List of Persian scientists and scholars
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This article is about ethnic Persian scientists and scholars of the pre-modern era. For scientists from the modern Iran, see List of contemporary Iranian scientists, scholars, and engineers.
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The following is a non-comprehensive list of Persian scientists and engineers that lived from antiquity up until the beginning of the modern age.
- Abdol-Hamid (?–756), founder of Arabic prose along with the fellow Persian Ibn Muqaffa.
- Abhari (?–1262/1265), mathematician.
- Abu Dawood (c. 817–889), Islamic scholar.
- Abū Ḥanīfa (699–767), Islamic scholar.
- Abu Nasr e Mansur (c. 960–1036), mathematician.
- Abu Sa'id al-Darir al-Jurajani (9th century)
- Abu Wafa Buzjani (940–998), mathematician.
- Azod al-Dowleh (936–983), prominent scientific patron
- Ahmad ibn Farrokh (12th century), physician.
- Ahmad Ibn Imad ul-din (11th century), physician and chemist.
- Alavi Shirazi (1670–1747), royal physician to Mughal Empire of South Asia.
- Amuli, Muhammad ibn Mahmud (c. 1300–1352), physician.
- Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin (900–971)
- Ansari, Khwaja Abdullah (1006–1088), Islamic scholar.
- Aqa-Kermani (18th century), physician.
- Aqsara'i (?–1379), physician.
- Arzani, Muqim (18th century), physician.
- Astarabadi (15th century), physician.
- Aufi, Muhammad (1171–1242), scientist and historian
- Avicenna (Ibn Sina, 980–1037), physician, philosopher
- Azophi (903–986), a.k.a. Abdorrahman Sufi, astronomer from Ray that invented the meridian ring.
- Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd ibn Masʾūd al-Kāshī (c. 1380–1429), astronomer and mathematician.
- Baghawi (c. 1041–1122), Islamic scholar
- Bahai, Sheikh (1547–1621) poet, mathematician, astronomer, engineer, designer, faghih (religious scientist), and architect
- Baladhuri (?–892), historian
- Balkhi (787–886), a.k.a. Albumasar, mathematician
- Balkhi, Ibn Sahl (850–934), geographer and mathematician
- Balkhi, Ibn
- Banū Mūsā Brothers (9th century)
- Barmak, Khaled (705–782), Bhuddist from Khorasan in the court of al-Mansur, initiated the Greek translation movement of the Abbasid House of Wisdom
- Bayhaqi (994–1066), historian
- Behbahani, Vahid (1706–1791), theologian
- Ibn Bibi (13th century), historian of the Seljuks of Rum
- Biruni (973–1048), astronomer and mathematician
- Bukhari (810–870), prominent Islamic scholar
- Bukhtishu (8th century?), Persian Christian physician of Academy of Gundishapur
- Bukhtishu, Abdollah ibn (c. 940–1058), Christian physician in Persia
- Bukhtishu, Gabriel ibn (9th century), Christian physician
- Bukhtishu, Yuhanna (9th century), Christian physician
- Burzoe (6th century), a.k.a. Borzouyeh-i Tabib, physician of Academy of Gundishapur
- Birjandi (?–1528) astronomer and mathematician
- Esfarayeni (13th century?), physician
- Farghani (?–880) a.k.a. Alfraganus, astronomer
- Farabi (872–950) (Al-Farabi, Pharabius), philosopher
- Kamal al-Din Farisi (1267–1319) mathematician
- Fazari, Ibrahim (?–777) mathematician and astronomer
- Fazari, Mohammad (?–796) mathematician and astronomer
- Ferdowsi (934–1027) the famous poet
- Feyz Kashani, Mohsen (?–1680) theologian
- Geber; Jaber ibn Hayan (721–815) chemist. Known as Geber in English.
- Gardezi, Abu Said (?–1061) geographer and historian
- Ghazali (Algazel, 1058–1111) philosopher
- Gilani, Hakim (?–1609) royal physician
- Gorgani, Zayn al-Din Isma‘il ibn (1041–1136) royal physician
- Gorgani, Abu Saeed (9th century) astronomer and mathematician
- Gorgani, Rostam (16th century) physician
- Gorgani e Masihi, see Masihi Gorgani (?–999) Avicenn'a master
- Hakim Ghulam Imam, physician
- Hakim Muhammad Mehdi Naqi (18th century), physician
- Hakim Muhammad Sharif Khan (18th century), physician
- Hakim Nishaburi (933–1012), Islamic scholar
- Hallaj (858–922), Mystic-philosopher
- Haly Abbas (?–c. 990), prominent physician
- Hamadani, Ali, physician
- Hamadani, Mir Sayyid Ali (1314–1384), poet and philosopher
- Hanbal, Ahmad Ibn (780–855), Islamic scholar
- Harawi, Abolfadl (10th century), astronomer of Buyid dynasty
- Harawi, Muwaffak: See Al-Muwaffak (10th century), pharmacologist
- Harawi, Muhammad ibn Yusuf (died 1542), physician
- Harawi, Ali (died 1215), traveller
- Majid Hassanizadeh (born 1952), professor of hydrogeology, theories of porous media (Utrecht University, The Netherlands).
