration
Convention Year No. Content Ratif Subject
Forced Labour Convention 1930 C029 Obligation for members to "completely suppress such forced or compulsory labour", with exceptions for military, civil service, court orders, for emergencies and minor communal orders. 177 1. Servitude
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention 1948 C087 The right to autonomy in union organisation, for furthering and defending workers' interests by collective bargaining and collective action. 154 2. Unions
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention 1949 C098 Protection against discrimination for joining a trade union, promotion of voluntary collective agreements, taking collective action. 165 2. Unions
Equal Remuneration Convention 1951 C100 The right to equal pay, without any discrimination on grounds of gender. 173 3. Equality
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention 1957 C105 Positive obligation on member states to ensure that all forced labour is abolished. 174 1. Servitude
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention 1958 C111 The right to not be discriminated against on grounds of "race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin", or other grounds determined by member states, in employment. 175 3. Equality
Minimum Age Convention 1973 C138 The requirement that people are at least 15, or a higher age determined by member states, or 14 for member states whose education systems are developing, before working, and 18 years old before dangerous work. 170 1. Children
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention 1999 C182 Duties upon member states to identify and take steps to prohibit the worst forms of child labour (slavery, prostitution, drug trafficking and other dangerous jobs). 181 1. Children
Weekly Rest (Industry) Convention 1921 C014 120 1. Working time
Medical Examination of Young Persons (Industry) Convention 1946 C077 43 1. Safety
Medical Examination of Young Persons (Non-Industrial Occupations) Convention 1946 C078 39 1. Safety
Labour Inspection Convention 1947 C081 Also, Protocol of 1995 to the Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 P081. 146 5. Administration
Labour Clauses (Public Contracts) Convention 1949 C094 62 1. Wages
Protection of Wages Convention 1949 C095 97 1. Wages
Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) 1949 C097 49 3. Migrant workers
Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention 1952 C102 48 1. Social security
Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) Convention 1957 C106 63 1. Working time
Plantations Convention 1958 C110 Also, Protocol of 1982 to the Plantations Convention, 1958, P110. 12 Specific
Radiation Protection Convention 1960 C115 50 1. Safety
Equality of Treatment (Social Security) Convention 1962 C118 38 3. Equality
Hygiene (Commerce and Offices) Convention 1964 C120 51 1. Safety
Employment Injury Benefits Convention 1964 C121 24 1. Social security
Employment Policy Convention 1964 C122 Requirement to develop "co-ordinated economic and social policy"" for the aim of full employment. 107 4. Unemployment
Medical Examination of Young Persons (Underground Work) Convention 1965 C124 41 1. Safety
Invalidity, Old-Age and Survivors' Benefits Convention 1967 C128 16 1. Social security
Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention 1969 C129 53 5. Administration
Medical Care and Sickness Benefits Convention 1969 C130 16 1. Safety
Minimum Wage Fixing Convention 1970 C131 51 1. Wages
Workers' Representatives Convention 1971 C135 Requires that worker representatives suffer no detriment or dismissal (art 1), they are given facilities to carry out tasks (art 2) including trade union and other elected representatives in an undertaking (art 3) and elected representatives' positions should in no way be used to undermine trade union representatives (art 5). 84 2. Representation
Occupational Cancer Convention 1974 C139 41 1. Safety
Paid Educational Leave Convention 1974 C140 34 1. Working time
Rural Workers' Organisations Convention 1975 C141 41 2. Unions
Human Resources Development Convention 1975 C142 68 5. Administration
Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention 1975 C143 23 3. Migrant workers
Tripartite Consultation (International Labour Standards) Convention 1976 C144 145 5. Administration
Continuity of Employment (Seafarers) Convention 1976 C145 17 Seafarers
Seafarers' Annual Leave with Pay Convention 1976 C146 17 Seafarers
Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention 1976 C147 Also, Protocol of 1996 to the Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976, P147. 56 Seafarers
Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration) Convention 1977 C148 46 1. Safety
Nursing Personnel Convention 1977 C149 41 Specific
Labour Administration Convention 1978 C150 76 5. Administration
Labour Relations (Public Service) Convention 1978 C151 53 2. Representation
Occupational Safety and Health (Dock Work) Convention 1979 C152 27 1. Safety
Collective Bargaining Convention 1981 C154 48 2. Unions
