List of Irish Victoria Cross recipients

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Army recruiting poster, 1915, featuring Michael O'Leary

List of Irish Victoria Cross recipients lists all recipients of the Victoria Cross (post-nominal letters "VC") born on the island of Ireland, together with the date and place of their VC action. The Victoria Cross is the highest war honour of the British Empire and the Commonwealth of Nations. The whole island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom until 1922 when it was partitioned into Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State. In 1948 the Irish Free State became the Republic of Ireland and left the Commonwealth in 1949. Despite this, citizens of the Republic still enlist in the British Army and thus are eligible for the Victoria Cross.

Background[edit]

Established in 1856, the Victoria Cross has been awarded to service personnel for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing a hostile force. Between 1858 and 1881 the Victoria Cross could also be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy.[1] Six people (four Irish, one English and one Canadian) were awarded Victoria Crosses under this clause (one in 1866 during the Fenian raids, five for a single incident in 1867 during the Andaman Islands Expedition), until it was amended in 1881 to only allow acts "in the presence of the enemy".[1][2] It was awarded to members of the British Armed Forces which included Irish service personnel until 1922. It is currently available to personnel of any rank in any service, and to allies serving under or with British Forces. It is the highest honour in the Commonwealth honours system, placed before all other orders, decorations and medals.

Both Catholic and Protestant officers and servicemen born in Ireland served alongside each other in the British Military.[3] During the previous two centuries they had a common military background, and irrespective of class or creed many were decorated with the British highest award for valour. 30 Irish VCs were awarded in the Crimean War, 59 Irish VCs in the Indian Mutiny, 46 Irish VCs in numerous other British Empire campaigns between 1857 and 1914, 37 Irish VCs in World War I, and eight Irish VCs in World War II.

Recipients[edit]

  This along with the * indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously

