List of Iron Age states

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Overview map of the world in the mid 1st millennium BC, color-coded by cultural stage:
  Palaeolithic or Mesolithic hunter-gatherers
  nomadic pastoralists
  simple farming societies
  complex farming societies/chiefdoms
  state societies
  empires
Iron Age
Bronze Age

Ancient Near East (1200–550 BC)

Bronze Age collapse (1200–1150 BC)
Anatolia, Caucasus, Levant

Europe

Aegean (1190–700 BC)
Italy (1100–700 BC)
Balkans (1100 BC – AD 150)
Eastern Europe (900–650 BC)
Central Europe (800–50 BC)
Great Britain (800 BC – AD 100)
Northern Europe (500 BC – AD 800)

South Asia (1200–200 BC)

East Asia (500 BC – AD 300)

Iron metallurgy in Africa

Iron Age metallurgy
Ancient iron production

Ancient history
Mediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, China
Historiography
Greek, Roman, Chinese, Medieval


The Iron Age is an archaeological age, the last of the three-age system of Old World prehistory. It follows the Bronze Age, in the Ancient Near East beginning c. 1200 BC, and in Europe beginning after c. 800 BC. It is taken to end with the beginning of Classical Antiquity, in about the 6th century BC, although in Northern Europe, the Germanic Iron Age is taken to last until the beginning of the Viking Age, c. AD 800.

The term "Iron Age" is mostly limited to Europe and the Near East and the Indian subcontinent, although West Africa also has some iron metallurgy, beginning with the Nok culture c. 550 BC and spread by the Bantu expansion. There are also cast iron artefacts in China from about 500 BC, but use of iron was minimal, and the Bronze Age in China is usually extended to the beginning of the classical period (Qin dynasty).

Africa[edit]

State Capital/s Type Existed
Carthage Carthage Kingdom/empire 814 - 146 BC
Aethiopia Adulis Kingdom c. 13th - 5th centuries BC
Cyrenaica Cyrene 631-525 BC
D'mt Yeha 980 - 400 BC
Kingdom of Kush Meroë 1070 BC - 350 AD
Third Intermediate Period of Egypt Memphis, Thebes 1069 - 525 BC
New Kingdom of Egypt 1550 - 1069 BC
Land of Punt 2400 - 1069 BC
Nok culture Tribal chiefdom/kingdom c. 550 BC - 300 AD

Europe[edit]

State Capital/s Type Existed
Alba Longa Lavinium Kingdom 1200-753 BC
Alashiya Enkomi, Kalavasos Kingdom 1450-1050 BC
Arcadia Kingdom 1000-743 BC
Argolis Argos Kingdom 1200-379 BC
Athens Athens Kingdom city state 1556-683 BC
Athens Athens Republican city state 683-87 BC
Boeotia Thebes Kingdom 1100-750 BC
Corinth Corinth City state 700-338 BC
Dacia Sarmizegetusa, Regia Tribal kingdom, later empire 700 BC - 106AD
Daunia Tribal kingdom 7th century - 89 BC
Epirus Amvrakia, Passaron, Phoenice Kingdom 1183 - 168 BC
Etruria Veii Kingdom 768 - 264 BC
Illyria Scodra Kingdom 2000-168 BC
Lacedaemon Sparta Kingdom 1300-950 BC
Liburnia Tribal thalassocracy [1] 11th century - 34 BC
Locria Amphissa, Naupactus Kingdom 1250-386 BC
Lucania Tribal kingdom 1000-356 BC[2]
Macedon Aigai, Pella Kingdom 860-146 BC
Magna Graecia Various Kingdom city states 740 - 89 BC
Messapia Hyria Tribal kingdom 8th century - 89 BC
Messenia Messene Kingdom 1300-724 BC
Mycenaea Mycenae Kingdom city states 1600 - 1100 BC
Oenotria Metabon Tribal kingdom 1000 - 325 BC
Oscans Ausones Tribal kingdom 1000 - 4th centuries BC
Padanian Etruria Various Federated city states 9th century - 5th century BC
Kingdom of Rome Rome Kingdom 753 - 509 BC
Sabinum Tribal kingdom c. 760 - 494 BC
Samnium Bovianum Tribal confederation c. 600 - 82 BC
Sparta Sparta Kingdom 950-146 BC
Tartessos Tartessus Tribal kingdom 1000-450 BC
Thrace Bizye, Sevtopolis Tribal chiefdom 1500 - 450 BC
Tyrrhenia Various Kingdom city states 1100 - 764 BC

