List of Israeli inventions and discoveries
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of inventions and discoveries by Israeli scientists and researchers, working locally or overseas.
- 1 Mathematics
- 2 Science
- 3 Defense
- 4 Computing
- 5 Agriculture and breeding
- 6 Energy
- 7 Consumer goods and appliances
- 8 Games
- 9 Foods
- 10 Physical exercise
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
- Johnson–Lindenstrauss lemma, a mathematical result concerning low-distortion embeddings of points from high-dimensional into low-dimensional Euclidean space contributed by Joram Lindenstrauss.
- Development of the measurement of rigidity by Elon Lindenstrauss in ergodic theory, and their applications to number theory.
- Proof of Szemerédi's theorem solved by Hillel Furstenberg
- Expansion of axiomatic set theory and the ZF set theory by Abraham Fraenkel.
- Development of the area of automorphic forms and L-functions by Ilya Piatetski-Shapiro.
- Development of Sauer–Shelah lemma and Shelah cardinal.
- Development of the first proof of the alternating sign matrix conjecture.
- Development of Zig-zag product of graphs, a method of combining smaller graphs to produce larger ones used in the construction of expander graphs by Avi Wigderson.
- Development of Bernstein–Sato polynomial and proof of the Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures by Joseph Bernstein
- Generalization of the marriage theorem by obtaining the right transfinite conditions for infinite bipartite graphs. He subsequently proved the appropriate versions of the König theorem and the Menger theorem for infinite graphs by Ron Aharoni.
- Development of the Amitsur–Levitzki theorem by Shimshon Amitsur.
- ReWalk a bionic walking assistance system to enable paraplegics to stand upright, walk and climb stairs.
- Development of robotic guidance system for spine surgery by Mazor Robotics.
- Discovery of quasicrystals by Dan Shechtman of the Technion. The discovery led him to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- Discovery of the role of protein Ubiquitin by Avram Hershko and Aaron Ciechanover of the Technion Institute (together with the American biologist Irwin Rose). The discovery led them to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- Development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems by Arieh Warshel of the Technion Institute (together with the Austrian-American chemist Martin Karplus and American-British-Israeli Michael Levitt). The discovery led them to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
See also: Category:Jewish physicists
- Prediction of Quarks by Yuval Ne'eman of Tel Aviv University (together with the American physicist Murray Gell-Mann).
- Discovery of the Aharonov–Bohm effect by Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm.
- Formulation of Black holes Entropy by Jacob Bekenstein of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
- World's smallest video camera – a camera with a 0.99 mm (0.039 in) diameter, designed to fit in a tiny endoscope designed by Medigus.
- Development of the "Pillcam" by Given Imaging, the first Capsule endoscopy solution to record images of the digestive tract. The capsule is the size and shape of a pill and contains a tiny camera.
- Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation – a notation system for recording movement on paper that has been used in many fields, including dance, physical therapy, animal behavior and early diagnosis of autism.
- Development of Azilect, a drug for Parkinson's disease, by Moussa Youdim and John Finberg from the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, and commercialized by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries.
- Development of the Copaxone immunomodulator drug for treating multiple sclerosis. It was developed in the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel by Michael Sela, Ruth Arnon and Deborah Teitelbaum.
- Development of the Interferon proteins by Michel Revel from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel.
- Development of taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso), a recombinant glucocerebrosidase enzyme produced from transgenic carrot cell cultures. Taliglucerase alfa won approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in May 2012 as an orphan drug for the treatment of Type 1 Gaucher's disease.
- Work of Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem explaining irrational human economic choices. The work led Daniel to receive the Nobel Prize in Economics.
- Developments in Game theory. Israel Aumann of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem received the Nobel Prize in Economics for his work in this field.
- The Rubinstein bargaining model, one of the most influential findings in game theory, refers to a class of bargaining games that feature alternating offers through an infinite time horizon. The proof is from Ariel Rubinstein 1982.
- Nanowire – a conductive wire made of a string of tiny particles of silver, a thousand times thinner than a human hair. Developed by Uri Sivan, Erez Braun and Yoav Eichen from the Technion.
- World's smallest DNA computing machine system – "the smallest biological computing device" ever constructed, according to Guinness Book of Records, which is composed of enzymes and DNA molecules capable of performing simple mathematical calculations and which uses its input DNA molecule as its sole source of energy. Developed in 2003 in the Weizmann Institute of Science by professor Ehud Shapiro and his team.