- Hasani, Qavameddin (17th century), physician
- Hedayat, Habibollah (1927–2013), nutritionist and obstetrician gynecologist
- Hessaby, Mahmoud (1903–1992), scientist, physicist
- Ibn Abi Sadiq (11th century), "The Second Hippocrates", Avicenna's disciple
- Ibn Haytham (965–1040), physicist
- Ibn Khaseb (9th century), physician
- Ibn Khordadbeh (c. 820–912), geographer
- Ibn Rustah (9th century)
- Ilaqi, Yusef (11th century), Avicenna's pupil
- Mansur ibn Ilyas (14th century), physician
- Isfahani Abol-fath (10th century), mathematician
- Ibn Sina, (Avicenna, 980–1037), Philosopher and Physician
- Isfahani, Jalaleddin (19th century), physician
- Isfahani, Husayn (15th century), physician
- Istakhri (?–957), geographer, gives the earliest known account of windmills
- Iranshahri (9th century), philosopher, the teacher of Muhammad Zakaria Razi.
- Ali Javan (born 1926), inventor of helium–neon laser
- Jābir ibn Hayyān (821–915), a polymath who is considered the father of chemistry. He emphasized systematic experimentation, and did much to free alchemy from superstition and turn it into a science.
- Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (787–886)
- Jaghmini (14th century), physician
- Jaldaki (?–1342), physician
- Juvayni (1226–1283), historian
- Juwayni (1028–1085), philosopher
- Juzjani, Abu Ubaid (?–1070), physician
- Jamasb, philosopher
- Karaji (953–1029), mathematician
- Kashani (Kashi) (c. 1380–1429), mathematician
- Kashfi, Jafar (1775/6–1850/1), theologian
- Kazerouni, Masoud (14th century), physician
- Kermani, Iwad (15th century), physician
- Kermani, Shams-ud-Din, Islamic scholar
- Khademhosseini, Alireza (born 1975), Pioneer in Biomedical and Bioengineering
- Khazeni, Abu Jafar (900–971), mathematician
- Khazeni, Abolfath (c. 1130), physicist
- Khayyám, Omar (1048–1131), poet, mathematician, and astronomer
- Khorasani, Sultan Ali (16th century), physician
- Khujandi (c. 940–c. 1000), mathematician and astronomer
- Khwarizmi (a.k.a. Al-Khwarazmi, c. 780–c. 850) creator of algorithm and algebra, mathematician and astronomer
- Kushyar ibn Labban (971–1029), mathematician, Nasavi's master
- Kuhi, Rostam, mathematician
- Kubra, Najmeddin (1145–1220)
- Mahani (9th century), mathematician
- Muhammad al-Fazari (?–796)
- Muhammad Baqir Yazdi (17th century), he gave the pair of amicable numbers 9,363,584 and 9,437,056.
- Majusi, Ibn Abbas (?–c. 890), physician
- Marvazi (?–869), astronomer and mathematician
- Marvazi, Abu Taher (12th century), philosopher
- Masawaiyh (777–857) or Masuya
- Mashallah ibn Athari (740–815), of Jewish origins, from Khorasan who designed the city of Baghdad based on Firouzabad
- Masihi Gorgani (10th century), Avicenna's master
- Mirza Ali Hakim (17th century), physician
- Miskawayh (932–1030), philosopher
- Modarressi, architect
- Mostowfi Qazvini (1281–1349), geographer
- Mullasadra (1572–1640), philosopher
- Muqaffa, Ibn (?–756), founder of Arabic prose along with Abdol-Hamid.