Occupational Safety and Health Convention 1981 C155 Also, Protocol of 2002 to the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981, P155. 67 1. Safety
Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention 1981 C156 44 3. Equality
Maintenance of Social Security Rights Convention 1982 C157 4 1. Social security
Termination of Employment Convention 1982 C158 Requirement for employers to give a good reason before dismissing a worker. No conclusions on revision. 36 4. Fair dismissal
Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention 1983 C159 83 3. Equality
Labour Statistics Convention 1985 C160 50 5. Administration
Occupational Health Services Convention 1985 C161 33 1. Safety
Asbestos Convention 1986 C162 35 1. Safety
Seafarers' Welfare Convention 1987 C163 18 Seafarers
Health Protection and Medical Care (Seafarers) Convention 1987 C164 15 Seafarers
Social Security (Seafarers) Convention (Revised) 1987 C165 3 Seafarers
Repatriation of Seafarers Convention (Revised) 1987 C166 14 Seafarers
Safety and Health in Construction Convention 1988 C167 32 1. Safety
Employment Promotion and Protection against Unemployment Convention 1988 C168 8 4. Unemployment
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention 1989 C169 The right of indigenous and tribal communities to participate in decision making procedures. 24 3. Indigenous
Chemicals Convention 1990 C170 21 1. Safety
Night Work Convention 1990 C171 17 1. Safety
Working Conditions (Hotels and Restaurants) Convention 1991 C172 16 Specific
Protection of Workers' Claims (Employer's Insolvency) Convention 1992 C173 21 4. Insolvency
Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents Convention 1993 C174 18 1. Safety
Part-Time Work Convention 1994 C175 17 3. Equality
Safety and Health in Mines Convention 1995 C176 33 1. Safety
Home Work Convention 1996 C177 10 Specific
Labour Inspection (Seafarers) Convention 1996 C178 15 Seafarers
Recruitment and Placement of Seafarers Convention 1996 C179 10 Seafarers
Seafarers' Hours of Work and the Manning of Ships Convention 1996 C180 21 Seafarers
Private Employment Agencies Convention 1997 C181 27 4. Agencies
Maternity Protection Convention 2000 C183 34 3. Equality
Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention 2001 C184 16 1. Safety
Seafarers' Identity Documents Convention (Revised) 2003 C185 35 Seafarers
Maritime Labour Convention 2006 MLC 90 Seafarers
Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention 2006 C187 46 1. Safety
Work in Fishing Convention 2007 C188 13 Specific
Domestic Workers Convention 2011 C189 27 Specific
Violence and Harassment Convention 2019 C190 6 Specific
Safe and Healthy Working Environment (Consequential Amendments) Convention 2023 C191 0 1. Safety
Hours of Work (Industry) Convention 1919 C001 52 1. Working time
Unemployment Convention 1919 C002 Positive obligation on member states to establish and maintain public employment agencies. 57 4. Unemployment
Maternity Protection Convention 1919 C003 34 1. Child care
Right of Association (Agriculture) Convention 1921 C011 127 2. Unions
Workmen's Compensation (Agriculture) Convention 1921 C012 77 1. Wages
Equality of Treatment (Accident Compensation) Convention 1925 C019 121 3. Equality
Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention 1928 C026 104 1. Wages
Hours of Work (Commerce and Offices) Convention 1930 C030 30 1. Working time
Underground Work (Women) Convention 1935 C045 98 1. Safety
Forty-Hour Week Convention 1935 C047 15 1. Working time
Officers' Competency Certificates Convention 1936 C053 53 Seafarers
Minimum Age (Sea) Convention (Revised) 1936 C058 51 Seafarers
Right of Association (Non-Metropolitan Territories) Convention 1947 C084 9 2. Unions
Labour Inspectorates (Non-Metropolitan Territories) Convention 1947 C085 11 5. Administration
Employment Service Convention 1948 C088 91 4. Unemployment
Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised) 1948 C089 67 1. Working time
Accommodation of Crews Convention (Revised) 1949 C092 47 Seafarers
Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention (Revised) 1949 C096 42 4. Agencies
Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery (Agriculture) Convention 1951 C099 53 1. Wages
Social Policy (Basic Aims and Standards) Convention 1962 C117 32 1. Social security
Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised) 1970 C132 36 1. Working time
Accommodation of Crews (Supplementary Provisions) Convention 1970 C133 32 Seafarers
Dock Work Convention 1973 C137 25 Seafarers


As well as Conventions, the ILO also produces Recommendations, which are widely adopted as standards. These do not necessarily have the same binding effect as Conventions, nor require a ratification and monitoring process, but are nevertheless widely followed. A key norm is the Employment Relationship Recommendation, 2006 (No. 198) that ensures universal protection of workers for rights, and requires clear identification in national law for the employer, state or other party responsible for the right.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Employment Relationship Recommendation, 2006 (rec 198)
  2. ^ Employment Relationship Recommendation, 2006 (rec 198)


External links[edit]