List of Internet top-level domains

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This list of Internet top-level domains (TLD) contains top-level domains, which are those domains in the DNS root zone of the Domain Name System of the Internet. A list of the top-level domains by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is maintained at the Root Zone Database.[1] IANA also oversees the approval process for new proposed top-level domains for ICANN. As of April 2021, their root domain contains 1502 top-level domains.[2][3] As of March 2021, the IANA root database includes 1589 TLDs. That also includes 68 that are not assigned (revoked), 8 that are retired and 11 test domains.[1] Those are not represented in IANA's listing[2] and are not in root.zone file (root.zone file also includes one root domain).[4]

Types[edit]

IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:[5]

Original top-level domains[edit]

Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and predate the creation of ICANN in 1998.

Name Entity Administrator[6] Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.com commercial Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Though originally intended for use by for-profit business entities, for a number of reasons it became the main TLD for domain names and is currently used by all types of entities including nonprofits, schools, and private individuals. Domain name registrations may be successfully challenged if the holder cannot prove an outside relation justifying reservation of the name,[citation needed] to prevent "squatting". It was originally administered by the United States Department of Defense. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.org organization Public Interest Registry This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by non-profit organizations, and still primarily used by some. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.net network Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by domains pointing to a distributed network of computers, or "umbrella" sites that act as the portal to a set of smaller websites. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.int international Internet Assigned Numbers Authority The .int TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. However, a few grandfathered domains do not meet these criteria. No Yes Yes Yes
.edu education Educause (via Verisign) The .edu TLD is limited to specific higher educational institutions such as, but not limited to, trade schools and universities. In the U.S., its use was restricted in 2001 to post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency on the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies. This domain is therefore almost exclusively used by American colleges and universities. Some institutions, such as the Exploratorium, that do not meet the current registration criteria have grandfathered domain names. No Yes Yes Yes
.gov government (U.S. national and state government agencies) General Services Administration (via Verisign) The .gov TLD is limited to United States governmental entities and agencies as well as qualifying state, county and local municipal government agencies, and tribal governments. No Yes Yes Yes
.mil military (U.S. military) United States Department of Defense The .mil TLD is limited to divisions, services and agencies of the United States Department of Defense. No Yes Yes Yes

Infrastructure top-level domain[edit]

Infrastructure Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.arpa "Address and Routing Parameter Area" Originally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD. No Yes

Country code top-level domains[edit]

As of 20 May 2017, there were 255 country-code top-level domains, purely in the Latin alphabet, using two-character codes. As of June 2020, this number is 316, with the addition of internationalized domains.[1]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

Internationalised domain names have been proposed for Japan and Libya.

ICANN-era generic top-level domains[edit]

English[edit]

A[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.ac Yes Un­known
.academy Schools, military academies, online learning websites, PTAs & student portals, any site created to be educational on a particular topic Donuts Inc[donuts 1] Yes Yes
.accountant Certified Public Accountants, tax advisors, corporate accountants, personal and business accountants, professional CPA organizations Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.accountants accountants and accounting firms Donuts Inc[donuts 2] Yes Yes
.active Reserved for Active Network The Active Network Un­known Yes
.actor Aspiring actors & their agents, theaters & movie studios, entertainment outlets & streaming video sites, movie review sites, celebrity gossip sites Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.ads advertising Reserved for Google AdSense Charleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.adult adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. ICM Registry Yes Yes
.aero air-transport industry Must verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may register. SITA No No
.africa African and pan-African topics, African Union ZA Central Registry Un­known Yes
.agency Marketing and advertising agencies, PR or communications agencies, design firms, talent agencies, travel agencies, other related agencies Donuts Inc[donuts 3] Yes[9] Yes
.airforce Military recruiters, flight training schools, supply companies, military aircraft suppliers & repair companies, Air Force members and veterans Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.amazon Reserved for Amazon Amazon
.analytics Reserved for SAS Institute Campus IP LLC[8]
.apartments Property (apartment) managers, condominium/apartment developers, college websites/centers, city guides & community centers Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.app Apps[10] Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.apple Apple[11] Reserved for Apple[12] Apple Un­known Yes
.archi architects and architect firms[13] Restricted to individuals and organizations that can verify participation in architecture industry.[14] STARTING DOT LIMITED Un­known Yes
.army Military recruiter, army supply stores, military training schools, army members and veterans Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.art artists, museums, art galleries, dealers, service providers and contractors UK Creative Ideas Yes Yes
.associates Accountants, law firms, consulting firms, real estate agencies, health & medical groups Donuts Inc[donuts 4] Yes Yes
.attorney Independent attorneys and law firms of any size, legal services entities, elected officials and judges, professional organizations, law students Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.auction Auction houses & online auctions, car and truck auction, B2B commodity auctions, charity auctions for non-profits and schools, buyer and seller communities Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.audible Reserved for Audible Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.audio stereo/sound systems, music Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.author Reserved for Amazon books Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.auto vehicles Cars Registry Limited[8]
.autos vehicles DERAutos Un­known Yes
.aws Reserved for Amazon Web Services Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]

B[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.baby For selling baby products Reserved for Johnson & Johnson Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.[8]
.band Music venues, ticket sale/resale sites, music band & musician sites, school band sites, music review sites Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.bank banks Restricted to banks and savings associations fTLD Registry Services, LLC Un­known Yes
.bar Bars and related industry Punto 2012 Yes Yes
.barefoot Reserved for Gallo Vineyards Inc. Gallo Vineyards, Inc.[8]
.bargains Online retailers, large and small, “sale” sections on retail websites, discount & overstock sites, bargain hunters, frugal-living bloggers Donuts Inc[donuts 5] Yes Yes
.baseball baseball Reserved for MLB MLB Advanced Media DH, LLC[8]
.basketball basketball Reserved for FIBA Fédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA)[8]
.beauty Reserved for L'Oréal L'Oréal[8]
.beer breweries and beer aficionados Minds + Machines[n 3] Un­known Yes
.best BestTLD Pty Ltd Un­known Yes
.bestbuy Reserved for Best Buy BBY Solutions, Inc.[8]
.bet gambling Afilias plc[8]
.bible Respect for "the Bible", "God as He is revealed in the Bible", and "orthodox" Christianity[16][17] American Bible Society[8]
.bid auctions Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Yes Yes
.bike Bicycle & motorcycle enthusiasts, bike retailers & gear shops, bike repair shops, biking event organizers, bike or motorcycle clubs Donuts Inc[donuts 6] Yes[18] Yes
.bingo Bingo halls, casinos, online & casual gaming sites, travel agencies Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.bio Organic agriculture[19] Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrants who are "producers, transformers and retailers, or otherwise involved in the field of agriculture, food and farming" must comply with the Principles of Organic Agriculture.[20][21] Afilias[22] Un­known Yes
.biz business Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not held by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's charter. This TLD was created to provide relief for the .com TLD, where many names have already been taken. NeuStar Yes[9] Yes
.black those who like the color black[23] Afilias Yes Yes
.blackfriday Black Friday, retail Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.blockbuster Reserved for Blockbuster LLC Dish DBS Corporation[8]
.blog Blogs Automattic[24] Un­known Yes
.blue those who like the color blue[25] Afilias Yes Yes
.boo Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.book Reserved for Amazon books Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.boots Reserved for Boots Company Ltd THE BOOTS COMPANY PLC[8]
.boston websites related to the city of Boston, Massachusetts USA Boston TLD Management, LLC[8] Un­known Yes
.bot Restricted to online "bots" using approved frameworks (Amazon Lex, Dialogflow, Gupshup, Microsoft Bot Framework, and Pandorabots) Amazon allows users to contact them if they have a bot outside of these frameworks.[26] Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.boutique Specialty online retailers, vintage shops, designers, artists and artisans, craftspeople Donuts Inc[donuts 7] Yes Yes
.box individuals and businesses, in order to promote personal cloud storage NS1 Limited Yes Yes
.broadway Broadway theatre Celebrate Broadway, Inc.[8]
.broker DOTBROKER REGISTRY LTD[8]
.build construction industry Open Top Level Domain—[27] Plan Bee LLC Yes Yes
.builders Contractors, cubcontractors, commercial/residential architects, interior designers Donuts Inc[donuts 8] Yes Yes
.business Creative businesses & agencies, freelancers & independent consultants, any other business looking to differentiate from the competition Donuts Inc[donuts 9] Yes Yes
.buy sales Amazon Registry Services, INC[8]
.buzz marketing and social networking DOTSTRATEGY Yes Yes

C[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.cab Airline & travel-related products or services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging, tourist attractions Donuts Inc[donuts 10] Yes Yes
.cafe Cafes, restaurants, delis, cafeterias, coffee shops & coffee stands, student lounges, mobile food/beverage vendors, cooking schools Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.call Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.cam entertainment[28] ACWebConnecting[29] Yes Yes
.camera Professional photographers, camera and equipment retailers, photo studios & photography schools, wedding and specialty photographers, anyone who wants to share photos online Donuts Inc[donuts 11] Yes Yes
.camp Camping/RV sites, travel writers & bloggers, outdoor adventure companies, summer camps for kids, hotels, hostels, lodges, bed & breakfast lodging Donuts Inc[donuts 12] Yes Yes
.cancerresearch Organizations, research institutes and individuals interested in ending cancer through research[30] Australian Cancer Research Foundation Un­known Yes
.capital Mortgage companies, financial services professionals, investment services, venture capital investors Donuts Inc[donuts 13] Yes Yes
.car vehicles Cars Registry Limited[8]
.cards Occasion shoppers (holiday, birthday, bereavement), occasion-related websites, gift buyers, corporate HR departments Donuts Inc[donuts 14] Yes Yes
.care Surgeons, primary/secondary care physicians, insurance providers, hospitals & clinics, medical, dental, or vision specialists, service based products or services Donuts Inc[donuts 15] Yes Yes
.career jobs and job-searching dotCareer LLC Yes Yes
.careers Career services (coaching, resume writing), job sites & recruiters, business coaches, staffing firms, HR department of any business Donuts Inc[donuts 16] Yes Yes
.cars Automotive Uniregistry Yes Yes
.case Reserved for CNH Industrial CNH Industrial N.V.[8]
.cash Pawn shops and consignment shops, currency exchanges, other cash-based businesses, check cashing services Donuts Inc[donuts 17] Yes Yes
.casino Casino & online gaming sites, travel agencies, local tourist sites, hotel booking sites Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.catering Caterers & personal chefs, specialty food vendors, wedding planners & event planners, event spaces, wholesale suppliers Donuts Inc[donuts 18] Yes Yes
.catholic Catholicism Dicastery for Communication[8]
.center Community centers, business centers, shopping centers, tourist sites/city centers, tutoring & learning centers Donuts Inc[donuts 19] Yes Yes
.cern CERN CERN CERN Un­known Yes
.ceo CEOs [31] CEOTLD Pty Ltd Un­known Yes
.cfd clothing fashion design; originally signified contracts for difference trading when applied for by IG Group Holdings plc DOTCFD REGISTRY LTD[8]
.channel Reserved for YouTube Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.chat Online chat rooms, dating, political, religious, sports, human interest, & hobbyist forums, companies with live chat help desks, chatbot technology companies Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.charity Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.cheap Online retailers, discount sites, overstock sites, businesses who sell bulk products at discounted prices, bargain hunters & frugal-living bloggers Donuts Inc[donuts 20] Yes Yes
.christmas Christmas Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.church Churches, youth organizations, spiritual communities, religion-based organizations, anyone who publishes spiritual or religious content Donuts Inc[donuts 21] Yes Yes
.circle Reserved for Amazon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.city City resource sites for locals and travelers, travel writers & bloggers, local reviews websites, tourist attractions, transportation businesses Donuts Inc[donuts 22] Yes Yes
.claims Insurance adjusters & claims representatives, insurance claims departments (auto, medical, homeowners), customer service departments of insurance companies, law firms Donuts Inc[donuts 23] Yes Yes
.cleaning Contractors, commercial/home cleaning services, auto detailing/cleaning services Donuts Inc[donuts 24] Yes Yes
.click Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.clinic Healthcare clinics, medical or healthcare specialists, sports clinics, urgent care clinics Donuts Inc[donuts 25] Yes Yes
.clothing Online retailers, department stores, designers Donuts Inc[donuts 26] Yes Yes
.cloud Companies involved in cloud computing Aruba S.p.A.
.club groups, organizations, assemblies, communities, general [32] .CLUB DOMAINS Yes[33] Yes
.coach Athletic organizations, personal trainers & coaches, business, life, & health coaches, school & community club coaches or tutors, affordable travel, airline, train, car, or other transportation companies Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.codes Software and web developers, IT companies, technology R&D companies, coding enthusiasts, coding classes & camps Donuts Inc[donuts 27] Yes Yes
.coffee Coffee shops, roasters, wholesalers & suppliers, machine & equipment suppliers and stands Donuts Inc[donuts 28] Yes Yes
.college Educational XYZ.com Yes Yes
.community City guides & community centers, online communities, neighborhood associations, churches, mosques, temples, and other spiritual communities, local writers & bloggers Donuts Inc[donuts 29] Yes Yes
.company Small, medium, or large businesses, business that want to demonstrate authority in their field, makers, artisans, anyone who sells a niche product Donuts Inc[donuts 30] Yes Yes
.compare Reserved for iSelect Ltd iSelect Ltd[8]
.computer Computer manufacturers, computer repair services, computer resellers, computer training & education programs, tech companies Donuts Inc[donuts 31] Yes Yes
.condos Real estate brokers/agents, property (condominium) managers, mortgage companies, condominium/apartment developers, condominium associations Donuts Inc[donuts 32] Yes Yes
.construction Contractors, commercial/residential architects, wholesale and retail construction suppliers Donuts Inc[donuts 33] Yes Yes
.consulting Consulting firms, independent consultants, specialty services, businesses that offer expert training Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.contact Top Level Spectrum, Inc.[8]
.contractors Construction-related businesses, contractors, subcontractors, independent contractors with unique skills and expertise, unions or other organizations promoting their people and skills Donuts Inc[donuts 34] Yes Yes
.cooking sharing recipes Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.cool Fashion magazines & blogs, meme aggregators, trend tracking sites, online merchants, fun publications & sites Donuts Inc[donuts 35] Yes Yes
.coop cooperatives The .coop TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale Principles. DotCooperation No Yes
.country general Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.coupon discounts and rebates Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.coupons Coupon pages, coupon sites, discount sites, coupon-themed blogs, bargain hunters Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.courses education Open Universities Australia Pty Ltd[8]
.cpa accountants and accounting firms Restricted to licensed CPAs and CPA firms American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Un­known Yes
.credit Credit card companies, lenders, credit unions, collection agencies, credit counselors & financial planners Donuts Inc[donuts 36] Yes Yes
.creditcard Credit card companies, store/retailer credit card sites, credit counselors & financial planners, credit card processing services Donuts Inc[donuts 37] Yes Yes
.cruise Cruise lines, cruise-related products or services, travel agencies & vacation services, private charter boats Viking River Cruises (Bermuda) Ltd.[8]
.cricket cricket Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.cruises cruise businesses and travel Donuts Inc[donuts 38] Yes Yes
.cyou For any individual or business that shares the ethical values of diversity, inclusivity, and independence[34] Beijing Gamease Age Digital Technology Co., Ltd.[35] Yes