Name Date of action Conflict Unit Place of action Notes
James Adams 1879 Second Afghan War British Indian Army Killa Kazi, Afghanistan
Augustus Agar 1919 Baltic Campaign 1918 HM Coastal Motor Boat 4 Kronstadt, Russia
John Alexander 1855 Crimean War 09090th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
Charles Anderson 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 0022nd Queen's Dragoon Guards Sandila, India
John Barry 1901* Second Boer War Royal Irish Regiment Monument Hill, South Africa
David Bell 1867 Andaman Islands Expedition 02424th Regiment of Foot Little Andaman, India [4]
Edward Bell 1854 Crimean War 02323rd Regiment of Foot Alma, Crimea
Eric Bell 1916* First World War Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers Thiepval, France
William Beresford 1879 Anglo-Zulu War 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers Ulundi, South Africa
James Bergin 1868 Abyssinian Expedition 03333rd Regiment of Foot Magdala, Abyssinia
Edward Bingham 1916 First World War HMS Nestor Jutland, Denmark
Abraham Boulger 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 08484th Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
George Boyd-Rochfort 1915 First World War Scots Guards Cambrin, France
Joseph Bradshaw 1855 Crimean War Rifle Brigade Woronzoff Road, Crimea
William Bradshaw 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 09090th Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Edward Brown 1900 Second Boer War 01414th King's Hussars Geluk, South Africa
Francis Brown 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 0011st European Bengal Fusiliers Narnaul, India
Bryan Budd 2006* War in Afghanistan 001Parachute Regiment Sangin, Afghanistan
Hugh Burgoyne 1855 Crimean War HMS Swallow Sea of Azov, Crimea
Nathaniel Burslem 1860 Second Opium War 06767th Regiment of Foot Taku Forts, China
James Byrne 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 08686th Regiment Jhansi, India
John Byrne 1854 Crimean War 06868th Regiment of Foot Inkerman, Crimea
Thomas Byrne 1898 Mahdist War 02121st Lancers Omdurman, Sudan
John Caffrey 1915 First World War 0022nd York and Lancaster Regiment La Brique, France
Daniel Cambridge 1855 Crimean War Royal Artillery Sevastopol, Crimea
Patrick Carlin 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 01313th Regiment of Foot Azumgurh, India
Geoffrey Cather 1916* First World War Royal Irish Fusiliers Hamel, France
Alexander Cobbe 1902 Somaliland Campaign King's African Rifles Erego, Somaliland
William Coffey 1855 Crimean War 03434th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
Nevill Coghill 1879* Anglo-Zulu War 02424th Regiment of Foot IsandhlwanaSouth Africa
Hugh Colvin 1917 First World War Cheshire Regiment Ypres, Belgium
John Connors 1855 Crimean War 0033rd Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
John Conolly 1854 Crimean War 04949th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
William Cosgrove 1915 First World War Royal Munster Fusiliers Gallipoli, Turkey
Edmund Costello 1897 Siege of Malakand 02222nd Punjab Infantry Malakand, India
Cornelius Coughlan 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Gordon Highlanders Delhi, India
Garrett Creagh 1879 Second Afghan War Bombay Staff Corps Kam Dakka, Afghanistan
Thomas Crean 1901 Second Boer War Imperial Light Horse Tygerkloof Spruit, South Africa
James Crichton 1918 First World War New Zealand Expeditionary Force Crèvecœur, France
John Crimmin 1889 Karenni Expedition Bombay Medical Service Lwekaw, Burma
John Cunningham 1917* First World War Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment Bois-en-Hache, France
John Danaher 1881 First Boer War Nourse's Horse (Transvaal) Elandsfontein, South Africa
Maurice Dease 1914* First World War Royal Fusiliers Mons, Belgium
Denis Dempsey 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 01010th Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Bernard Diamond 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Bengal Horse Artillery Bulandshahr, India
Edmund De Wind 1918* First World War Royal Ulster Rifles Groagie, France
John Divane 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 06060th Rifles Delhi, India
Patrick Donohoe 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers Bulandshahr, India
John Doogan 1881 First Boer War 0011st King's Dragoon Guards Laing's Nek, South Africa
William Dowling 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 03232nd Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Martin Doyle 1918 First World War Royal Munster Fusiliers Reincourt, France
James Duffy 1917 First World War Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers Kereina Peak, Palestine
Thomas Duffy 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 102102nd Madras Fusiliers Lucknow, India
John Dunlay 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 09393rd Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Denis Dynon 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 05353rd Regiment of Foot Chota Behar, India
Frederick Edwards 1916 First World War Middlesex Regiment Thiepval, France
James Emerson 1917* First World War Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers La Vacquerie, France
William English 1901 Second Boer War The Scottish Horse Vlakfontein, South Africa
Harold Ervine-Andrews 1940 Second World War East Lancashire Regiment Dunkirk, France
Eugene Esmonde 1942* Second World War 825825 Naval Air Squadron Straits of Dover
Thomas Esmonde 1855 Crimean War 01818th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
John Farrell 1854 Crimean War 01717th Lancers Balaklava, Crimea
Edward Fegen 1940 Second World War HMS Jervis Bay Atlantic Ocean
Charles FitzClarence 1899 Second Boer War Royal Fusiliers Mafeking, South Africa
Richard Fitzgerald 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Bengal Horse Artillery Bulandshahr, India
Andrew Fitzgibbon 1860 Second Opium War 06767th Regiment of Foot Taku Forts, China