Eurasian Steppe and Central Asia[edit]

Name Capital State type Existed
Aria Kingdom/client 700 BC - 300 BC
Bactria Bactra Tribal kingdom/client 2140 - 550 BC
Balhara Balkh Tribal kingdom 12th century - 7th century BC
Colchis Phasis Kingdom 1300 BC - 2nd century AD
Margiana Tribal kingdom 9th century - 6th century BC
Sattagydia not specified Kingdom c. 7th century - 480 BC
Scythia Neopolis Tribal kingdom 690 - 250 BC
Sogdia Marakanda Tribal confederation 8th century - 327 BC
Jushi Kingdom (Tarim basin) Tribal kingdom city states 1st millennium BC

East Asia[edit]

Name Capital State type Existed
Ba Yíchéng Tribal confederation 13th century - 311 BC
Cai Shàngcài), Xīncài, Xiàcài Marquisate/client 980 - 447 BC
Cao Táoqiū Dukedom/client 1053 - 487 BC
Chen Wǎnqiū Dukedom/client 1046-479 BC
Chu Danyang, JiangYing, JiYing, Shouchun, Viscountcy/kingdom/client 1030-223 BC
Deng Dengzhou Marquisate/client 1200-678 BC
Donghu Nomadic tribal confederation 1400-150 BC
Eastern Guo Dengzhou Marquisate/client 1046-767 BC
Gojoseon Asadal, Wanggeom-seong Kingdom 2333-108 BC
Guan Guan Kingdom city state 1046 - 1040 BC
Gumie Gumie Kingdom 1046 - 480 BC
Han Hancheng Marquisate/client 1046-764 BC
Huang Can'hu, Yicheng, Hubei Marquisate/client 891-648 BC
Jin Tang, Quwo, Jiang, Xintian Dukedom/client 1042-376 BC
Kỷ line Not specified Kingdom 853-755 BC
Lu Qufu Marquisate/dukedom/client 1042-249 BC
Pi Xuecheng Earldom/client 1046-418 BC
Qi Qi Dukedom 1600-445 BC
Qi Linzi Dukedom/client 1046-221 BC
Qin Qin, Quanqiu, Qian, Pingyang Marquisate/dukedom/client 858-221 BC
Quan Dukedom/client 1250-704 BC
Quanrong Nomadic Tribal Confedracy 954-301 BC
Shang Anyang Kingdom 1600-1046 BC
Shěn Shěn Earldom/marquisate 1050-500 BC
Shu Kingdom 1046-316 BC
Song Shangqiu Dukedom and vassal 1058-286 BC
Sui Suizhou Marquisate and client 771-221 BC
Sumpa Tribal chiefdom/client 1600 BC - 7th century AD
Tan Mingshui Viscountcy and vassal 1046-684 BC
Teng Tengzhou Viscountcy 1046-414 BC
Văn Lang Anyang Confederation/kingdom 2879-258 BC
Western Guo Yongdi, Shangyang, Xiayang Countship/dukedom 1046-687 BC
Wey Shangqiu Dukedom and vassal 1046-687 BC
Wu Gusu Dukedom and vassal 1046-473 BC
Xing Xingtai Marquisate/client 1046-632 BC
Xu Gusu Viscountacy/client 2000-512 BC
Yan Ji Kingdom/principality 1046-222 BC
Zheng Zheng, Xinzheng Kingdom 806-375 BC
Zhou Haojing, Luoyi Kingdom 1046-256 BC
Zou Viscountacy/dukedom 1012-350 BC