D[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.dad families Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.dance Dance studios & instructors, nightclubs & music venues, dance teams & troupes, dance shoe, clothing & equipment manufacturers, fans of dance & live performances Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.data Dish DBS Corporation[8]
.date online dating Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.dating Dating & matchmaker sites, travel sites & city guides, singles meetup groups, traditional “classified” sites, event businesses Donuts Inc[donuts 39] Yes Yes
.day general Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.deal sales Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.deals Discount sites, bargain hunters, coupon sites, coupon pages. coupon-themed guides, directories and blogs Donuts Inc[donuts 40] Yes Yes
.degree Brick-and-mortar schools & universities, online universities, other learning courses, other educational resources Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.delivery Consumer delivery services, commercial shipping services, transportation services, messenger services, any business that ships their products Donuts Inc[donuts 41] Yes Yes
.democrat Political candidates, lobbyists, political parties, fundraising organizations Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.dental Dentists, endodontists, orthodontists, retailers selling oral health supplies, wholesale suppliers for dental care Donuts Inc[donuts 42] Yes Yes
.dentist Dentists, endodontists, orthodontists, retailers selling oral health supplies, wholesale suppliers for dental care Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.design graphic art and fashion Top Level Design Yes Yes
.dev software development Google Un­known Yes
.diamonds Jewelers, diamond wholesalers and retailers, jewelry appraisers and buyers, pawn shops Donuts Inc[donuts 43] Yes Yes
.diet dieting and dietary Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.digital Advertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, media buying/production companies (digital & traditional), online event, meetup & gaming sites, technology companies, e-commerce sites Donuts Inc[donuts 44] Yes Yes
.direct Direct-to-consumer stores, bargain hunters, transportation services, messenger services, delivery & shipping services Donuts Inc[donuts 45] Yes Yes
.directory Listings organizations, name, phone & address directories, online business directories, clubs, groups, & other organizations directories Donuts Inc[donuts 46] Yes Yes
.discount Discount sites, bargain hunters, coupon sites, coupon pages, coupon-themed blogs Donuts Inc[donuts 47] Yes Yes
.diy do-it-yourself Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.docs Medical doctors Charleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.doctor Doctors, any business with “doctor” in the name, other health care providers, PhD experts in any field Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.dog Dog breeders, dog walking, grooming & sitting businesses, veterinarians, animal shelters & adoption centers, pet stores & suppliers Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.domains Any web-based service, network consultants, domain brokers, resellers and registrars, home-related products and services Donuts Inc[donuts 48] Yes Yes
.dot Dish DBS Corporation[8]
.download technology Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.drive Reserved for Google Drive Charleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.duck Reserved for Duck® Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.[8]

E[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.earth Individuals or businesses with a worldwide focus Interlink Co., Ltd.[8]
.eat restaurants and foodies Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.eco Sustainability minded companies, non-profits and professionals.[36] Open to anyone pledging a commitment to sustainability action.[37] Big Room Inc.[38] No Yes
.education Colleges & universities, public schools, PTAs & other school groups, education research organizations, any organization focused on educating its audience Donuts Inc[donuts 49] Yes Yes
.email Advertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, email marketing experts, CRM and marketing technology specialists, anyone who wants a memorable email address Donuts Inc[donuts 50] Yes Yes
.energy Electrical, mechanical, chemical, nuclear & thermal energy producers, solar, wind, hydro, bio & other sustainable alternative energy producers, battery manufacturers & oil industry R&D, energy conservation organizations, energy food & drink manufacturers Donuts Inc[donuts 51] Yes Yes
.engineer Computer and software engineering companies, civil, electrical, mechanical, and architectural engineering companies, environmental, chemical, geotechnical, and bio engineering companies, engineer training or educational institutions, railroad engineers Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.engineering Computer and software engineering companies, civil, electrical, mechanical, and architectural engineering companies, environmental, chemical, geotechnical, and bio engineering companies, engineer training or educational institutions, railroad engineers Donuts Inc[donuts 52] Yes Yes
.edeka edeka firms EDEKA Verband kaufmännischer Genossenschaften e.V. Yes Yes
.entertainment Ticket outlets, travel sites & local tourist sites, performance halls, theaters, & music venues, anyone in the entertainment industry, celebrity news sites Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.enterprises Entrepreneurs, startups, parent & holding companies, enterprise SaaS solutions & tech services Donuts Inc[donuts 53] Yes Yes
.equipment Home improvement stores, construction equipment rentals, construction equipment sales, sporting goods stores Donuts Inc[donuts 54] Yes Yes
.esq lawyers, law firms, legal professionals To be restricted to verified lawyers and attorneys[39] Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.estate Estate sale management & appraisal services, estate planners & lawyers, real estate agents & brokers Donuts Inc[donuts 55] Yes Yes
.events Event planners, sports & gaming agencies/sites, ticket sale/resale sites, city guides & community centers, performance halls, music clubs/bars Donuts Inc[donuts 56] Yes Yes
.exchange Foreign currency exchanges, stock brokers, investment fund traders, ETF distributors, brokers, & dealers Donuts Inc[donuts 57] Yes Yes
.expert Home services providers, online review sites, skilled worker databases, freelanceers, consultants, & subject matter experts Donuts Inc[donuts 58] Yes Yes
.exposed Tabloid sites, celebrity romance blog, TV spoiler sites, sites that host leaked documents, investigative journalism sites Donuts Inc[donuts 59] Yes Yes
.express Transportation services, messenger services, delivery & shipping services, direct-to-consumer stores Donuts Inc Yes Yes

F[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.fail Online meme aggregators, humor websites, video sites Donuts Inc[donuts 60] Yes Yes
.faith religion and churches Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.family Family-focused travel sites, blogs about family-friendly activities & games, family history sites, photo sites, obstetricians & family practice doctors Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.fan Fan sites, current events & gossip sites, sport blogs and forums, personal & business sites about niche topics Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.fans general Un­known Yes
.farm Real estate brokers/agents, farming services & equipment dealers, farmers & ranchers, property managers, health food distributors, crypto farmers Donuts Inc[donuts 61] Yes Yes
.fashion clothing industry Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.fast Reserved for Amazon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.feedback feedback and reviews Top Level Spectrum Un­known Yes
.fiat Only FIAT S.P.A. and its Affiliates (and qualifying Trademark Licensees as defined in, and in accordance with Specification 13 of the Registry Agreement (“Specification 13”) where applicable) are eligible to register a Domain Name under the .FIAT TLD.[40] Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V.[41] Un­known Yes
.film films Motion Picture Domain Registry Pty Ltd[8]
.final final versions of anything Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br[8]
.finance Investment services, banks & financial institutes, credit counselors & financial planners, accounting firms, lenders Donuts Inc[donuts 62] Yes Yes
.financial Investment services, banks & financial institutions, credit counselors & financial planners, accounting firms, lenders Donuts Inc[donuts 63] Yes Yes
.fire Reserved for Amazon (promotion of Fire devices) Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.fish Seafood markets, restaurants & suppliers, sport fishing & fly fishing enthusiasts, fishing gear, tackle, & product manufacturers, travel outfitters & fishing guide companies, aquariums, pet & fish supply stores, marine biology programs & conservation organizations Donuts Inc[donuts 64] Yes Yes
.fishing fishing businesses, sports, and interests Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.fit Fitness and exercise Minds + Machines[n 3] Un­known Yes
.fitness Gyms, athletic clubs & family health organizations, personal trainers, weight loss, health & wellness clinics, health & exercise blogs, fitness competition & events companies Donuts Inc[donuts 65] Yes Yes
.flights Airline-related products or services, helicopter rides, skydiving, & hang gliding, travel agencies & travel services, private pilots, airport transportation Donuts Inc[donuts 66] Yes Yes
.florist Florists, flower delivery services, floral designers, flower seed suppliers Donuts Inc[donuts 67] Yes Yes
.flowers florists and gardens Uniregistry Yes Yes
.fly travel To be restricted to verified airlines, travel agencies and travel resellers[42] Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.foo web development [43] Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.food Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.foodnetwork Reserved for Food Network Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.football Professional & amateur football & soccer teams, football clothing, gear & fan merchandise, football equipment manufacturers, football coaches & players Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.forsale Individual real estate brokers and brokerages, wholesalers and retailers across many product categories, discount, flash sale and deal websites, auction sites and individuals selling items they no longer need Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.forum forums Fegistry, LLC[8]
.foundation Charitable organizations, public school foundations, other philanthropic organizations & foundations Donuts Inc[donuts 68] Yes Yes
.free sales Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.frontdoor Reserved for HGTV Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.fun Radix Registry Un­known Un­known
.fund Investment services, banks & financial institutions, credit counselors & financial planners, lenders Donuts Inc[donuts 69] Yes Yes
.furniture Home décor and furnishing stores, department stores, home designers, vintage stores, antique dealers Donuts Inc[donuts 70] Yes Yes
.fyi "for your information" Donuts Inc Yes Yes

G[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.gallery Galleries, professional photographers, camera and equipment retailers, photo studios & photography schools, wedding and specialty photographers, anyone who wants to share photos online Donuts Inc[donuts 71] Yes Yes
.game gaming Uniregistry, Corp.[8]
.games Gaming sites, forums & reviews, online or brick & mortar game stores/clubs, sports events, clubs—professional & recreational, casinos Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.garden gardening Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.gay gay individuals or supportive organisations Top Level Design[n 4] Yes Yes

[44]

.gdn general GDN Registry Un­known Un­known
.gift gift-giving Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.gifts Gift buyers, discount sites, corporate HR departments, bargain hunters Donuts Inc[donuts 72] Yes Yes
.gives Philanthropic organizations and foundations, charities, nonprofits, corporate giving initiatives, volunteer organizations Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.glass Glass & glass repair shops, glass departments within home supply stores, contractors, windshield repair & auto glass businesses, DIYers/artists Donuts Inc[donuts 73] Yes Yes
.gle Google abbreviations In use for some URL abbreviations related to Google such as forms.gle and goo.gle. Charleston Road Registry Inc. (a Google subsidiary)[45] Un­known Yes
.global general, companies or individuals with a global focus or presence Dot GLOBAL Yes Yes
.gold Jewelers, gold traders and dealers, coin sellers and traders, trophy and awards shops Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.golf Professional & amateur golf organizations, golf courses, equipment suppliers & manufacturers, golf travel & event companies, golf players, enthusiasts & spectators, sports networks Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.google Google In use for some websites related to Google such as blog.google. Alphabet Inc. Un­known Yes
.gop Republican Party politics Republican State Leadership Committee Spanish[46] Yes
.graphics Web design firms, freelance designers, graphic artists Donuts Inc[donuts 74] Yes Yes
.green the environmentally-focused "As a Registrant you may not ... use a .green name or its content in a way that negatively affects the mission, purpose of the .green TLD, or its brand."[47] Afilias Un­known Yes
.gripe Online complaint sites, online forums, customer service providers, feedback sites, blogs about scams Donuts Inc[donuts 75] Yes Yes
.grocery Reserved for Walmart Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.[8]
.group Groups based on hobbies or interests (running, crafts, gaming), group-based businesses (medical practices, law firms, financial advisors), professional associations, support groups Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.guide City resource sites for locals and travelers, travel writers & bloggers, local reviews websites, tourist attractions & guides, outdoor adventure companies Donuts Inc[donuts 76] Yes Yes
.guitars Guitars Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.guru Mindfulness & yoga practices, spiritual leadership sites, any training program, work-for-hire sites, freelancers, consultants, & subject matter experts Donuts Inc[donuts 77] Yes[48] Yes