Francis Fitzpatrick 1879 Basuto War 09494th Regiment of Foot Sekukuni's Town, South Africa
Thomas Flinn 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 06464th Regiment of Foot Cawnpore, India
George Forrest 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Bengal Veteran Establishment Delhi, India
Edmund Fowler 1879 Anglo-Zulu War Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) Zlobane Mountain, South Africa
George Gardiner 1855 Crimean War 05757th Regiment of Foot Sebastopol, Crimea
Donald Garland 1940* Second World War No. 12 Squadron RAF Albert Canal, Belgium
Stephen Garvin 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 06060th Rifles Delhi, India
Peter Gill 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Loodiana Regiment Benares, India
Henry Gore-Browne 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 03232nd Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Charles Gough 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 5th Bengal European Light Cavalry Lucknow, India
Hugh Gough 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 1st Bengal European Light Cavalry Lucknow, India
John Gough 1903 Somaliland Campaign Rifle Brigade Daratoleh, Somaliland
Thomas Grady 1854 Crimean War 0044th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
Patrick Graham 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 09090th Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Peter Grant 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 09393rd Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Patrick Green 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 07575th Regiment of Foot Delhi, India
William Griffiths 1867 Andaman Islands Expedition 02424th Regiment of Foot Little Andaman, India [4]
Thomas Hackett 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 02323rd Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Frederick Hall 1915* First World War 0088th (Winnipeg Rifles) Battalion Ypres, Belgium
Walter Hamilton 1879 Second Afghan War Staff CorpsStaff Corps and Corps of Guides Futtehabad, Afghanistan
Robert Hanna 1917 First World War 02929th Battalion, CEF Lens, France
John Harrison 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Naval Brigade Lucknow, India
Reginald Hart 1879 Second Afghan War Royal Engineers Bazar Valley, Afghanistan
Henry Hartigan 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers Delhi, India
Frederick Harvey 1917 First World War Lord Strathcona's Horse Guyencourt, France
Robert Hawthorne 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 05252nd Regiment of Foot Delhi, India
Samuel Hill 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 09090th Regiment Lucknow, India
John Holland 1916 First World War Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment Guillemont, France
Thomas Hughes 1916 First World War Connaught Rangers Guillemont, France
Charles Irwin 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 05353rd Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
James Jackman 1941* Second World War Royal Northumberland Fusiliers Tobruk, Libya
Edward Jennings 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Bengal Artillery Lucknow, India
Robert Johnston 1899 Second Boer War Imperial Light Horse (Natal) Elandslaagte, South Africa
Henry Jones 1855 Crimean War 0077th Regiment Sebastopol, Crimea
Thomas Kavanagh 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Bengal Civil Service Lucknow, India
Richard Keatinge 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Bombay Artillery Chundairee, India
Richard Kelliher 1943 Second World War AustralianAustralian Imperial Force New Guinea, Pacific
Henry Kelly 1916 First World War Duke of Wellington's Regiment Le Sars, France [5]
William Kenealy 1915 First World War Lancashire Fusiliers Gallipoli, Turkey
James Kenny 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 53rd Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
William Kenny 1914 First World War Gordon Highlanders Ypres, Belgium
William Kenny 1920* Waziristan Campaign 03939th Garhwal Rifles Kot Kai, India
George Lambert 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 08484th Regiment of Foot Oonao, India
Thomas Lane 1860 Second Opium War 06767th Regiment of Foot Taku Forts, China
Thomas Laughnan 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Bengal Artillery Lucknow, India
Samuel Lawrence 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 03232nd Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Edward Leach 1879 Second Afghan War Royal Engineers Maidanah, Afghanistan
William Leet 1879 Anglo-Zulu War 01313th Regiment of Foot Inhlobana, South Africa
William Lendrim 1855 Crimean War Royal Engineers Sevastopol, Crimea
Owen Lloyd 1893 Kachin Expedition Army Medical ServicesArmy Medical Service Fort Sima, Burma
David Lord 1944* Second World War No. 271 Squadron RAF Battle of Arnhem, Netherlands
Charles Lucas 1854 Crimean War HMS Hecla Åland Islands, Finland [6]
John Lucas 1861 First Taranaki War 04040th Regiment of Foot New Zealand
John Lyons 1855 Crimean War 01919th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
Harry Lyster 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 07272nd Bengal Native Infantry Calpee, India
Ambrose Madden 1854 Crimean War 04141st Regiment Little Inkerman, Crimea
James Magennis 1945 Second World War HMS XE3 Johore Straits, Singapore [7]
Michael Magner 1868 Abyssinian Expedition 03333rd Regiment of Foot Magdala, Abyssinia
Patrick Mahoney 1857* Indian Rebellion of 1857 102102nd Madras Fusiliers Mungulwar, India
William Manley 1864 New Zealand Land Wars Royal Artillery Tauranga, New Zealand
Edward Mannock 1918* First World War No. 74 Squadron RAF Western Front
James Masterson 1900 Second Boer War Devonshire Regiment Ladysmith, South Africa
Frederick Maude 1855 Crimean War 0033rd Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
Charles McCorrie 1855 Crimean War 05757th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