- bin Musa, Hasan (9th century), astronomer
- bin Musa, Ahmad (9th century), astronomer
- bin Musa, Muhammad (9th century), astronomer
- Muwaffaq, Abu mansur (10th century), pharmacologist
- Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi (13th century), philosopher
- Nagawri (14th century), physician
- Nahavandi, Benjamin, Jewish scholar
- Nahavandi, Ahmad (9th century), astronomer
- Nakhshabi (14th century), physician
- Nasir Gebelli (born 1957), computer scientist and video game developer
- Nasir Khusraw (1004–1088), scientist, Ismaili scholar, mathematician, philosopher, Traveler and poet
- Nasavi (c. 1010–c. 1075), mathematician
- Natili Tabari (10th century), physician
- Naubakht (9th century), Designer of the city of Baghdad
- Naubakht, Fadhl ibn (8th century)
- Nawbakhty (4th century), Islamic scholar, philosopher
- Nawbakhti, Ruh (10th century), Islamic scholar
- Nayrizi (865–1022), mathematician
- Naqshband, Baha ud-Din (1318–1389), philosopher
- Neishaburi (18th century), physician
- Neishaburi (c. 815–875), prominent Islamic scholar
- Nizami Ganjavi (1141–1209), romantic poet
- Nurbakhshi (16th century), physician
- Paul the Persian (6th century), philosopher.
- Qazwini, Zakariya (1203–1283), physician
- Qumi, Qazi Sa’id (1633–1692), theologian
- Qumri (10th century), physician
- Qushayri, Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin (986–1074), philosopher
- Razi, Amin (16th century), geographer
- Razi Amoli, Fakhreddin (1149–1209), philosopher
- Razi, Zakariya (Rhazes) (854–932), chemist and physicist
- Razi, Najmeddin (1177–1256)
- Rumi, Jalal ad-Din Muhammad (1207–1273)
- Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (1247–1318), historian, physician and politician
- Sabzevari, Mulla Hadi (1797–1873), poet and philosopher
- Saghani Ostorlabi (?–990), astronomer
- Sahl, Fadl ibn (?–818)
- Sahl, Shapur ibn (?–869), physician
- Salman the Persian, religion commentator, companion of Muhammad
- Samarqandi, Najibeddin (13th century), physician
- Samarqandi, Ashraf (c. 1250–c. 1310), mathematician, astronomer.
- Sarakhsi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad (?–1096), Islamic scholar
- Seifzadeh, Hossein,S. (born 1950) political scientist, Iranian studies
- Shahrastani (1086–1153) historian of religions
- Shahrazuri (13th century), philosopher and physician
- Shahrazuri, Ibn al-Salah (1181–1245), Islamic scholar
- Shaykh Tusi (996–1067), famous Islamic scholar
- Shaykh Saduq (923–991), theologian
- Shirazi, Imad al-Din Mas'ud (16th century), physician
- Shirazi, Muhammad Hadi Khorasani (18th century), physician
- Shirazi, Qutbeddin (1236–1311), astronomer
- Shirazi, Mahmud ibn Ilyas (18th century), physician
- Shirazi, Najm al-Din Mahmud ibn Ilyas (?–1330), physician
- Shirazi, Qurayshi (17th century), physician
- Shirazi, Sultan Waezin (1894–1971), theologian
- Sijzi (c. 945–c. 1020), mathematician
- Sijzi, Mas'ud (14th century), physician
- Soleiman ibn Hasan (17th century), physician
- Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (903–986): see Azophi
- Suhrawardi, Shahab al-Din (1155–1191), philosopher
- Tabarani, Abu al-Qasim (873–970), Islamic scholar
- Tabari Amoli (839–923), prominent historian
- Tabari, Natili Amoli: See Al-Natili
- Tabari, ibn Farrukhan (?–815), astrologer and architect
- Tabari, Abul Hasan (10th century), physician.
- Tabari, Ibn Sahl (c. 783–c. 858), Jewish convert physician. Master of Rhazes
- Tabrizi, Maqsud Ali (17th century), physician.
- Taftazani (1322–1390), theologian, linguist
- Tayfur, Ibn Abi Tahir (819–893), linguist
- Tāriq, Yaqub ibn (?–796)
- Tirmidhi (824–892), Islamic scholar
- Tunakabuni (17th century), physician
- Tughra'i (c. 1061–1122), physician
- Tusi, Nizam ol-Molk (1018–1092), the great vizier
- Tusi, Nasireddin (1201–1274), mathematician, philosopher
- Tusi, Sharafeddin (?–1213/4), mathematician
- Amin al-Din Rashid al-Din Vatvat (13th century), scholar and physician.
- Waqidi (748–822), historian
- Zamakhshari (1074/5–1143/4), scholar and geographer.
- Zarrin dast (11th century), oculist.
- Zayn-e-Attar (?–c. 1043), physician
- List of contemporary Iranian scientists, scholars, and engineers
- Academy of Gundishapur
- International rankings of Iran in science and technology
- "Introduction to Astronomy, Containing the Eight Divided Books of Abu Ma'shar Abalachus". World Digital Library. 1506. Retrieved 2013-07-15.