H[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.hair haircare products and services L'Oreal[8]
.hangout Reserved for Google Hangouts Charleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.health health and related topics DotHealth, LLC[8]
.healthcare Primary/secondary care physicians, hospitals & clinics, healthcare insurance providers & brokers, company HR/benefits departments Donuts Inc[donuts 78] Yes Yes
.help help sites Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.here generic geographic Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.hiphop Hip hop culture Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.hiv AIDS and HIV awareness dotHIV Un­known Yes
.hockey Sports media, sporting goods stores & hockey equipment suppliers, professional, minor league & amateur hockey teams, hockey fans, fantasy leagues, sponsors, coaches & referees Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.holdings Holding companies, private equity firms, real estate developers Donuts Inc[donuts 79] Yes Yes
.holiday Airline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources & services, travel writers & bloggers, city guides & resource sites, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging Donuts Inc[donuts 80] Yes Yes
.homegoods Reserved for HomeGoods The TJX Companies, Inc.[8]
.homes real estate professionals Dominion Enterprises Un­known Yes
.homesense Reserved for HomeSense The TJX Companies, Inc.[8]
.horse horse-related businesses and interest Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.hospital Hospitals & clinics, healthcare providers, medical, dental, or vision specialists, insurance providers Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.host network companies Radix Registry Un­known Yes
.hosting Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.hot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.hotels Reserved for Booking.com Booking.com B.V.[8]
.house Real estate brokers/agents, mortgage companies, home builders, construction/home improvement suppliers, home improvement sites & blogs Donuts Inc[donuts 81] Yes Yes
.how how-to guides Google[n 2] Un­known Yes

I[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.ice Reserved for Intercontinental Exchange IntercontinentalExchange, Inc.[8]
.icu entrepreneurs and business owners ShortDot SA
.inc Corporations
.industries Machine or equipment manufacturers, manufacturers, tech or biotech companies, professional associations, businesses with “industries” in their names Donuts Inc[donuts 82] Yes Yes
.info information Afilias German[9] Yes
.ing Verbal suffix: e.g., "jump.ing". Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.ink creative printing or tattooing[49] Top Level Design Yes Yes
.institute[50] Educational institutions, training programs, foundations, research organizations, military schools Donuts Inc[donuts 83] Yes Yes
.insurance insurance companies fTLD Registry Services LLC[8]
.insure Insurance companies (life, auto, homeowners, renters), insurance divisions of larger companies (car rentals, warranties), insurance brokers & advisors Donuts Inc[donuts 84] Yes Yes
.international Any organization with an international presence, international consultants, import/export businesses, international travel organizations Donuts Inc[donuts 85] Yes Yes
.investments Investment services (institutional, private), wealth management services, financial planners, brokerage firms Donuts Inc[donuts 86] Yes Yes
.irish Airline-related products or services, domestic/International travel agencies, resources & services, travel writers & bloggers, Ireland travel guides & resource sites, seasonal opportunities (St. Patrick's Day) Donuts Inc Yes Yes

J[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.jewelry Jewelers, jewelry buyers, online retailers, department stores Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.jobs Employment For websites with job opportunities and job listings.[51] Employ Media No Yes
.joy Reserved for Amazon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]

K[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.kim Kim (Korean surname) Afilias Un­known Yes
.kitchen Restaurants, cafes, & delis, food stands & mobile vendors, meal services & personal chefs, kitchen supply stores, food blogs & recipe sites Donuts Inc[donuts 87] Yes Yes

L[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.land Real estate brokers and agents, residential/commercial land developers, home builders, mortgage companies, traditional “classified” sites Donuts Inc[donuts 88] Yes Yes
.lat Latin American communities and users ECOM-LAC[8]
.law practitioners and educators in law Restricted to qualified lawyers, courts of law, law schools, and legal regulators.[52] Minds + Machines Group Limited[8]
.lawyer Independent attorneys and law firms of any size, legal services entities, elected officials and judges, professional organizations, law students Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.lease Real estate brokers/agents, property managers, condo/apartment developers, real estate law firms Donuts Inc[donuts 89] Yes Yes
.leclerc Reserved for E.Leclerc A.C.D. LEC Association des Centres Distributeurs Edouard Leclerc
.legal Attorneys, lawyers & law firms, corporate legal teams, paralegals, legal advocates, committees, associations and interest groups associated with the law Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.lgbt the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community "Registrants are prohibited from using the .LGBT domain in a manner that is harmful, threatening, abusive, harassing, defamatory, or hateful with respect to the LGBT community."[53] Afilias Un­known Yes
.life Wellness and health experts, charities, coaches & personal development enthusiasts, lifestyle bloggers, anyone who wants to share personal stories Donuts Inc[donuts 90] Yes Yes
.lifeinsurance life insurance American Council of Life Insurers[8]
.lighting Lighting & lighting repair shops, lighting departments within home supply stores, contractors, commercial/residential architects, DIYers Donuts Inc[donuts 91] Yes Yes
.like Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.limited Private companies, limited by shares, limited companies, businesses with “limited” or “LTD” in their names, specialty products and services, businesses that sell limited-quantity products Donuts Inc[donuts 92] Yes Yes
.limo Airline & travel-related products or services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, hotels, lodging, weddings, party and occasion-related services Donuts Inc[donuts 93] Yes Yes
.link connecting to information[54] Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.live Live streaming sites, entertainment/music venues, news sites/blogs, ticket sale/resale sites, video production companies Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.living Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[8]
.loan banks and lenders Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.loans Mortgage companies, personal loan agencies, auto loan agencies & car dealerships, credit consolidation services Donuts Inc[donuts 94] Yes Yes
.locker Reserved for DISH DBS Corporation Dish DBS Corporation[8]
.lol LOL: laughing out loud (humorous or comedic content) Uniregistry[55] Un­known Yes
.lotto lottery Afilias Un­known Yes
.love dating sites Un­known Yes
.ltd Private companies, limited by shares, limited companies, businesses with “limited” or “LTD” in their names, specialty products and services, businesses that sell limited-quantity products Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.luxury businesses catering to the wealthy Luxury Partners Yes Yes

M[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.makeup Reserved for L'Oréal L'Oréal[8]
.management Property managers, wealth management firms, money management, systems & network managers, leadership teams Donuts Inc[donuts 95] Yes Yes
.map maps and navigation Charleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8] No
.market Online retailers, independent or chain grocery stores, buyer and seller communities, discount sites & coupon sites Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.marketing Advertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, media buying/production companies (digital & traditional), staffing agencies, marketing consultants Donuts Inc[donuts 96] Yes Yes
.markets Reserved for IG Group IG Group Un­known Yes
.mba Colleges, universities, & graduate programs, online educational sites, job search sites, MBA candidates Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.med medicine and related topics Medistry LLC[8]
.media Advertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, media buying/production companies (digital & traditional), news outlets, media bloggers, celebrity publications, digital publishers & graphic designers Donuts Inc[donuts 97] Yes Yes
.meet social gatherings, meeting new people Afilias Un­known Yes
.meme Internet memes Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.memorial News site obituaries, personal tribute sites, floral & funeral arrangement companies Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.men men Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.menu restaurants Wedding TLD2 Yes Yes
.mint Reserved for Intuit Mint Intuit Administrative Services, Inc.[8]
.mobi mobile devices Must be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with standards. Afilias Yes Yes
.mobile Dish DBS Corporation[8]
.mobily Reserved for Mobily GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.[8]
.moe Japanese otaku culture; see moe (slang) Interlink Yes Yes
.mom mothers Uniregistry, Corp.[8]
.money Lenders, financial services businesses, money blogs & news sites, investment bankers & brokers, financial planners & experts Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.monster Reserved for Monster.com Monster Worldwide, Inc. style="background:#9F9;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center;" class="table-yes"|Yes Yes
.mortgage Mortgage brokers, real estate brokers/agents, home buyers, traditional “classified” sites Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.motorcycles motorcycles DERMotorcycles Un­known Yes
.mov digital video Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.movie Streaming movie services, movie studios & distributors, movie theaters & entertainment outlets, ticket sale/resale sites, movie review sites Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.museum museums Must be verified as a legitimate museum. Museum Domain Management Association Latin script[9] Yes
.music Music dissemination and appreciation Under contention

N[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.name individuals, by name Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's charter. Verisign Yes[9] Yes
.navy Naval training schools, navy supply stores, military recruiters, credit unions, navy members and veterans Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.network IT professionals, tech consultants, career sites, industry-specific professional groups, social networks Donuts Inc[donuts 98] Yes Yes
.new Websites where people can create something The second-level domain name must be the thing to be created immediately when a user visits the .new website. Most likely, the .new will redirect to a company's main website. Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.news News organizations, educational publications, trade publications, neighborhood news blogs Un­known Yes
.ngo Non-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ong.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements. Public Interest Registry Un­known Yes
.ninja Sites promoting specialized skills, repair services (auto, appliance, etc.), gaming sites, martial arts organizations Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.now Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.ntt Restricted to use by NTT Japan. Refer to the .ntt Registration Policies page for more information. Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation.[8] Un­known

O[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.observer Reserved for The Observer Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
.off Reserved for Off! Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.[8]
.org general Public Interest Registry
.one general One Registry Un­known Yes
.ong Non-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ngo.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements. Public Interest Registry Un­known Yes
.onl generic I-REGISTRY Un­known Yes
.online generic Radix Registry Un­known Yes
.ooo general Infibeam No Yes
.open private to the "Registry Operator and its qualified Affiliates and Trademark Licensees"[56] American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc.[8]
.organic organic gardeners, farmers, foods, etc. Registrants must be verified as a member of the organic community.[57] Afilias Un­known Yes
.origins Reserved for Origins The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.[8]

P[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.page Reserved for Google and related content Charleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.partners Law firms, real estate agencies, investment firms, accounting firms, nonprofit organizations Donuts Inc[donuts 99] Yes Yes
.parts Appliance wholesalers & service, tool rentals & service businesses, auto/boat/heavy equipment businesses Donuts Inc[donuts 100] Yes Yes
.party nightclubs and social gatherings Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.pay electronic payments Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.pet animals and pets Afilias plc[8]
.pharmacy pharmacies "All registrants within the .pharmacy gTLD are vetted prior to registration to confirm that they meet all applicable regulatory standards, including pharmacy licensure and valid prescription requirements, in the jurisdictions where they are based and where they serve patients."[58] National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Un­known Yes
.phone telephone-related businesses Dish DBS Corporation[8]
.photo photography and photo-sharing Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.photography Professional photographers, camera and equipment retailers, photo studios & photography schools, wedding and specialty photographers, anyone who wants to share photos online Donuts Inc[donuts 101] Yes Yes
.photos Professional photographers, camera and equipment retailers, photo studios & photography schools, wedding and specialty photographers, anyone who wants to share photos online Donuts Inc[donuts 102] Yes Yes
.physio physical therapists Must be eligible for membership within an association that is a member of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, have proper training as a physical therapist outside WCPT's reach, or otherwise supports physical therapy.[59][60] PhysBiz Un­known Yes
.pics photography and photo-sharing Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.pictures Professional photographers, camera and equipment retailers, photo studios & photography schools, wedding and specialty photographers, anyone who wants to share photos online Donuts Inc[donuts 103] Yes Yes
.pid personal identification Top Level Spectrum Un­known Yes
.pin Reserved for Amazon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.pink those who like the color pink Afilias Yes Yes
.pizza Pizzerias, take & bake pizza shops, Italian or Greek restaurants, pizza brands found in grocery stores Donuts Inc[donuts 104] Yes Yes
.place Airline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources & services, travel writers & bloggers, tourist attractions, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging Donuts Inc[donuts 105] Yes Yes
.plumbing Plumbers & plumbing repair businesses, plumbing departments within home supply stores, contractors/subcontractors, DIYers Donuts Inc[donuts 106] Yes Yes
.plus Consumer commodity stores & sites, clothing (plus, big & tall), service-based businesses, any entity wanting to show their competitive advantage Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.poker Poker players and sites Afilias[n 5] Un­known Yes
.porn adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Afilias Yes Yes
.post postal services The .post TLD is restricted to Postal Administrations as defined in the Universal Postal Union constitution, and their large customers who wish to provide "Trusted Postal Services".[61] Universal Postal Union No[62] Yes
.press publishing and journalism Radix Registry Un­known Yes
.prime Reserved for Amazon Prime Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.pro professions/professionals Registry Services Corporation No Yes
.productions Advertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, media buying/production companies (digital & traditional), video production services, anyone in the film industry Donuts Inc[donuts 107] Yes Yes
.prof Professors, teachers and learning Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.promo advertising Afilias plc[8]
.properties Real estate brokers/agents, residential/Commercial land developers, property (condo/apartment) managers, home builders, mortgage companies Donuts Inc[donuts 108] Yes Yes
.property real estate Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.protection security XYZ.COM LLC[8]
.pub Pubs, bars & nightclubs, burger joints, breweries & taphouses, beer distributors, restaurant & bar suppliers

publications

Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes

Q[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.qpon coupons dotCOOL Un­known Yes

R[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.racing racing Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.radio radio stations European Broadcasting Union (EBU)[8]
.read Reserved for Amazon books Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.realestate real estate dotRealEstate LLC[8]
.realtor realtors To be restricted to members of the National Association of Realtors and the Canadian Real Estate Association, and related associations.[63] Real Estate Domains Un­known Yes
.realty realty and housing Fegistry, LLC[8]
.recipes Recipe sites, food & beverage grocery brands, health & fitness organizations, cooking enthusiasts, personal/professional chefs Donuts[donuts 109] Yes Yes
.red those who like the color red[64]
Also Spanish variant of .net
Also likely to be attractive for domain hacks for words that end with '-red'.
Afilias Yes Yes
.rehab Physical and occupational therapists and professionals, drug, alcohol and gambling addiction counselors, rehabilitation facilities and recovery centers, online health directories, physical or emotional health associations Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.reit real estate investment trusts Restricted to REITs, as determined by national law.[65] National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts Un­known Yes
.rent Real estate professionals and small businesses xyz.xyz Un­known Yes
.rentals Real estate brokers/agents, city guides, college housing centers, & community centers, vehicle, equipment, or entertainment/event rentals, property managers, condo/apartment developers Donuts Inc[donuts 110] Yes Yes
.repair General or specialty repair shops, construction contractors/subcontractors, DIYers, appliance wholesalers & service, auto/boat businesses Donuts Inc[donuts 111] Yes Yes
.report News & current events sites, financial reporting sites, financial or business analysts, consumer product reviews, police, school, or other community report listings Donuts Inc[donuts 112] Yes Yes
.republican Political candidates, lobbyists, political parties, fundraising organizations Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.rest Restaurants and related industry Punto 2012 Yes[66] Yes
.restaurant Casual eateries, gourmet restaurants, suppliers, chains, review sites, reservation sites & services Donuts Inc[donuts 113] Yes Yes
.review public reviews Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.reviews News media, food publications, travel publications, literary publications, any product & service with online reviews Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.rich businesses catering to the wealthy I-REGISTRY Un­known Yes
.rip Loved ones seeking to memorialize the deceased, funeral homes and cemeteries, businesses that support the funeral industry, obituary websites[67] Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.rocks Pop culture sites, niche and fan sites, musicians, gemstone & jewelry companies Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.rodeo Rodeo interest Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.room lodging or room design Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.rugby rugby World Rugby Strategic Developments Limited[8]
.run Runners, running shoe retailers, specialty running gear shops, running event organizers Donuts Inc Yes Yes