William McFadzean 1916* First World War Royal Ulster Rifles Thiepval Wood, France
John McGovern 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 101101st Regiment of Foot Delhi, India
James McGuire 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 101101st Regiment of Foot Delhi, India
Patrick McHale 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 0055th Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Peter McManus 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 0055th Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Bernard McQuirt 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 09595th Regiment of Foot Rowa, India
William McWheeney 1854 Crimean War 04444th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
Martin Moffat 1918 First World War Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment Ledeghem, Belgium
Arthur Moore 1857 Anglo-Persian War 0033rd Bombay Light Cavalry Khushab, Persia
Hans Moore 1877 Cape Frontier Wars 08888th Regiment Komgha, South Africa
Robert Morrow 1915* First World War Royal Irish Fusiliers Messines, Belgium
John Moyney 1917 First World War Irish Guards Broembeek, Belgium
Andrew Moynihan 1855 Crimean War 09090th Regiment of Foot Redan, Crimea
Patrick Mullane 1880 Second Afghan War Royal Horse Artillery Maiwand, Afghanistan [8]
Michael Murphy 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 01717th Lancers Azumgurh, India [9]
Thomas Murphy 1867 Andaman Islands Expedition 02424th Regiment of Foot Little Andaman, India [4]
James Murray 1881 First Boer War 08888th Regiment Elandsfontein, South Africa
John Murray 1864 New Zealand Land Wars 06868th Regiment of Foot Tauranga, New Zealand
Patrick Mylott 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 08484th Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Michael John O'Leary 1917 First World War Irish Guards Cuinchy, France
William Nash 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Rifle Brigade Lucknow, India
David Nelson 1914 First World War Royal Artillery Néry, France
Claude Nunney 1918* First World War 03838th Battalion, CEF Drocourt-Quéant Line, France
George Nurse 1899 Second Boer War Royal Field Artillery Colenso, South Africa
Luke O'Connor 1854 Crimean War 02323rd Regiment of Foot Alma, Crimea [10]
Timothy O'Hea 1866 Fenian raids on Canada Rifle Brigade Danville, Quebec, Canada [11]
Michael John 1915 First World War Irish Guards Cuinchy, France
William Olpherts 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Bengal Artillery Lucknow, India
Martin O'Meara 1916 First World War 0011st Division (Australia) Pozières, France
Michael O'Rourke 1917 First World War 0077th Battalion, CEF Hill 70, France
Gerald O'Sullivan 1915 First World War Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers Gallipoli, Turkey
Edmund O'Toole 1879 Anglo-Zulu War Frontier Light Horse Ulundi, South Africa
James Owens 1854 Crimean War 04949th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
John Park 1854 Crimean War 07777th Regiment of Foot Alma, Crimea
James Pearson 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 08686th Regiment of Foot Jhansi, India
Dighton Probyn 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 0022nd Punjab Cavalry Agra, India
Joseph Prosser 1855 Crimean War 0011st Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
John Purcell 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 0099th Queen's Royal Lancers Delhi, India
Robert Quigg 1916 First World War Royal Ulster Rifles Hamel, France
Hamilton Reed 1899 Second Boer War Royal Field Artillery Colenso, South Africa
James Reynolds 1879 Anglo-Zulu War Army Medical ServiceArmy Medical Service Rorke's Drift, Natal, South Africa
George Richardson 1859 Indian Rebellion of 1857 03434th Regiment of Foot Kewane Trans-Gogra, India
Richard Ridgeway 1879 Naga Hills Expedition Bengal Staff Corps Konoma, India
Frederick Roberts 1899* Second Boer War King's Royal Rifle Corps Colenso, South Africa
Clement Robertson 1917* First World War Queen's Royal Regiment Zonnebeke, Belgium
Patrick Roddy 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Bengal Army Kuthirga, India
Robert Rogers 1860 Second Opium War 04444th Regiment of Foot Taku Forts, China
George Roupell 1915 First World War East Surrey Regiment Hill 60, Belgium
John Ryan 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 102102nd Madras Fusiliers Lucknow, India
John Ryan 1863 New Zealand Land Wars 06565th Regiment of Foot Cameron Town, New Zealand
Miles Ryan 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 101101st Regiment of Foot Delhi, India
Robert Scott 1900 Second Boer War Manchester Regiment Natal, South Africa [12]
John Sinnott 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 08484th Regiment of Foot Lucknow, India
Michael Sleavon 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Royal Engineers Jhansi, India
Frederick Smith 1864 New Zealand Land Wars 04343rd Regiment of Foot Tauranga, New Zealand
Philip Smith 1855 Crimean War 01717th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
James Somers 1915 First World War Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers Gallipoli, Turkey
Dudley Stagpoole 1863 New Zealand Land Wars 05757th Regiment of Foot Poutoko, New Zealand
John Sullivan 1855 Crimean War Naval Brigade Sevastopol, Crimea
William Temple 1863 New Zealand Land Wars Royal Artillery Rangiriri, New Zealand
James Travers 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 0022nd Bengal Native Infantry Indore, India
Mark Walker 1854 Crimean War 03030th Regiment of Foot Inkerman, Crimea
Joseph Ward 1858 Indian Rebellion of 1857 0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars Gwalior, India
George White 1879 Second Afghan War 09292nd Regiment of Foot Charasiah, Afghanistan
Alexander Wright 1855 Crimean War 07777th Regiment of Foot Sevastopol, Crimea
Alexander Young 1901 Second Boer War Cape Police Ruiterskraal, South Africa