South Asia[edit]

Name Capital State type Existed
Anarta Dvaraka Kingdom 1100-550 BC
Anga Champa or Campā Kingdom 1380-550 BC
Asmaka Potana Kingdom 1150-300 BC
Avanti Mahissati, Ujjaini Kingdom 900-322 BC
Āryāvarta Multiple Confederated tribal kingdoms 1750 - 600 BC
Chedi Suktimati Kingdom 1250-344 BC
Chola Urayur/Kaveripattinam Kingdom 2645-110 BC
Danda Janasthana Kingdom 1100 - 450 BC
Dasarna Kingdom 1150 - 600 BC
Drangiana Tribal chiefdom 950 - 600 BC
Gurjara Kingdom 1000 - 550 BC
Haryanka Rajagriha, later Pataliputra Kingdom 684 - 413 BC
Himalaya Kingdom 600 - 322 BC
Kalinga Dantapura/Rajapura[3] Kingdom 1376 - 285 BC
Kamboja Rajapura Kingdom 1450 - 195 BC
Kasmira Asirgarh Qila Kingdom 1250 - 322 BC
Kekeya Kingdom 1250 - c. 4th century BC
Kimpurusha Kingdom 1000 - 325 BC
Kirata Tribal kingdom 1350 - c. 300 BC
Kosala Shravasti Kingdom 1300 - 266 BC
Kuru Āsandīvat, Indraprastha Kingdom 1376 - 285 BC
Lanka Lankapura Kingdom 1200 - 543 BC
Madra Sagala Kingdom 1350 - 350 BC
Magadha Rajagriha or Rajgir Kingdom 1200-800 BC
Malla Kusavati, Pava Republic 780 - 323 BC
Matsya Viratanagara Kingdom 1250 -318 BC
Maurya Empire Pataliputra Empire 322-186 BC
Nepa Kingdom 750 - 323 BC
Panchala Ahichatra, Kampilya Kingdom 1200 - 700 BC
Panchala Ahichatra, Kampilya Republic 700 - 308 BC
Pandya Madurai Kingdom 1350 - 460 BC
Parvata Kingdom c. 9th century - 325 BC
Pragjyotisha Kingdom c. 11th century - 350 BC
Pundra Pundravardhana Kingdom 1300 BC - 550 AD
Saurashtra Kingdom 950- 355 BC
Shakya Kapilavatthu Monarchical Republic 800 - 320 BC
Sindhu Vrsadarbhpura Kingdom 1300 - 320 BC
Suhma not specified Kingdom c. 8th century - 4th century BC
Surasena Methora Kingdom 1300 - 323 BC
Trigarta Prasthala Kingdom 1150-322 BC
Vanga Gange Kingdom 1300 BC - 580 AD
Vatsa Kauśāmbī Kingdom 1100-323 BC
Vidarbha Kundinapuri Kingdom 1200-322 BC
Virata Kundinapuri Kingdom 1300-322 BC
Vriji Vaishali Confederacy 1250 - 322 BC
Yaksha Narmada Kingdom 1200 - 350 BC

West Asia[edit]