S[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.safe security and safety Reserved for Amazon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.sale Online and brick-and-mortar retailers and wholesalers, automotive and motorcycle dealers, discount, flash sale, and deal websites, auction sites and individuals selling items they no longer need Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.salon Hair salons, nail salons, beauty product companies, beauty schools Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.save Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.sbi State Bank of India
.scholarships scholarship related Scholarships.com[68][69] Un­known Un­known
.school Public schools, private & charter schools, specialty and trade schools, online learning sites, resource sites for teachers Donuts Inc[donuts 114] Yes Yes
.science science-related sites Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.scottishbay anonymous Anonymous Un­known Un­known
.search search engines Charleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.secure security Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.security XYZ.COM LLC[8]
.select iSelect Ltd[8]
.services Service division of any company, home services (cleaning, landscaping, plumbing, pet care), business services (tech support, interior design, translation services), community service organizations Donuts Inc[donuts 115] Yes Yes
.sex adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. ICM Registry Yes Yes
.sexy adult entertainment Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.shoes Shoe stores, department stores, online retailers, athletic shoe retailers, discount shoe stores Donuts Inc[donuts 116] Yes Yes
.shop GMO Registry, Inc.[8]
.shopping Online retailers, shopping centers, personal shoppers, discount sites & coupon sites, shopping blogs & product reviews Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.show Ticket sale/resale sites, performance halls, music clubs/bars, streaming video services, movie review sites, travel sites & city guides Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.showtime Reserved for Showtime CBS Domains Inc.[8]
.silk Reserved for Amazon Silk Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.singles (Tickets) Ticket sale/resale sites, gaming agencies, movie review sites, city guides, sports sites

(Dating) Dating & matchmaker sites, singles meetup groups, traditional “classified” sites, travel sites & city guides

Donuts Inc[donuts 117] Yes Yes
.site general Un­known Yes
.ski skiing STARTING DOT LIMITED[8]
.skin Reserved for L'Oréal L'Oréal[8]
.sky Sky International AG[8]
.sling Reserved for Sling Media Hughes Satellite Systems Corporation[8]
.smile Reserved for Amazon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.sncf Reserved to the SNCF company. SNCF
.soccer Professional & amateur soccer clubs, soccer equipment suppliers & manufacturers, soccer & sports media networks, soccer players, enthusiasts, & spectators, soccer camps, coaches, & training organizations Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.social Advertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, media buying/production companies (digital & traditional), blogs & forums, event & meetup groups, any person or organization driving awareness of their social presence Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.software Software testing, support, & consulting companies, software product developers & manufacturers, software training & educational institutions, software resellers Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.solar Renewable & sustainable energy producers, solar panel, roof tile, & storage producers, solar cell battery, chargers, lights, speakers, & generator manufacturers, sunglass, shades, UV clothing, sunblock & other solar protection products Donuts Inc[donuts 118] Yes Yes
.solutions SaaS providers, people who offer do-it-yourself tips and tutorials, consultants, any business focused on providing the right solutions to their customers’ problems. Donuts Inc[donuts 119] Yes Yes
.song Reserved for Amazon Music Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.space as a creative space Radix Registry Un­known Yes
.spreadbetting Spread betting DOTSPREADBETTING REGISTRY LTD[8]
.spot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.sport sport institutions Global Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF)
.storage Self storage Self Storage Company LLC[8]
.store stores Radix Registry Yes Yes
.stream streaming media Global Registry Services Ltd[7]
.studio Advertising/Marketing/PR/Design agencies, creative freelancers, other creative agencies (i.e., animation, production), dance, yoga, or fitness studios Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.study education OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD[8]
.style Fashion bloggers, department stores, designers, online retailers Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.sucks gripe sites Vox Populi Un­known Yes
.supplies Contractors, distribution companies, appliance wholesalers & service, auto/boat/heavy equipment businesses, home services retailers Donuts Inc[donuts 120] Yes Yes
.supply Contractors, distribution companies, appliance wholesalers & service, auto/boat/heavy equipment businesses Donuts Inc[donuts 121] Yes Yes
.support IT/Tech support services, social services, customer service & support departments, independent consultants & consulting firms, staffing services Donuts Inc[donuts 122] Yes[70] Yes
.surf surfing Minds + Machines[n 3] Un­known Yes
.surgery Surgeons, primary/secondary care physicians, hospitals & clinics, healthcare providers, insurance providers Donuts Inc[donuts 123] Yes Yes
.systems IT businesses, other tech-focused businesses, businesses that sell electronics or home security systems, organizational consultants Donuts Inc[donuts 124] Yes Yes

T[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.talk Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.tattoo tattoo aficionados Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.tax Accounting & bookkeeping firms, tax advisors, auditors, financial experts & advisors Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.taxi Airline & travel-related products or services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging, tourist attractions Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.team Professional & amateur sports teams, sports equipment suppliers & manufacturers, sports media, athletes & fans, clubs, online communities & business organizations Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.tech technology Radix Registry Yes Yes
.technology Tech-focused businesses & tech startups, businesses that sell to tech companies, developers, coders, programmers, computer retailers, technology blogs, news sites, & review sites, hardware & software companies, R&D companies, tech product manufacturers Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.tel internet communication services A contact directory housing all types of contact information directly in the Domain Name System. Yes[71] Yes
.tennis Tennis courts, clubs & other venues, tennis equipment suppliers and retailers, professional & amateur tennis players, sports media Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.theater Entertainment & movie theater outlets, live performance theaters, professional performer associations, movie review sites, travel sites & city guides Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.theatre theatre XYZ.COM LLC[8]
.tickets ticket resale Accent Media Limited[8]
.tips Travel, hotel & hospitality companies, cooking & recipe publications, parenting & and relationship publications, manufacturers of any product with assembly instructions, publications that provide advice on gratuity practices around the world Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.tires Tire wholesalers, tire retailers, auto repair shops Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.today News & current event sites, websites that publish daily content, daily inspiration sites, sites with daily rotating deals or offers, anyone who wants to spur immediate action Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.tools Tool shops, tool departments within home supply stores, contractors, subcontractors, construction-related businesses Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.top general Jiangsu Bangning Un­known Yes
.tours Airline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources & services, tourist attractions, outdoor adventure companies, private plane/helicopter tours & services Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.town Travel agencies, resources & services, local business associations, city guides & resource sites, transportation businesses, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.toys Toy stores, online retailers, department stores, game companies, sporting goods companies Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.trade businesses Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Yes Yes
.trading DOTTRADING REGISTRY LTD[8]
.training Personal trainers & nutrition coaches, gyms and fitness centers, sports medicine practitioners, business that sell sports gear or apparel, or fan merchandise, animal trainers, career or vocational training centers Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.travel Airline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources, bloggers & services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, destination resorts, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging, any other travel or transportation business Must be verified as a legitimate travel-related entity. No Yes
.travelersinsurance Reserved for Travelers Insurance Travelers TLD, LLC[8]
.trust Artemis Internet Inc[8]
.tube Latin American Telecom LLC[8]
.tunes Reserved for Amazon Music Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]

U[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.uconnect Not assigned[8][72]
.university Online universities, brick-and-mortar universities, university-related clubs & organizations Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.uno general, Spanish and Italian speakers, Uno (card game)

V[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.vacations Airline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources, bloggers & services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, destination resorts, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.ventures Venture capital investment firms, business financial services, business consultants, programs & services for entrepreneurs Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.vet Veterinarians, veterinary clinics and hospitals, wholesale suppliers for veterinary supplies Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.video Video production & media companies, videographers, video editors, script writers, & producers, streaming video sites services, creative agencies Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.villas International real estate brokers/agents, international travel agencies, resources & services, travel writers & bloggers, traditional “classified” sites Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.vin Wineries, wine shops & wine bars, wine distributors, wine clubs & online retailers, wine review sites and apps Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.vip Very important persons Minds + Machines Group Limited[8]
.vision Opticians & optometry clinics, healthcare providers, insurance provider, glasses retailers, online and brick & mortar Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.vodka vodka-related businesses and interest Yes Yes
.volvo Only Volvo Holding Sverige Aktiebolag and its Affiliates are eligible to register a Domain Name under the .volvo Domain [73] AB Volvo Un­known Yes
.vote democratic elections and campaign websites Must use the domain in connection with a "clearly identified political/democratic process."[74] Afilias Un­known Yes
.voting polling sites Latin and Cyrillic scripts[9] Yes
.voyage Airline-related products or services, travel agencies, resources, bloggers & services, city guides & tourist attractions, transportation businesses, hotels, hostels, B&Bs, lodging Donuts Inc Yes Yes

W[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.wang general
Wǎng is a Chinese Mandarin pinyin rendering of 网 (traditional 網) meaning "web" or "portal".[75]
Wang is also a common surname in mainland China.
Zodiac Registry Yes[76] Yes
.watch Watchmakers, jewelry stores, watch repair shops, neighborhood watch groups Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.watches watches Richemont DNS Inc.[8]
.weather Reserved for The Weather Channel International Business Machines Corporation[8]
.webcam web cam shows and video sharing Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Yes Yes
.website general Radix Registry Un­known Yes
.wed engaged couples and wedding-oriented businesses This TLD is intended primarily for engaged couples on a short-term basis (two years with large third-year renewal fees for second-level domains).[77]
And although the registry is advertising for multiple world languages, all domains appear to need to be in Latin script.[78]
No Yes
.wedding wedding-oriented businesses Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.whoswho Who's Who (general) An open TLD, any person or entity is permitted to register. Conceived for those cited in one of the Who's Who reference titles published around the world, the registry was opened for use by private individuals, and for-profit and nonprofit entities, including those with social media aspirations. Registry policies allow for rapid takedown of non-compliant domains, for violations including imposturous registration of another's names, and proscribed uses, including pornography or adult services/applications. Who's Who Registry Yes Yes
.wiki wikis "An open TLD for anyone interested in community resource creation" Top Level Design Yes Yes
.win games, Microsoft Windows Global Registry Services Ltd[7] Un­known Yes
.wine Wineries, wine bars, wine shops, wine distributors, wine clubs & online retailers, wine review sites Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.winners Reserved for TJX Companies The TJX Companies, Inc.[8]
.work general Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.works Contractors, distribution companies, appliance wholesalers & service, auto/boat/heavy equipment businesses, companies with solution based products or services Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.world Brands with an international presence, nonprofits and charities, travel agencies & adventure companies, world travelers & global communities, any business with “world” in its name Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.wow Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.wtf Bargain websites, photo & video aggregators, meme sites, news of the weird Donuts Inc Yes Yes

X[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.xxx adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Uniregistry Yes Yes
.xyz general XYZ.com Yes[79] Yes

Y[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.yachts yachts DERYachts, LLC [8]
.yoga yoga Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.you Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.youtube Reserved for YouTube Google, LLC

Z[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.zero Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
.zip digital storage information, providers, and related entities Charleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[8]
.zone Sports fans, technology groups & followers, entertainment, fairs, destinations with a “zone”, city planners & zoning regulators, any topic with a following Donuts Inc Yes Yes

Chinese[edit]

Name Chinese term Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.ren rén "people/person" in Mandarin pinyin Restricted TLD[80] (Cancelled)[81] Un­known Yes
.shouji 手机 shŏujī mobile phone QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
.tushu 图书 túshū books Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
.wanggou 网购 wǎnggòu online shopping Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
.weibo 微博 wēibó microblogging Sina Corporation
.xihuan 喜欢 xǐhuān like QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
.xin xìn credit; honest Alibaba Group

French[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.arte Association Relative à la Télévision Européenne G.E.I.E. [8]
.clinique "hospital" The Estée Lauder Companies Inc. [8]
.luxe "luxury" Minds + Machines[n 3] Un­known Yes
.maison "house" Donuts Inc[donuts 125] Yes Yes
.moi "me" Amazon Registry Services, Inc. [8]
.rsvp Invitations and replies Google[n 2] Un­known Yes
.sarl Société à responsabilité limitée, Francophone Limited liability company Donuts Inc[donuts 126] Yes Yes

German[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.epost e-mail Deutsche Post AG
.gmbh GmbH Upon request, you will be required to demonstrate current or pending designation as a GmbH company whose existence can be validated with the respective public authorities in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein or Switzerland. Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.haus "house" Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.immobilien "real estate" Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes[9] Yes
.jetzt "now" Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.kaufen "buy" Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes[9] Yes
.kinder "children" restricted .brand TLD Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
.reise "travel" Must be an eligible member of the travel business community; also, domain must be used for travel-related purposes.[82] Donuts Inc Yes[9] Yes
.reisen "traveling" Donuts Inc[donuts 127] Yes[9] Yes
.schule "school" Donuts Inc[donuts 128] Yes Yes
.versicherung "insurance" Latin script[9] Yes

Hindi[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.desi देसी, Hindi for the peoples and cultures of South Asia
See also Desi
Desi Networks Un­known Yes
.shiksha शिक्षा, Marathi and Hindi for "education". Afilias Un­known Yes

Italian[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.casa "house" Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.immo French, German,[83] and Italian abbreviation for "real estate" Donuts Inc[donuts 129] Yes Yes
.moda "fashion" Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes[9] Yes
.voto "vote", for election and campaign websites Must use the domain in connection with a "clearly identified political/democratic process."[84] Initially only available to registrations in the United States.[85] Afilias Un­known Yes

Portuguese[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.bom good Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br
.passagens ticket Travel Reservations SRL

Spanish[edit]

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.abogado "lawyer" To be restricted to licensed lawyers or law firms.[86] Minds + Machines[n 3] Un­known Yes
.futbol "Football" (soccer) Donuts Inc[n 1] Yes Yes
.gratis "free" Donuts Inc[donuts 130] Yes Yes
.hoteles "hotels" Travel Reservations SRL
.juegos "games" Uniregistry Yes[15] Yes
.ltda companies in South America Domains are limited to registered LTDAs (like LLCs) in Brazil, Colombia, Chile, and Ecuador.[87] InterNetX Un­known Yes
.soy "I am"
Also refers to the soybean and its food derivatives
Google[n 2] Latin script, Japanese[88] Yes
.tienda "shop", "store" Donuts Inc Yes Yes
.uno "one", for websites targeting Spanish speaking consumers Spanish Yes
.viajes "travel" or "trips" Donuts Inc Spanish Yes
.vuelos "flights" Travel Reservations SRL Yes Yes

Internationalized generic top-level domains[edit]

All of these TLDs are internationalized domain names (IDN) and support second-level IDNs.