Theoretical computer science
- Michael O. Rabin introduced the concept of nondeterministic finite automatons.
- Amir Pnueli introduced temporal logic into computing science.
- Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) compression algorithm.
- Adi Shamir with Ron Rivest, and Leonard Adleman introduced RSA public key encryption.
- IMI Tavor TAR-21 is an Israeli bullpup assault rifle.
- The Uzi submachine gun was developed by Maj. Uziel Gal in the 1950's.
- Python an Short-range air-to-air missile.
- Desert Eagle a short range pistol.
- Protector USV is an unmanned surface vehicle, developed by the Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. It is the first of its kind to be used in combat.
- Iron Dome – a mobile air defense system in development by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and Israel Aircraft Industries designed to intercept short-range rockets and artillery shells. On April 7, 2011, the system successfully intercepted a Grad rocket launched from Gaza, marking the first time in history a short-range rocket was ever intercepted. The Iron Dome was later utilized more fully in the Israeli-Gaza conflict of 2012, where it displayed a very high rate of efficiency (95%-99%) in intercepting enemy projectiles. Further production of the Iron Dome system will be financed and supported by the United States government.
- MUSIC (Multi Spectral Infrared Countermeasure) – a system that counter surface-to-air heat-seeking missiles. It is manufactured by Elbit Systems.
- MagnoShocker – combines a metal detector and a taser to immediately neutralize a dangerous person, developed by the mathematician Amit Weissman and his colleagues Adir Kahn and Zvi Jordan.
- Wall radar – a unique radar utilizing Ultra Wide Band (UWB) to allow users to see through walls. Developed by the Israeli company Camro.
- Injured Personnel Carrier on YouTube A unique evacuation method developed by Israeli company Agilite Gear, comprises a strap allowing you to carry the wounded person on your back.
- The Emergency Bandage is a first field dressing which can be applied and secured with one hand to prevent bleeding from battlefield injuries.
- USB flash drive – a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB interface. The Israeli company M-Systems (in partnership with IBM) developed and manufactured the first USB flash drives available in North America. This claim is challenged by multiple companies in the following four countries who also independently developed USB technology: Singapore (Trek Technology), Malaysia and the People's Republic of China (PRC) (Netac Technology) and also in the democratic high-tech industrialized island country of the Republic of China (Taiwan). See USB Flash drive § Patent controversy.
- The first PC microprocessor - the intel 8088 the first PC microprocessor that used on the first PC IBM PC designed in Israel, at Intel's Haifa laboratory.
- Quicktionary Electronic dictionary – a pen-sized scanner able to scan words or phrases and immediately translate them into other languages, or keep them in memory in order to transfer them to the PC. Developed by the Israeli company Wizcom Technologies Ltd.
- Laser Keyboard – virtual keyboard is projected onto a wall or table top and allows to type handheld computers and cell phones. Developed simultaneously by the Israeli company Lumio and Silicon Valley startup company Canesta. The company subsequently licensed the technology to Celluon of Korea.
Computer and mobile software
- Adi Shamir, co-inventor of Differential cryptanalysis. Algorithms include Shamir's Secret Sharing.
- Lempel–Ziv–Welch algorithm, a universal lossless data compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv of the Technion institute, together with the American Information theorist, Terry Welch.
- Babylon, a single-click computer translation, dictionary and information source utility program, developed by Amnon Ovadia.
- Umoove, a high-tech startup company that invented a software only solution for face and eye tracking is located in Israel.
- ICQ, an Instant Messaging software developed initially in 1996 by the Israeli company Mirabilis and later procured by AOL.
- Viber, a proprietary cross-platform instant messaging voice-over-Internet Protocol application for smartphones. Developed by American-Israeli entrepreneur Talmon Marco, Viber reached 200 million users in May 2013.
- GetTaxi, an application that connects between customers and taxi drivers using the its proprietary GPS system, enabling users to order a cab either with their smartphone or through the company's website. It was founded by Israeli entrepreneurs Shahar Waiser and Roi More.