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Christopher McCreery (2015). The Canadian Honours System. Dundurn. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4597-2417-4.
  2. ^ "VC background". British War Graves Memorial. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-07.
  3. ^ Karsten, Peter (1983). "Irish Soldiers in the British Army, 1792-1922: Suborned or Subordinate". Journal of Social History. 17 (1): 31&ndash, 64. doi:10.1353/jsh/17.1.31.
  4. ^ a b c Between 1858 and 1881 the Victoria Cross could be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy. Five people were awarded Victoria Crosses when they manned a boat to rescue their comrades who had been sent to the Andaman Islands on an investigation. This rule was changed in 1881 to only allow acts "in the presence of the enemy"."VC background". British War Graves Memorial. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-07.
  5. ^ Kelly is considered an Irish recipient as well as English, due to Irish parentage.
    "Manchester Military & Civilian Heroes (2)". Papillon Graphics' Virtual Encyclopaedia of Greater Manchester. 2007-12-07. Archived from the original on 27 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-07.
  6. ^ The earliest action for which the VC was awarded (First Battle of Bomarsund, 21 June 1854).
  7. ^ The only native of Northern Ireland to receive the VC for action in the Second World War.
  8. ^ Mullane was born in India. He is considered an Irish recipient by parentage
    Doherty, Truesdale, 2000
  9. ^ Michael Murphy was one eight VC recipients whose award was forfeited. Although King George V in 1920 expressed the view that the VC should not be forfeited, the medals of Murphy and the other seven were not restored. List of Recipients of the Victoria Cross, The War Office (MS3), January 1953, note, page 7.
  10. ^ The earliest action for which the VC was awarded to a soldier (20 September 1854).
  11. ^ Between 1858 and 1881 the Victoria Cross could be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy. Six in total were awarded for actions taken not in the face of the enemy. O'Hea single-handedly put out a fire in an ammunition railway car, for which he was awarded the VC. This rule was changed in 1881 to only allow acts "in the presence of the enemy"."VC background". British War Graves Memorial. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-07.
  12. ^ Scott was born in Manchester, England. He is considered an Irish recipient by parentage.
    Doherty, Truesdale, 2000

Bibliography[edit]

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