Arabic script[edit]

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--4gbrim[89] .موقع Arabic Arabic mawqiʿ "site" or "location" Open TLD Yes
xn--fhbei[89] .كوم Arabic kwm com Owned by: VeriSign Sarl[8]
xn--mgbb9fbpob[89] .موبايلي Arabic mūbāylī Mobily Owned by: GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.[8]
xn--mgbi4ecexp[89] .كاثوليك Arabic kāthūlīk Catholic Owned by: Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communication)[8]
xn--ngbc5azd[89] .شبكة Arabic Arabic shabaka "network" Open TLD Yes
xn--ngbe9e0a[89] .بيتك Arabic baytak your home Owned by: Kuwait Finance House[8]
xn--mgbab2bd[89] .بازار Persian Arabic bâzâr "market", "bazaar" Open TLD Yes

Chinese characters[edit]

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--3ds443g[89] .在线 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) zàixiàn "online" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 internationalized subdomains for localities.[90]
Yes
xn--fiq228c5hs[89] .中文网 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Zhōngwén wǎng "(written) Chinese (language) network" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[90]
Yes
xn--ses554g[89] .网址 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǎngzhǐ "network address" or "website" Open TLD Yes
xn--5tzm5g[89] .网站 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǎngzhàn "website" Open TLD Yes
xn--io0a7i[89] .网络 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǎngluò "network" Open TLD Yes
xn--55qx5d[89] .公司 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) gōngsī "business organization" or "company" Open TLD Yes
xn--czru2d[89] .商城 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) shāngchéng "mall" Open TLD Yes
xn--nqv7f[89] .机构 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) jīgòu "agency" Open TLD Yes
xn--6qq986b3xl[89] .我爱你 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǒ ài nǐ "I love you" Open TLD Yes
xn--czr694b[89] .商标 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) shāngbiāo "trademark" Open TLD Yes
xn--rhqv96g[89] .世界 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) shìjiè "world" Open TLD Yes
xn--3bst00m[89] .集团 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) jítuán "conglomerate" Open TLD Yes
xn--30rr7y[89] .慈善 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Císhàn "philanthropy" Open TLD Yes
xn--45q11c[89] .八卦 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Bāguà "gossip" Open TLD Yes
xn--55qw42g[89] .公益 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Gōngyì "philanthropy" Open TLD Yes

Cyrillic script[edit]

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--d1acj3b[89] .дети Russian Cyrillic (Russian) dyeti "kids" or "children" Open TLD Yes
xn--80aqecdr1a[89] .католик Cyrillic Katolik Catholic Owned by: Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (Pontifical Council for Social Communications)[8]
xn--j1aef[89] .ком Russian Cyrillic (Russian) kom com
xn--80asehdb[89] .онлайн Russian Cyrillic (Russian) onlain "online" Open TLD Yes
xn--c1avg[89] .орг Russian Cyrillic (Russian) org "org" or "organization" Open TLD Yes
xn--80aswg[89] .сайт Russian Cyrillic (Russian) sait "site" Open TLD Yes

Japanese characters[edit]

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--q9jyb4c[89] .みんな Japanese Hiragana minna everyone Open TLD[91] Yes
xn--1ck2e1b[89] .セール Japanese Katakana sēru sale Owned by: Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[8]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c[89] .ファッション Japanese Katakana fasshon fashion
xn--cck2b3b[89] .ストア Japanese Katakana sutoa store
xn--eckvdtc9d[89] .ポイント Japanese Katakana pointo point
xn--gckr3f0f[89] .クラウド Japanese Katakana kuraudo cloud
xn--tckwe[89] .コム Japanese Katakana komu com Owned by: VeriSign Sarl[8]

Other script[edit]

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--i1b6b1a6a2e[89] .संगठन Marathi, Hindi Devanagari saṅgaṭhana "organization" Open TLD Yes
xn--11b4c3d[89] .कॉम Marathi, Hindi Devanagari kom com
xn--c2br7g[89] .नेट Marathi, Hindi Devanagari net net
xn--mk1bu44c[89] .닷컴 Korean Hangul datkeom / tatk'ŏm dotcom
xn--t60b56a[89] .닷넷 Korean Hangul datnet / tatnet dotnet
xn--9dbq2a[89] .קום Hebrew Hebrew qwm "com" Open TLD Yes
xn--42c2d9a[89] .คอม Thai Thai khom com

Geographic top-level domains[edit]

Africa[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.africa Africa [8][92] Yes
.capetown Cape Town, South Africa [93] Un­known Yes
.durban Durban, South Africa [94] Un­known Yes
.joburg Johannesburg, South Africa [95] Un­known Yes

Asia[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.বাংলা  Bangladesh This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Bangladesh.[96] Un­known Un­known
.abudhabi Abu Dhabi [8]
.arab League of Arab States [8]
.asia Asia-Pacific region This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific. Chinese, Japanese, Korean[9] Yes
.bd  Bangladesh This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Bangladesh.[97] Un­known Un­known
.doha Doha [8]
.dubai Dubai [8]
.krd  Kurdistan This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Kurdistan[98][99] Kurdish Yes
.kyoto Kyoto, Japan [100]
.nagoya Nagoya, Japan [101] Japanese[9] Yes
.okinawa Okinawa, Japan Japanese Yes
.osaka Osaka, Japan [8]
.ryukyu Ryukyu Islands, Japan [102] Un­known Yes
.taipei Taipei, Taiwan Introduced in September 2014[103] Un­known Yes
.tatar Tatar peoples and places Tatarstan is a region in Russia, though this TLD is meant for the global Tatar community.[104] Un­known Yes
.tokyo Tokyo, Japan [105] Yes Yes
.yokohama Yokohama, Japan [106] Japanese Yes

Europe[edit]

Geographic TLDs in France
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.alsace  Alsace [107] Un­known Yes
.bzh  Brittany; Breton language and culture Breizh in Breton.[108] This is a TLD for Web sites in the Breton language or related to Breton culture French[9] Yes
.corsica  Corsica TLD Related to Corsican Culture Un­known Yes
.eus Basque, Spain and France Euskal Herria in Basque. Web sites must be in the Basque language and are checked periodically.[109] Un­known Yes
.paris  Paris [110] French[9] Yes
Geographic TLDs in Spain
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.bcn Barcelona [8]
.barcelona Un­known Yes
.cat  Catalonia; Catalan language and culture This is a TLD for Web sites in the Catalan language or related to Catalan culture.[111] Catalan[9] Yes
.eus Basque, Spain and France Euskal Herria in Basque. Web sites must be in the Basque language and are checked periodically.[109] Un­known Yes
.gal  Galicia This is a TLD for Web sites in the Galician language or related to Galician culture.[112] Un­known Yes
.madrid  Madrid [113] Un­known Yes
Geographic TLDs in Germany
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.bayern  Bavaria [114] Yes Yes
.berlin  Berlin Must have a connection to Berlin, Germany for example a company based in Berlin or a person from Berlin etc.[115] Latin and Cyrillic scripts[9] Yes
.cologne  Cologne [116] Yes Yes
.koeln [117] Yes Yes
.hamburg  Hamburg Latin script[9] Yes
.nrw  North Rhine-Westphalia [118] Yes Yes
.ruhr Ruhr [119] German[9] Yes
.saarland  Saarland [120] Un­known Yes
Other European Geographic TLDs
Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.amsterdam  Amsterdam, Netherlands [121] Un­known Yes
.bar ZastavaBar.png Bar, Montenegro [8] Mostly used for bars and other alcohol facilities worldwide
.brussels  Brussels, Belgium [122] Latin script[9] Yes
.budapest  Budapest, Hungary [123] Un­known Yes
.cymru  Wales, United Kingdom [124] Welsh[9] Yes
.wales [124] Welsh[9] Yes
.frl  Friesland, Netherlands Fryslân in (West) Frisian, one of the twelve provinces in the Netherlands.[125] Un­known Yes
.gent Ghent, Belgium [126] Un­known Yes
.helsinki Helsinki, Finland
.irish  Ireland; global Irish community Un­known Yes
.ist İstanbul, Turkey Un­known Un­known
.istanbul Un­known Un­known
.london London, United Kingdom [127] Yes Yes
.moscow [ru]  Moscow, Russia [128] Yes Yes
.scot  Scotland, United Kingdom [129] Un­known Yes
.stockholm  Stockholm, Sweden [8]
.swiss   Switzerland [8] Yes[130] Yes
.tirol  Tyrol, Austria [131] Yes[9] Yes
.vlaanderen  Flanders, Belgium [132] Latin script[9] Yes
.wien  Vienna, Austria [133] Latin script[9] Yes
.zuerich Zurich, Switzerland [134] Un­known Yes

North America[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC Alternatives
.boston  Boston, Massachusetts [8] .boston.ma.us
.miami  Miami, Florida [135] Un­known Yes
.nyc  New York City, New York [136] Spanish[9] Yes .new-york.ny.us
.quebec  Quebec, Canada [137] Un­known Yes .qc.ca
.vegas  Las Vegas, Nevada [138] Yes Yes .las-vegas.nv.us

Oceania[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.kiwi New Zealand New Zealanders [139] Latin script[9] Yes
.melbourne  Melbourne, Australia [140] Un­known Yes
.sydney  Sydney, Australia [141] Un­known Yes

South America[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.lat Latin America [142] Spanish[143] Yes
.rio Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [144] Un­known Yes

Internationalized geographic top-level domains[edit]

DNS name Display name Entity Language Script Transliteration Notes Other TLD IDN DNSSEC
xn--1qqw23a[89] .佛山 Foshan, China Chinese Chinese (Simplified) fat6 saan1 [145] Yes Yes
xn--xhq521b[89] .广东 Guangdong, China Chinese Chinese (Simplified) gwong2 dung1 [8]
xn--80adxhks[89] .москва [ru] Moscow, Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) moskva [146] .moscow Russian[9] Yes
xn--p1acf[89] .рус [ru] Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) rus [8] .ru / .рф
xn--mgbca7dzdo[89] .ابوظبي Abu Dhabi Arabic Arabic Abū Ẓabī [8] .abudhabi
xn--ngbrx[89] .عرب Arab Arabic Arabic ‘Arab [8]