- Waze, a GPS-based geographical navigation application program for smartphones with GPS support and display screens, which provides turn-by-turn information and user-submitted travel times and route details, downloading location-dependent information over the mobile telephone network. Waze Ltd., which was founded in 2008 in Israel by Uri Levine, software engineer Ehud Shabtai and Amir Shinar, and is now available in over 100 countries, was acquired by Google for a reported $1.1 billion.
Agriculture and breeding
- Golden hamster – first domesticated for pet use by a Hebrew University of Jerusalem zoologist in 1930
- Hybrid cucumber seeds – In the 1950s, Prof. Esra Galun of the Weizmann Institute developed hybrid seed production of cucumbers and melons, disease-resistant cucumbers and cucumbers suitable for mechanical harvesting. Galun and his colleagues invented a technique for producing hybrid cucumber seeds without hand pollination.
- Grain cocoons - invented by international food technology consultant Professor Shlomo Navarro, the GrainPro Cocoons provide a simple and cheap way for African and Asian farmers to keep their grain market-fresh, as huge bags keep both water and air out, making sure the harvest is clean and protected even in extreme heat and humidity.
- Biological pest control - invented in Kibbutz Sde Eliyahu by a company called Bio-Bee, it breeds beneficial insects and mites for biological pest control and bumblebees for natural pollination in greenhouses and open fields. The company’s top seller worldwide and especially in the U.S. is a two-millimeter-long, pear-shaped orange spider that is a highly efficient enemy of the spider mite, a devastating agricultural pest.
- AKOL - a Kibbutz-based company which gives low-income farmers the ability to get top-level information from professional sources.
- Reusable plastic trays - a Tal-Ya Water Technologies invention used to collect dew from the air, reducing the need to water crops by up to 50 percent.
- "Zero-discharge" system - an invention of the Israeli GFA company which allows fish to be raised virtually anywhere by eliminating the environmental problems in conventional fish farming, without being dependent on electricity or proximity to a body of water.
- TraitUP - a new technology that enables the introduction of genetic materials into seeds without modifying their DNA, immediately and efficiently improving plants before they’re even sowed. It was developed by Hebrew University agricultural scientists Ilan Sela and Haim D. Rabinowitch.
- Judean date palm – oldest seed ever to be revived, restoring an extinct cultivar
- The Tomaccio cherry tomato was developed by several Israeli laboratories, the dominant ones being those led by Professor Nahum Keidar and Professor Chaim Rabinovitch from the Agriculture Faculty of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot Campus.
- Super iron battery – A new class of a rechargeable electric battery based on a special kind of iron. More environment friendly because the super-iron eventually rusts, it was developed by Stuart Licht. of the University of Massachusetts.
Consumer goods and appliances
- Epilator (originally "Epilady") – an electrical device used to remove hair by mechanically grasping multiple hairs simultaneously and pulling them out. It was developed and originally manufactured at Kibbutz HaGoshrim.
- Wonder Pot – a pot developed for baking on the stovetop rather than in an oven.
- Micronized coating instant hot water pipes developed by A.C.T.
- Rummikub – a tile-based game for two to four players invented in Israel by Ephraim Hertzano.
- Hidato – a logic puzzle game invented by the Israeli mathematician Gyora Benedek.
- Taki – an Israeli card game invented by Haim Shafir.
- Mastermind – an Israeli board game invented by Mordecai Meirowitz.
- Ptitim also called Israeli couscous worldwide – wheat-based baked pasta. It was initially invented during the austerity period in Israel when Rice and Semolina were scarce.
- Safed cheese or Zefat cheese is a semi-hard, salty cheese produced in Israel from sheep's milk. It was first produced by the Hameiri dairy in Safed in 1840 and is still produced there by descendants of the original cheese makers.
- Jerusalem mixed grill is a grilled meat dish considered a specialty of Jerusalem, Israel. It consists of chicken hearts, spleens and liver mixed with bits of lamb cooked on a flat grill, seasoned with onion, garlic, juniper berries, black pepper, cumin, turmeric and coriander
- Sabich is an Israeli sandwich, consisting of pita stuffed with fried eggplant and hard boiled eggs. Local consumption is said to have stemmed from a tradition among Mizrahi Jews, who ate it on Shabbat morning.
- Science and technology in Israel
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- Venture capital in Israel
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- The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
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- Israel's 'camera in a capsule' approved for esophagus diagnosis
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- Interferon Based Drug May Eliminate Breast Cancer
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