Name Capital State type Existed
Achaemenid Empire Pasargadae, Ecbatana, Susa, Persepolis Empire 550-330 BC
Ammon Rabbath Ammon Kingdom 1000 - 332 BC
Anshan Anshan Kingdom 717 - 646 BC
Aram-Damascus Damascus Kingdom 1184 - 732 BC
Aramea Tribal chiefdom's/kingdom 2300 – 700 BC
Arzawa Apasa Federation 15th – 12th Century BC
Awsan Ḥajar Yaḥirr Kingdom 7th century BC - 100 AD
Arme-Shupria Van Kingdom 1290 - 1190 BC
Assyria Assur Kingdom 1975 - 934 BC
Assyrian Empire Assur, Nineveh, Harran Empire 911 - 612 BC
Bashan Bashan Confederation 1330 - 928 BC
Bit-Istar Kingdom 12th century - 710 BC
Chaldea Bit Yakin Kingdom 1100 - 539 BC
Corduene Principality/kingdom/client 800 BC - 653 AD
Cilicia Tarsus Kingdom 795 - 546 BC
Drangiana Tribal chiefdom 950 - 600 BC
Diauehi Zua, Ultu Kingdom 1118-760 BC
Dilmun Qal'at Kingdom 2600-675 BC
Doris Doris Kingdom 1200-580 BC
Edom Rabbath Ammon Kingdom 1200 - 125 BC
Elamite Empire Susa Empire 1210-535 BC
Ellipi Kingdom 850-609 BC
Eshnuna Eshnunna Kingdom city state 2000 - 8th century BC
Hadhramaut Kingdom 700 BC - 320 AD
Haram Haram Kingdom city state 600 - 175 BC
Hittite Empire Hattussa Empire 1600 - 1178 BC
Ionia Delos Kingdom city states 1070-545 BC
United Monarchy of Israel Jerusalem United Kingdom 1050 - 930 BC
Israel Samaria Kingdom 930 - 720 BC
Judah Jerusalem Kingdom 930 - 586 BC
Lukka Tribal kingdom 2000-1183 BC
Lullubi Lulubuna Tribal kingdom 2400-650 BC
Lycia Xanthos, Patara Kingdom 1183-546 BC
Lydia Sardis Kingdom 1200-680 BC
Lydian Empire Sardis Empire 680-546 BC
Mannai Izirtu Kingdom 1110-616 BC
Magan Kingdom 2200-550 BC
Media Ecbatana Kingdom 750-678 BC
Median Empire Ecbatana Empire 678-549 BC
Mysia Pergamene Kingdom 1320 - 301 BC [4]
Nairi Multiple Tribal confederation 1190-890 BC
Namar Namar Kingdom 2350-750 BC
Neo-Babylonian Empire Babylon Empire 626 - 539 BC
Neo-Hitit Multiple Kingdom city states 1200-800 BC
Paphlagonia Gangra Kingdom 1480 - 183 BC[5]
Parsua Tribal chiefdom/kingdom[6] 860-600 BC
Persis Tribal kingdom 10th century - 550 BC
Philistia Ashdod, Ekron, Gaza Kingdom city states 1175-732 BC
Phoenicia Byblos, Tyre, Berytus, Sidon Kingdom city states 1800-539 BC
Phrygia Kingdom 1200-700 BC
Qedar Adumattu Tribal confederation/client 870 BC - 250 AD
Quwê Kingdom/client kingdom 895-625 BC
Sabaea Ma'rib Kingdom 1100-275 BC
Sam'al Samal Principality/kingdom 1200-680 BC
Saparda Kingdom 7200-670 BC
Tabal Kanesh Kingdom 1180 - 609 BC
Tarhuntassa Tarhuntassa Kingdom 1350 - 1200 BC
Troas Troy Kingdom 3000-700 BC
Tuwanuwa Tuwanuwa Kingdom city state 1000 - 700 BC
Urartu Arzashkun, Tushpa Kingdom 860 - 590 BC
Zabdicene Principality/client 780 BC - 5th century AD
Zikirti Kingdom 750 - 521 BC

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "State definiation". 2014. Collins Dictionary. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  2. ^ Pritchard, James Cowles. "Kingdoms of Italy: Research into the Physical History of Mankind". 1999-2014. The History Files. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  3. ^ "Far East Kingdoms, South Asia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  4. ^ "Kingdoms of Anatolia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  5. ^ "Middle East Kingdoms Ancient Anatolia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  6. ^ Eduljee, K D. "Zoroastrian Heritage The Zagros". 2012. The Heritage Site. Retrieved 9 April 2014.

External links[edit]