Brand top-level domains[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.aaa American Automobile Association [8]
.aarp AARP [8]
.abarth Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (Abarth) [8]
.abb ABB [8]
.abbott Abbott Laboratories [8]
.abbvie AbbVie [8]
.abc American Broadcasting Company[147] [8]
.accenture Accenture [8]
.aco ACO Severin Ahlmann GmbH & Co. KG [8]
.aeg Aktiebolaget Electrolux [8]
.aetna Aetna [8]
.afl Australian Football League [8]
.agakhan Aga Khan Foundation [8]
.aig American International Group [8]
.aigo Aigo [8]
.airbus Airbus [8]
.airtel Bharti Airtel [8]
.akdn Aga Khan Foundation [8]
.alfaromeo Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (Alfa Romeo) [8]
.alibaba Alibaba Group [8]
.alipay Alibaba Group [8]
.allfinanz Allfinanz Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft [148] Un­known Yes
.allstate Allstate [8]
.ally Ally Financial [8]
.alstom Alstom [8]
.amazon Amazon
.americanexpress American Express [8]
.amex American Express [8]
.amica Amica Mutual Insurance [8]
.android Google (Android) [149] Un­known Yes
.anz Australia and New Zealand Banking Group [8]
.aol AOL [8]
.apple Apple [8]
.aquarelle Aquarelle.com Group [150] Un­known Yes
.aramco Aramco [8]
.audi Audi [8]
.auspost Australia Post [8]
.aws Amazon Web Services [8]
.axa Axa [151] Yes[9] Yes
.azure Microsoft [8]
.baidu Baidu [8]
.bananarepublic Gap (Banana Republic) [8]
.barclaycard Barclays [152] Un­known Yes
.barclays Barclays [152] Un­known Yes
.basketball FIBA [153]
.bauhaus Werkhaus GmbH [8]
.bbc BBC [8]
.bbt BB&T [8]
.bbva Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria [8]
.bcg Boston Consulting Group [8]
.bentley Bentley [8]
.bharti Bharti Enterprises [8]
.bing Microsoft (Bing) [8]
.blanco BLANCO GmbH + Co KG [8]
.bloomberg Bloomberg [154] Un­known Yes
.bms Bristol-Myers Squibb [8]
.bmw BMW [155] No Yes
.bnl Banca Nazionale del Lavoro [156] Un­known Yes
.bnpparibas BNP Paribas [157] Un­known Yes
.boehringer Boehringer Ingelheim [8]
.bond Bond University[8] Later became a gTLD on 26 November 2019
.booking Booking.com [8]
.bosch Robert Bosch GmbH [8]
.bostik Bostik [8]
.bradesco Bradesco [158] Un­known Yes
.bridgestone Bridgestone [8]
.brother Brother Industries [8]
.bugatti Bugatti [8]
.cal Google (Google Calendar) [159] Un­known Yes
.calvinklein PVH [8]
.canon Canon [8]
.capitalone Capital One [8]
.caravan Caravan International [160] Un­known Yes
.cartier Richemont DNS [8]
.cba Commonwealth Bank [8]
.cbn Christian Broadcasting Network [8]
.cbre CBRE Group [8]
.cbs CBS [8]
.cern CERN [161] Un­known Yes
.cfa CFA Institute [8]
.chanel Chanel [8]
.chase Chase Bank [8]
.chintai Chintai Corporation [8]
.chrome Google (Google Chrome) [162] Un­known Yes
.chrysler Chrysler [8]
.cipriani Hotel Cipriani Srl [8]
.cisco Cisco Systems [8]
.citadel Citadel Domain [8]
.citi Citigroup [8]
.citic CITIC Group [163] No Yes
.clubmed Club Med [8]
.comcast Comcast [8]
.commbank Commonwealth Bank [8]
.creditunion CUNA Performance Resources [8]
.crown Crown Equipment Corporation [8]
.crs Federated Co-operatives
(Co-Operative Retailing System)
[164] Un­known Yes
.csc DXC Technology
.cuisinella Société Alsacienne de Meubles (Cuisinella) [165] Un­known Yes
.dabur Dabur [8]
.datsun Nissan (Datsun) [8]
.dealer Dealer Dot Com [8]
.dell Dell [8]
.deloitte Deloitte [8]
.delta Delta Air Lines [8]
.dhl Deutsche Post [8]
.discover Discover Financial Services [8]
.dish Dish Network [8]
.dnp Dai Nippon Printing [166] Un­known Yes
.dodge Chrysler (Dodge) [8]
.dunlop Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (Dunlop Tyres) [8]
.dupont DuPont [8]
.dvag Deutsche Vermögensberatung [167] Un­known Yes
.edeka Edeka [168] Un­known Yes
.emerck Merck Group [169] Un­known Yes
.epson Seiko Epson [8]
.ericsson Ericsson [8]
.erni ERNI Group Holding AG [8]
.esurance Esurance [8]
.etisalat Etisalat [8]
.eurovision European Broadcasting Union (Eurovision) [8]
.everbank EverBank [170] Un­known Yes
.extraspace Extra Space Storage [8]
.fage Fage [8]
.fairwinds FairWinds Partners [8]
.farmers Farmers Insurance Exchange [8]
.fedex FedEx [8]
.ferrari Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (Ferrari) [8]
.ferrero Ferrero [8]
.fiat Fiat Chrysler Automobiles [8]
.fidelity Fidelity Investments [8]
.firestone Bridgestone [8]
.firmdale Firmdale Holdings [171] Un­known Yes
.flickr Yahoo! (Flickr) [8]
.flir FLIR Systems [8]
.flsmidth FLSmidth [172] Un­known Yes
.ford Ford Motor Company [8]
.fox Fox Broadcasting Company [8]
.fresenius Fresenius Immobilien-Verwaltungs-GmbH [8]
.forex Dotforex Registry Ltd [8]
.frogans OP3FT Solely for use by the Frogans technology[173] Yes[9] Yes
.frontier Frontier Communications [8]
.fujitsu Fujitsu [8]
.fujixerox Fuji Xerox [8]
.gallo E & J Gallo Winery [8]
.gallup Gallup [8]
.gap Gap [8]
.gbiz Google [174] Un­known Yes
.gea GEA Group [8]
.genting Genting Group [8]
.giving Giving Limited [8]
.gle Google [175] Un­known Yes
.globo Grupo Globo [176] No Yes
.gmail Google (Gmail) [177] Un­known Yes
.gmo GMO Internet [178] Un­known Yes
.gmx 1&1 Mail & Media (GMX, Global Message Exchange) [179] Un­known Yes
.godaddy Go Daddy [8]
.goldpoint Yodobashi Camera [8]
.goodyear Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company [8]
.goog Google [180] Un­known Yes
.google Google [181] Un­known Yes
.grainger Grainger Registry Services, LLC [8]
.guardian Guardian Life Insurance Company of America [8]
.gucci Gucci [8]
.hbo HBO [8]
.hdfc Housing Development Finance Corporation [8]
.hdfcbank HDFC Bank [8]
.hermes Hermès [8]
.hisamitsu Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical [8]
.hitachi Hitachi [8]
.hkt Hong Kong Telecom [8]
.honda Honda Motor Company [8]
.honeywell Honeywell [8]
.hotmail Microsoft (Hotmail) [8]
.hsbc HSBC [182] Un­known Yes
.hughes Hughes Network Systems [8]
.hyatt Hyatt [8]
.hyundai Hyundai Motor Company [8]
.ibm IBM [183] Un­known Yes
.ieee Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers [8]
.ifm ifm electronic gmbh [8]
.ikano Ikano [8]
.imdb Amazon (IMDb) [8]
.infiniti Nissan (Infiniti) [8]
.intel Intel [8]
.intuit Intuit [8]
.ipiranga Ipiranga [8]
.iselect iSelect [8]
.itau Itaú Unibanco [8]
.itv ITV [8]
.iveco CNH Industrial (Iveco) [8]
.jaguar Jaguar Land Rover [8]
.java Oracle Corporation (Java) [8]
.jcb JCB [8]
.jcp JCP Media [8]
.jeep Chrysler (Jeep) [8]
.jpmorgan JPMorgan Chase [8]
.juniper Juniper Networks [8]
.kddi KDDI [8]
.kerryhotels Kerry Trading Co. Limited [8]
.kerrylogistics Kerry Trading Co. Limited [8]
.kerryproperties Kerry Trading Co. Limited [8]
.kfh Kuwait Finance House [8]
.kia Kia Motors Corporation [8]
.kinder Ferrero (Kinder Surprise) [8]
.kindle Amazon (Amazon Kindle) [8]
.komatsu Komatsu [8]
.kpmg KPMG [8]
.kred KredTLD [184] Un­known Yes
.kuokgroup Kerry Trading Co. Limited [8]
.lacaixa Caixa d’Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona [185] Un­known Yes
.ladbrokes Ladbrokes [8]
.lamborghini Lamborghini [8]
.lancaster Lancaster [8]
.lancia Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (Lancia) [8]
.lancome L'Oréal [8]
.landrover Jaguar Land Rover [8]
.lanxess Lanxess [8]
.lasalle JLL [8]
.latrobe La Trobe University [186] Un­known Yes
.lds The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)[187] [188] Un­known Yes
.leclerc E.Leclerc [189]
.lego Lego Group [8]
.liaison Liaison Technologies [8]
.lexus Toyota (Lexus) [8]
.lidl Lidl [8]
.lifestyle Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc. [8]
.lilly Eli Lilly & Company [8]
.lincoln Ford (Lincoln) [8]
.linde Linde [8]
.lipsy Lipsy Ltd [8]
.lixil Lixil Group [8]
.locus Locus Analytics [8]
.lotte Lotte Holdings [8]
.lpl LPL Financial [8]
.lplfinancial LPL Financial [8]
.lundbeck Lundbeck [8]
.lupin Lupin Limited [8]
.macys Macy's [8]
.maif Mutuelle Assurance Instituteur France (MAIF) [8]
.man MAN [8]
.mango Mango [190] Latin script[9] Yes
.marriott Marriott International [8]
.maserati Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (Maserati) [8]
.mattel Mattel [8]
.mckinsey McKinsey & Company [8]
.metlife MetLife [8]
.microsoft Microsoft [8]
.mini BMW (Mini) [191] No Yes
.mit Massachusetts Institute of Technology [8]
.mitsubishi Mitsubishi Corporation [8]
.mlb MLB Advanced Media [8]
.mma MMA IARD [8]
.monash Monash University [192][193] No Yes
.mormon The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)[187] [194] Un­known Yes
.moto Motorola [8]
.movistar Telefónica (Movistar) [8]
.msd MSD Registry Holdings, Inc. [8]
.mtn MTN [8]
.mtr MTR Corporation [8]
.mutual Northwestern Mutual [8]
.nadex Nadex [8]
.nationwide Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company [8]
.natura Natura & Co [8]
.nba National Basketball Association [8]
.nec NEC [8]
.netflix Netflix [8]
.neustar Neustar [195] No Yes
.newholland CNH Industrial (New Holland Agriculture, New Holland Construction) [8]
.nexus Google (Google Nexus) [196] Un­known Yes
.nfl National Football League [8]
.nhk NHK [197] Un­known Yes
.nico Dwango (Niconico) [198] Un­known Yes
.nike Nike [8]
.nikon Nikon [8]
.nissan Nissan [8]
.nissay Nippon Life [8]
.nokia Nokia [8]
.northwesternmutual Northwestern Mutual [8]
.norton NortonLifeLock [8]
.nra National Rifle Association [199] Un­known Yes
.ntt Nippon Telegraph & Telephone [8]
.obi OBI Group Holding SE & Co. KGaA [8]
.office Microsoft (Microsoft Office) [8]
.omega Swatch Group (Omega) [8]
.oracle Oracle Corporation [8]
.orange Orange [8]
.otsuka Otsuka Pharmaceutical [200] Un­known Yes
.ovh OVH [201] French[9] Yes
.panasonic Panasonic [8]
.pccw PCCW [8]
.pfizer Pfizer [8]
.philips Philips [8]
.piaget Piaget [202] Un­known Yes
.pictet Pictet [8]
.ping Ping [8]
.pioneer Pioneer Corporation [8]
.play Google (Google Play) [8]
.playstation Sony (PlayStation) [8]
.pohl Deutsche Vermögensberatung
(founder Reinfried Pohl)
[203] Un­known Yes
.politie Politie Nederland [8]
.praxi Praxi [204] Un­known Yes
.prod Google (products) [205] Un­known Yes
.progressive Progressive Corporation [8]
.pru Prudential Financial [8]
.prudential Prudential Financial [8]
.pwc PwC [206] Un­known Yes
.quest Quest Software [8]
.qvc QVC [8]
.redstone Redstone Haute Couture Co [8]
.reliance Reliance Industries [8]
.rexroth Robert Bosch GmbH [8]
.ricoh Ricoh [8]
.rmit Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology [8]
.rocher Ferrero (Ferrero Rocher) [8]
.rogers Rogers Communications [8]
.rwe RWE [8]
.safety Safety Registry Services, LLC. [8]
.sakura SAKURA Internet Inc. [8]
.samsung Samsung SDS [8]
.sandvik Sandvik [8]
.sandvikcoromant Sandvik Coromant [207] Un­known Un­known
.sanofi Sanofi [8]
.sap SAP [208]
.saxo Saxo Bank [8]
.sbi State Bank of India [8]
.sbs Special Broadcasting Service[8] Later became a gTLD on 15 June 2021
.sca Svenska Cellulosa [209] Un­known Yes
.scb Siam Commercial Bank Thai[9] Yes
.schaeffler Schaeffler Technologies [8]
.schmidt Société Alsacienne de Meubles (Cuisines Schmidt) [210] Un­known Yes
.schwarz Schwarz Gruppe [8]
.scjohnson SC Johnson & Son [8]
.scor SCOR [8]
.seat SEAT [8]
.sener Sener Ingeniería y Sistemas, S.A. [8]
.ses SES [8]
.sew SEW Eurodrive [8]
.seven Seven West Media [8]
.sfr SFR [8]
.seek Seek [211] No Un­known
.shangrila Shangri-La Hotels & Resorts [8]
.sharp Sharp Corporation [8]
.shaw Shaw Cablesystems G.P. [8]
.shell Shell [8]
.shriram Shriram Capital [8]
.sina Sina Corp [8]
.sky Sky Group [8]
.skype Microsoft (Skype) [8]
.smart Smart Communications [8]
.sncf SNCF [8]
.softbank SoftBank [8]
.sohu Sohu [212] Un­known Yes
.sony Sony [8]
.spiegel Der Spiegel [213] Un­known Yes
.stada Stada Arzneimittel [8]
.staples Staples [8]
.star Star India [8]
.starhub StarHub [8]
.statebank State Bank of India [8]
.statefarm State Farm [8]
.statoil Statoil [8]
.stc Saudi Telecom Company [8]
.stcgroup Saudi Telecom Company [8]
.suzuki Suzuki [214] Un­known Yes
.swatch Swatch Group [8]
.swiftcover Swiftcover [8]
.symantec NortonLifeLock [8]
.taobao Alibaba Group (Taobao) [8]
.target Target [8]
.tatamotors Tata Motors [8]
.tdk TDK [8]
.telecity TelecityGroup [8]
.telefonica Telefónica [8]
.temasek Temasek Holdings [8]
.teva Teva Pharmaceuticals [8]
.tiffany Tiffany & Co [8]
.tjx TJX Companies [8]
.toray Toray Industries [8]
.toshiba Toshiba [8]
.total Total [8]
.toyota Toyota [8]
.travelchannel Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc. (Travel Channel) [8]
.travelers Travelers TLD, LLC (The Travelers Companies) [8]
.tui TUI [215] Un­known Yes
.tvs T V Sundram Iyengar & Sons Private Limited [8]
.ubs UBS [8]
.unicom China Unicom [8]
.uol Universo Online Delegated to UOL subsidiary UBN Internet.[216] Un­known Yes
.ups United Parcel Service [8]
.vanguard Vanguard Group [8]
.verisign VeriSign [8]
.vig Vienna Insurance Group [8]
.viking Viking River Cruises [8]
.virgin Virgin Group [8]
.visa Visa [8]
.vista Vistaprint [8]
.vistaprint Vistaprint [8]
.vivo Telefónica Brasil [8]
.volkswagen Volkswagen Group of America [8]
.volvo Volvo [8]
.walmart Walmart [8]
.walter Sandvik [8]
.weatherchannel IBM (The Weather Company) [8]
.weber Saint-Gobain [8]
.weir Weir Group [8]
.williamhill William Hill [217] Un­known Yes
.windows Microsoft (Microsoft Windows) [8]
.wme Endeavor [218] Un­known Yes
.wolterskluwer Wolters Kluwer [8]
.woodside Woodside Petroleum [8]
.wtc World Trade Centers Association [219] Un­known Yes
.xbox Microsoft [8]
.xerox Fuji Xerox [8]
.xfinity Comcast [8]
.yahoo Yahoo! [8]
.yamaxun Amazon (Amazon China) [8]
.yandex Yandex [220] Un­known Yes
.yodobashi Yodobashi Camera [8]
.youtube Google (YouTube) [221] Un­known Yes
.zappos Amazon (Zappos) [8]
.zara Inditex (Zara) [8]
.zippo Zippo [8]

Internationalized brand top-level domains[edit]

DNS name IDN TLD Entity Script Transliteration Comments DNSSEC
xn--mgba3a3ejt .ارامكو Aramco Services Company Arabic [8]
xn--mgbaakc7dvf .اتصالات Emirates Telecommunications Corporation (trading as Etisalat) Arabic [8]
xn--8y0a063a .联通 China United Network Communications Corporation Limited Chinese (Simplified) Liántōng [8]
xn--6frz82g .移动 China Mobile Communications Corporation Chinese (Simplified) Yídòng
xn--fiq64b .中信 CITIC Group Chinese zhōngxìn [222] Yes
xn--5su34j936bgsg .香格里拉 Shangri‐La International Hotel Management Limited Chinese Xiānggélǐlā [8]
xn--b4w605ferd .淡马锡 Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited Chinese (Simplified) Dànmǎxī [8]
xn--3oq18vl8pn36a .大众汽车 Volkswagen (China) Investment Co., Ltd. Chinese (Simplified) Dàzhòngqìchē [8]
xn--vermgensberater-ctb .vermögensberater Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft Latin [223] Yes
xn--vermgensberatung-pwb .vermögensberatung Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft Latin [224] Yes
xn--qcka1pmc .グーグル Google Katakana gūguru [225] Yes
xn--flw351e .谷歌 Google Chinese gǔgē [226] Yes
xn--estv75g .工行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited Chinese Gōngháng [8]
xn--w4rs40l .嘉里 Kerry Trading Co. Limited Chinese Jiālǐ [8]
xn--w4r85el8fhu5dnra .嘉里大酒店 Kerry Trading Co. Limited Chinese Jiālǐdàjiǔdiàn [8]
xn--kcrx77d1x4a .飞利浦 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Chinese (Simplified) Fēilìpǔ [8]
xn--jlq61u9w7b .诺基亚 Nokia Corporation Chinese (Simplified) Nuòjīyà [8]
xn--fzys8d69uvgm .電訊盈科 PCCW Enterprises Limited Chinese (Traditional) din6 soen3 jing4 fo1 [8]
xn--cg4bki .삼성 Samsung Hangul samseong [227] Yes

Special-Use Domains[edit]

ICANN/IANA has created some Special-Use domain names which are meant for special technical purposes. ICANN/IANA owns all of the Special-Use domain names.[228]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.example Not installed as a domain name, but usable in text as an example.
example.com, example.net and example.org are also reserved for this purpose but are active sites.
Un­known
.invalid Not installed as a domain name, but usable in testing as a domain which wouldn't work. Un­known
.local Local network Un­known
.localhost Points back to own computer Un­known
.onion Connection to the Tor network Un­known
.test Meant for testing DNS software Un­known

Non-IANA domains[edit]

Besides the TLDs managed (or at least tracked) by IANA or ICANN, other independent groups have created, or had attempted to create, their own TLDs with varying technical specifications, functions, and outcomes.

Blockchain-registered[edit]

Blockchain-based domains are registered and exchanged using a public blockchain like Ethereum. Often times, these domains serve specific functions such as creating human-readable references to smart contract addresses used in DApps or personal wallet addresses.[citation needed] Generally, these non-standard domains are unreachable through the normal DNS resolution process and instead require clients to use some sort of transparent web proxy or gateway to access them

Name Blockchain Homepage Notes
N/A Handshake https://handshake.org/ Handshake is both an alternative DNS root zone and a domain name-centric blockchain meant for managing TLDs in a decentralized way which allows virtually any domain to be registered as a TLD by end users. The project intends to be a more resilient and distributed implementation of the global root zone without needing a centralized organization, like ICANN, to manage or operate it. Though it doesn't aim to outright replace the existing root zone, as it reserves all existing TLDs so that a query for wikipedia.org, for example, that is sent to a Handshake node can be redirected to the traditional root.[229]
.eth Ethereum https://ens.domains/ Domains under the .eth TLD are primarily used as human-readable aliases to Ethereum wallet addresses, rather than IP addresses,[230] though some efforts into expanding the use of .eth into the traditional DNS space have been made.
.crypto, .zil Ethereum, Zilliqa https://unstoppabledomains.com/ Both .crypto and .zil aim to make cryptocurrency wallet address resolution easier, with the exception that, unlike the other examples mentioned here, the two TLDs are the product of a for-profit company, Unstoppable Domains, that markets the domains as an alternative DNS root despite being entirely dependent on the traditional root zone.[231]
.bit Namecoin https://namecoin.org/ Namecoin's .bit TLD technically operates as a single-domain DNS root, though has historically peered with the OpenNIC root zone to provide greater accessibility. The popularity and usage of .bit domains is much lower than the other projects mentioned, despite it being the earliest example. This is primarily due to the negative reputation Namecoin has garnered after .bit domains became popular for sharing and distributing illegal or illicit content such as malware, which ultimately prompted OpenNIC to end its peering agreement and stop serving the TLD in its root zone in 2018.[232]

Alternate roots[edit]

In the case of alternative DNS roots, organizations or projects make use of the same mechanisms of the DNS but instead take on the role of ICANN in managing and administering an entirely separate root zone, thus having the ability to create new TLDs independently. However, this doesn't make these domains any less isolated from the rest of the internet, though the ability for clients to resolve them theoretically only requires switching to a recursive DNS resolver that recognizes and serves records underneath the alternate root zone.

Name Root Homepage Notes
N/A Handshake https://handshake.org/ The list of registered TLDs on the Handshake blockchain is too large and dynamic to enumerate here.
.bbs .chan .cyb .dyn .geek .gopher .indy .libre .neo .null .o .oss .oz .parody .pirate OpenNIC https://www.opennic.org/
.fur FurNIC https://wiki.opennic.org/opennic:dot:fur
.lib .coin .emc .bazar Emercoin https://emercoin.com/2015-01-15-Emercoin_Reaches_Peering_Agreement_with_OpenNIC
.ku .te .ti .uu .ko .rm New Nations http://new-nations.net/en/

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Domain registry is operated by United TLD Holdco Ltd. t/a Rightside Registry, a subsidiary of the Rightside Group.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Operated by Charleston Road Registry, Inc., a subsidiary of Google. See [1].
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p A subsidiary of Minds + Machines Group (formerly Top Level Domain Holdings.)
  4. ^ Operating as Top Level Design
  5. ^ Operating as Afilias Domains No. 5 Limited.
  1. ^ Operating as Half Oaks, LLC
  2. ^ Operating as Knob Town, LLC
  3. ^ Operating as Steel Falls, LLC
  4. ^ Operating as Baxter Hill, LLC
  5. ^ Operating as Half Hallow, LLC
  6. ^ Operating as Grand Hollow, LLC
  7. ^ Operating as Over Galley, LLC
  8. ^ Operating as Atomic Madison, LLC
  9. ^ Operating as Spring Cross, LLC
  10. ^ Operating as Half Sunset, LLC
  11. ^ Operating as Atomic Maple, LLC
  12. ^ Operating as Delta Dynamite, LLC
  13. ^ Operating as Delta Mill, LLC
  14. ^ Operating as Foggy Hollow, LLC
  15. ^ Operating as Goose Cross, LLC
  16. ^ Operating as Wild Corner, LLC
  17. ^ Operating as Delta Lake, LLC
  18. ^ Operating as New Falls, LLC
  19. ^ Operating as Tin Mill, LLC
  20. ^ Operating as Sand Cover, LLC
  21. ^ Operating as Holly Fields, LLC
  22. ^ Operating as Snow Sky, LLC
  23. ^ Operating as Black Corner, LLC
  24. ^ Operating as Fox Shadow, LLC
  25. ^ Operating as Goose Park, LLC
  26. ^ Operating as Steel Lake, LLC
  27. ^ Operating as Puff Willow, LLC
  28. ^ Operating as Trixy Cover, LLC
  29. ^ Operating as Fox Orchard, LLC
  30. ^ Operating as Silver Avenue, LLC
  31. ^ Operating as Pine Mill, LLC
  32. ^ Operating as Pine House, LLC
  33. ^ Operating as Fox Dynamite, LLC
  34. ^ Operating as Magic Woods, LLC
  35. ^ Operating as Koko Lake, LLC
  36. ^ Operating as Snow Shadow, LLC
  37. ^ Operating as Binky Frostbite, LLC
  38. ^ Operating as Spring Way, LLC
  39. ^ Operating as Pine Fest, LLC
  40. ^ Operating as Sand Sunset, LLC
  41. ^ Operating as Steel Station, LLC
  42. ^ Operating as Tin Birch, LLC
  43. ^ Operating as John Edge, LLC
  44. ^ Operating as Dash Park, LLC
  45. ^ Operating as Half Trail, LLC
  46. ^ Operating as Extra Madison, LLC
  47. ^ Operating as Holly Hill, LLC
  48. ^ Operating as Sugar Cross, LLC
  49. ^ Operating as Brice Way, LLC
  50. ^ Operating as Spring Madison, LLC
  51. ^ Operating as Binky Birch, LLC
  52. ^ Operating as Romeo Canyon.
  53. ^ Operating as Snow Oaks, LLC
  54. ^ Operating as Corn Station, LLC
  55. ^ Operating as Trixy Park, LLC
  56. ^ Operating as Pioneer Maple, LLC
  57. ^ Operating as Spring Falls, LLC
  58. ^ Operating as Magic Pass, LLC
  59. ^ Operating as Victor Beach, LLC
  60. ^ Operating as Atomic Pipe, LLC
  61. ^ Operating as Just Maple, LLC
  62. ^ Operating as Cotton Cypress, LLC
  63. ^ Operating as Just Cover, LLC
  64. ^ Operating as Fox Woods, LLC
  65. ^ Operating as Brice Orchard, LLC
  66. ^ Operating as Fox Station, LLC
  67. ^ Operating as Half Cypress, LLC
  68. ^ Operating as John Dale, LLC
  69. ^ Operating as John Castle, LLC
  70. ^ Operating as Lone Fields, LLC
  71. ^ Operating as Sugar House, LLC
  72. ^ Operating as Goose Sky, LLC
  73. ^ Operating as Black Cover, LLC
  74. ^ Operating as Over Madison, LLC
  75. ^ Operating as Corn Sunset, LLC
  76. ^ Operating as Snow Moon, LLC
  77. ^ Operating as Pioneer Cypress, LLC
  78. ^ Operating as Silver Glen, LLC
  79. ^ Operating as John Madison, LLC
  80. ^ Operating as Goose Woods, LLC
  81. ^ Operating as Sugar Park, LLC
  82. ^ Operating as Outer House, LLC
  83. ^ Operating as Outer Maple, LLC
  84. ^ Operating as Pioneer Willow, LLC
  85. ^ Operating as Wild Way, LLC
  86. ^ Operating as Holly Glen, LLC
  87. ^ Operating as Just Goodbye, LLC
  88. ^ Operating as Pine Moon, LLC
  89. ^ Operating as Victor Trail, LLC
  90. ^ Operating as Trixy Oaks, LLC
  91. ^ Operating as John McCook, LLC
  92. ^ Operating as Big Fest, LLC
  93. ^ Operating as Hidden Frostbite, LLC
  94. ^ Operating as June Woods, LLC
  95. ^ Operating as John Goodbye, LLC
  96. ^ Operating as Fern Pass, LLC
  97. ^ Operating as Grand Glen, LLC
  98. ^ Operating as Trixy Manor, LLC
  99. ^ Operating as Magic Glen, LLC
  100. ^ Operating as Sea Goodbye, LLC
  101. ^ Operating as Sugar Glen, LLC
  102. ^ Operating as Sea Corner, LLC
  103. ^ Operating as Foggy Sky, LLC
  104. ^ Operating as Foggy Moon, LLC
  105. ^ Operating as Snow Galley, LLC
  106. ^ Operating as Spring Tigers, LLC
  107. ^ Operating as Magic Birch, LLC
  108. ^ Operating as Big Pass, LLC
  109. ^ Operating as Grand Island, LLC
  110. ^ Operating as Big Hollow, LLC
  111. ^ Operating as Lone Sunset, LLC
  112. ^ Operating as Binky Glen, LLC
  113. ^ Operating as Snow Avenue, LLC
  114. ^ Operating as Little Galley, LLC
  115. ^ Operating as Fox Castle, LLC
  116. ^ Operating as Binky Galley, LLC
  117. ^ Operating as Fern Madison, LLC
  118. ^ Operating as Ruby Town, LLC
  119. ^ Operating as Silver Cover, LLC
  120. ^ Operating as Atomic Fields, LLC
  121. ^ Operating as Half Falls, LLC
  122. ^ Operating as Grand Orchard, LLC
  123. ^ Operating as Tin Avenue, LLC
  124. ^ Operating as Dash Cypress, LLC
  125. ^ Operating as Victor Frostbite, LLC
  126. ^ Operating as Delta Orchard, LLC
  127. ^ Operating as New Cypress, LLC
  128. ^ Operating as Outer Moon, LLC
  129. ^ Operating as Auburn Bloom, LLC
  130. ^ Operating as Pioneer Tigers, LLC

Citations[edit]

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  2. ^ a b "IANA's list of TLDs in machine-readable format". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  3. ^ "Daily TLD DNSSEC Report". icann.org. ICANN. 31 May 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  4. ^ "Root Zone file". Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  5. ^ "IANA root zone database". Iana.org. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
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  10. ^ ".app". get.app. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  11. ^ ".apple". Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  12. ^ "Legal - .Apple TLD Policies - Apple". Apple Legal. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  13. ^ ".ARCHI Online Visibility for Architects Worldwide". Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  14. ^ ".ARCHI policies". Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  15. ^ "Acceptable Use Policy" (PDF). get.bible. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  16. ^ "American Bible Society's .bible domain policies restrict religious freedom online". Religion News Service. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  17. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  20. ^ "IFOAM Organics International: Principles of Organic Agriculture". IFOAM Organics International. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
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  29. ^ "CancerResearch launch Site". Home.cancerresearch. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
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  31. ^ "DotClub FAQ - DotClub". Retrieved 25 May 2014.
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  33. ^ ".cyou - A New Domain Extension For Gen Z individuals And Brands". shortdot.bond. 3 March 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  34. ^ "IANA — Delegation Report for .cyou". www.iana.org. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  35. ^ Who is .eco for? .eco Registry. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  36. ^ About the .eco System .eco Registry. Retrieved 26 June 2017
  37. ^ [ [2] Big Room Inc.] Retrieved on 26 June 2017
  38. ^ "application for .ESQ". ICANN. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  39. ^ ".fiat ICANN Application" (PDF).
  40. ^ ".fiat Registry Agreement".
  41. ^ §18.b.iv, application for .FLY, ICANN. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  42. ^ ".foo". Icannwiki.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  43. ^ "Setting a Higher Bar: Our .gay Commitment Is an Industry-First". www.circleid.com.
  44. ^ ".gle Registry Agreement". Icann.org. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
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  46. ^ Acceptable use and anti-abuse policy Archived 25 November 2014 at archive.today, nic.green, accessed on line 24 November 2014.
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  51. ^ "Join Law FAQ". join.law. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  52. ^ ".LGBT Acceptable Use Policy". Archived from the original on 14 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  53. ^ ".link Official - Uniregistry". Nic.link. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  54. ^ "Uniregistry extensions and domains". Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  55. ^ "TLD Registration Policies — Registration Policy - .OPEN" (PDF). American Express Travel Related Services Co., Inc. (nic.open). Retrieved 3 July 2020.
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  57. ^ nic.pharmacy Archived 25 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  58. ^ "physio - Network Information Centre". Nic.physio. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
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  64. ^ nic.reit. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
  65. ^ "CentralNic Account Manager". Manage.centralnic.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  66. ^ "A respectful domain name for remembering loved ones". Retrieved 29 December 2014.
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  71. ^ "Termination of the Registry Agreement for .UCONNECT" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 December 2019.
  72. ^ ".volvo Registration Policy" (PDF).
  73. ^ ".VOTE Registration Policy". Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  74. ^ "Zodiac Holdings Limited". En.nic.wang. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
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  76. ^ "Weirdest new gTLD launch yet? .wed launches with a single registrar". DomainIncite - Domain Name News & Opinion. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  77. ^ ".WED Third Level Extensions". Atgron, Inc Introduces .WED. A New Top Level Domain for Your Wedding. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  78. ^ "Resources". Icann.org. Archived from the original on 10 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
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  81. ^ §5, Policy for the Registration of .reise Domain Names Archived 20 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine, dotreise GmbH. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  82. ^ "'Immo' as abbreviation for 'immobiliën'". Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  83. ^ ".VOTO Registration Policy". Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  84. ^ "Registrant FAQs". Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
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  86. ^ "Why choose .LTDA?". .LTDA advantages. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
  87. ^ "IANA — Repository of IDN Practices". iana.org. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
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  90. ^ "Google Registry – Google". Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  91. ^ ".africa Domain Frequently Asked Questions". .africa - Registry Africa. 16 May 2020. Archived from the original on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  92. ^ "dotCapeTown - .CapeTown - The new domain extension for the City of Cape Town". Nic.capetown. Archived from the original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  93. ^ "dotDurban - .Durban - The new domain extension for the City of Durban". Nic.durban. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  94. ^ "dotJoburg - .Joburg - The new domain extension for the City of Johannesburg". Nic.joburg. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  95. ^ "Domain". www.btcl.com.bd. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  96. ^ "Domain". www.btcl.com.bd. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  97. ^ IANA - .krd Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  98. ^ .krd Network Information Centre, accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  99. ^ "About .kyoto". The Kyoto College of Graduate Studies for Informatics. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  100. ^ "「.nagoya」名古屋のための新ドメイン". GMOドメインレジストリ株式会社. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  101. ^ IANA - .ryukyu Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  102. ^ ".taipei Net Top City". Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  103. ^ "Mission". Tatar Internet. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  104. ^ "「.tokyo」東京のための新ドメイン". GMOドメインレジストリ株式会社. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  105. ^ "「.yokohama」横浜のための新ドメイン". GMOドメインレジストリ株式会社. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  106. ^ IANA — .alsace Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  107. ^ ".BZH - L'extension internet de la Bretagne". .BZH - L'extension internet de la Bretagne.
  108. ^ a b ".eus Domeinua - .eus - Euskara eta Euskal Kultura Interneten". Nic.eus. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  109. ^ ".PARIS, La nouvelle adresse web de Paris". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  110. ^ (in Catalan) Fundació punt CAT | A Internet, el català és .cat. Registra ara un domini i identifica’t amb el teu .cat. Fundacio.cat. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  111. ^ "Dominio .gal". Dominio.gal. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  112. ^ IANA - .madrid Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  113. ^ "Startseite - .bayern - Das Web wird weiß-blau". nic.bayern.
  114. ^ (in German) berlin Top-Level-Domain Archived 18 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Nic.berlin. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  115. ^ "The New TLDS .koeln & .cologne". Dot.cologne. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  116. ^ "The New TLDS .koeln & .cologne". Dot.koeln. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  117. ^ IANA - .nrw Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 26 November 2014.
  118. ^ ".ruhr". Dot.ruhr. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  119. ^ "dotSaarland GmbH". Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  120. ^ amsterdam Top-Level-Domain.
  121. ^ ".brussels is now in the root! - DNS Belgium". Nic.brussels. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  122. ^ IANA — .budapest Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  123. ^ a b ".cymru .wales Our Home Online". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  124. ^ (in Dutch) frl Top-Level-Domain. Nic.frl. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  125. ^ "Official website of .GENT". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  126. ^ "The New London Code". Nic.london. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  127. ^ "About TLDs .MOSCOW and .МОСКВА - dotMoscow: .MOSCOW and .МОСКВА TLDs for Russian Capital". Nic.moscow. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  128. ^ "Register .scot domains - Calico .scot domains - dotscot is the new Scottish top level domain". Calico.scot. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  129. ^ "Zuteilung und Verwaltung der Domain-Namen der zweiten Ebene, die der Internet-Domain ".swiss" untergeordnet sind" (in German). BAKOM. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  130. ^ "Tirol Domain" (in German). Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  131. ^ ".vlaanderen is now in the root! - DNS Belgium". Nic.vlaanderen. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  132. ^ ".wien: punktwien". Nic.wien. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  133. ^ ".zuerich Registry Operator Website". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  134. ^ IANA - .miami Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 25 November 2014.
  135. ^ ".NYC Domain Name Extension - Official Website". .NYC - The Official Website for the Ultimate New York City Address. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  136. ^ ".QUEBEC". Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  137. ^ "Dot Vegas, Inc". Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  138. ^ "About". Hello.kiwi. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  139. ^ Twenty4. "nic.melbourne - Home page". nic.melbourne. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  140. ^ IANA - .sydney Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  141. ^ ".LAT Domain - About us". Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  142. ^ ".LAT Domain - FAQs". Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
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  144. ^ IANA - .佛山 Domain Delegation Data, IANA. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  145. ^ "О фонде | Foundation for Assistance for Internet Technologies and Infrastructure Development" Check |url= value (help).
  146. ^ ".abc Domain Registration - .abc Domains - American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. Domain Name .abc - Register American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. Domain Name .abc". 101domain.com. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  147. ^ IANA — .allfinanz Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  148. ^ IANA — .android Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  149. ^ IANA — .aquarelle Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  150. ^ "dotAXA: AXA Group New Online Space" (PDF). Domains.axa. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  151. ^ a b "Barclays begins using .Barclays and .Barclaycard top level domains". Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  152. ^ "FIBA launches .basketball as new digital identity of the global basketball community" (Press release). FIBA. 15 June 2017. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  153. ^ IANA — .bloomberg Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  154. ^ "Home dotBMW registry operator". nic.bmw. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  155. ^ IANA — .bnl Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 26 June 2015.
  156. ^ "nic.bnpparibas". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  157. ^ "IANA — .bradesco Domain Delegation Data". iana.org. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  158. ^ IANA — .cal Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  159. ^ IANA — .caravan Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  160. ^ IANA — .cern Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  161. ^ IANA — .chrome Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  162. ^ "中国中信集团有限公司". Nic.citic. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  163. ^ IANA — .crs Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  164. ^ IANA — .cuisinella Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  165. ^ IANA — .dnp Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  166. ^ IANA — .dvag Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  167. ^ IANA — .edka Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 10 October 2016.
  168. ^ IANA — .emerck Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 November 2014.
  169. ^ IANA — .everbank Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  170. ^ IANA — .firmdale Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  171. ^ IANA — .flsmidth Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  172. ^ "Using the .frogans gTLD". Nic.frogans. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  173. ^ IANA — .gbiz Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  174. ^ IANA — .gle Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  175. ^ ".globo". Nic.globo. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  176. ^ IANA — .gmail Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  177. ^ IANA — .gmo Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  178. ^ IANA — .gmx Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  179. ^ IANA — Delegation Record for .GOOG. Accessed on line 3 October 2018.
  180. ^ IANA — .google Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  181. ^ ".hsbc". Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  182. ^ IANA — .ibm Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  183. ^ IANA — .kred Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  184. ^ IANA — .lacaixa Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 25 November 2014.
  185. ^ IANA — .latrobe Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  186. ^ a b This domain has been delegated to IRI Domain Management, LLC, a subsidiary of Intellectual Reserve, Inc., which is owned and operated by the LDS Church.
  187. ^ IANA — .lds Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  188. ^ "IANA — .leclerc Domain Delegation Data". iana.org. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  189. ^ "MANGO". Nic.mango. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  190. ^ "Home dotMINI registry operator". Nic.mini. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  191. ^ ".monash - Network Information Centre". Nic.monash. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  192. ^ "New gTLD Program : InitialEvaluation Report : Report Date: 10 May 2013" (PDF). Newgtlds.icann.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  193. ^ IANA — .mormon Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 21 November 2014.
  194. ^ "Neustar Launches New TLD .Neustar". Nic.neustar. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  195. ^ IANA — .nexus Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 26 November 2014.
  196. ^ IANA — .nhk Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 26 November 2014.
  197. ^ ".nico - The Brand TLD for Dwango Co., Ltd". Dwango Co., Ltd. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  198. ^ IANA — .nra Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 26 November 2014.
  199. ^ IANA — .otsuka Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 26 November 2014.
  200. ^ "The New OVH Code" (PDF). Nic.ovh. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  201. ^ "NIC PIAGET". Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  202. ^ IANA — .pohl Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  203. ^ IANA — .praxi Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  204. ^ IANA — .prod Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  205. ^ NIC PwC. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  206. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  207. ^ ".sap - ICANNWiki". icannwiki.org. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  208. ^ ".sca". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  209. ^ IANA — .schmidt Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  210. ^ IANA — .seek Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 20 July 2016.
  211. ^ IANA — .sohu Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  212. ^ IANA — .spiegel Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  213. ^ IANA — .suzuki Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  214. ^ IANA — .tui Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 19 November 2014.
  215. ^ IANA — .uol Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  216. ^ IANA — .williamhill Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  217. ^ IANA — .wme Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  218. ^ IANA — .wtc Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  219. ^ "This is .yandex". Nic.yandex. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  220. ^ IANA — .youtube Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 2 December 2014.
  221. ^ "Nic.中信". nic.中信. Archived from the original on 6 March 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  222. ^ IANA — .vermögensberater Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  223. ^ IANA — .vermögensberatung Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 1 December 2014.
  224. ^ IANA — .グーグル Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  225. ^ IANA — .谷歌 Domain Delegation Data. Accessed on line 24 November 2014.
  226. ^ "WHOIS 서비스란?". Whois.nic. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  227. ^ "Special-Use Domain Names". Iana.org. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
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  229. ^ "The Gold Rush Is on for Ethereum Domain Names". www.vice.com. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
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External links[edit]