List of Israeli settlements
This is a list of Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. Israel had previously established settlements in both the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula, however the Gaza settlements were dismantled in the Israeli disengagement from Gaza in 2005 and the Sinai settlements were evacuated with the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty and the return of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. This list does not include West Bank settlements that were dismantled or Israeli outposts.
Israel effectively annexed East Jerusalem with the Jerusalem Law and considers settlements in the expanded boundaries of East Jerusalem to be neighborhoods of Jerusalem and not settlements. The United Nations Security Council ruled that act "null and void" in United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, and the international community considers East Jerusalem to continue to held under Israeli occupation.
Israel effectively annexed the Golan Heights with the Golan Heights Law and does not consider the localities established there to be settlements. The United Nations Security Council ruled that act "null and void" in United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 and the international community continues to view the Golan Heights to be Syrian territory held under Israeli occupation.
The international community considers Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories illegal under international law, violating the Fourth Geneva Convention's prohibition on the transfer of a civilian population to or from occupied territory, though Israel disputes this.
|Alei Zahav||עלי זהב||2,133||1982||Shomron|
|Alfei Menashe||אלפי מנשה||7,801||1983||Shomron|
|Alon Shvut||אלון שבות||3,213||1970||Gush Etzion|
|Avnei Hefetz||אבני חפץ||1,836||1990||Shomron|
|Bat Ayin||בת עין||1,428||1989||Gush Etzion|
|Beit Aryeh||בית אריה||4,955||1981||Shomron|
|Beit El||בית אל||6,101||1977||Mateh Binyamin|
|Beit HaArava||בית הערבה||222||1980||Megilot|
|Beit Horon||בית חורון||1,274||1977||Mateh Binyamin|
|Beit Yatir||בית יתיר||492||1983||Har Hebron|
|Beitar Illit||ביתר עילית||54,557||1985||Gush Etzion|
|Karmei Tzur||כרמי צור||1,037||1984||Gush Etzion|
|Elon Moreh||אלון מורה||1,912||1979||Shomron|
|Etz Efraim||עץ אפרים||2,204||1985||Shomron|
|Hashmonaim||גני מודיעין||2,820||1996||Mateh Binyamin|
|Geva Binyamin||גבע בנימין||5,409||1984||Mateh Binyamin|
|Giv'at Ze'ev||גבעת זאב||17,323||1983||Mateh Binyamin|
|Giv'on HaHadasha||גבעון החדשה||1,139||1980||Mateh Binyamin|
|Beit Hagai||בית חגי||596||1984||Har Hebron|
|Har Adar||הר אדר||4,058||1986||Mateh Binyamin|
|Har Brakha||הר ברכה||2,468||1983||Shomron|
|Har Gilo||הר גילה||1,568||1972||Gush Etzion|
|Karnei Shomron||קרני שומרון||7,369||1978||Shomron|
|Kfar Adumim||כפר אדומים||4,381||1979||Mateh Binyamin|
|Kfar Etzion||כפר עציון||1,145||1967||Gush Etzion|
|Kfar Tapuach||כפר תפוח||1,166||1978||Shomron|
|Kiryat Arba||קרית ארבע||7,339||1972||Har Hebron|
|Kiryat Netafim||קרית נטפים||929||1983||Shomron|
|Kokhav HaShahar||כוכב השחר||2,053||1977||Mateh Binyamin|
|Kokhav Ya'akov||כוכב יעקב||7,687||1985||Mateh Binyamin|
|Ma'ale Adumim||מעלה אדומים||37,817||1975||Gush Etzion|
|Ma'ale Amos||מעלה עמוס||421||1981||Gush Etzion|
|Ma'ale Efrayim||מעלה אפרים||1,205||1970||Bik'at HaYarden|
|Ma'ale Levona||מעלה לבונה||813||1983||Mateh Binyamin|
|Ma'ale Mikhmas||מעלה מכמש||1,402||1981||Mateh Binyamin|
|Ma'ale Shomron||מעלה שומרון||1,045||1980||Shomron|
|Kfar HaOranim||כפר האורנים||2,708||1998||Mateh Binyamin|
|Mevo Dothan||מבוא דותן||393||1978||Shomron|
|Mevo Horon||מבוא חורון||2,589||1970||Mateh Binyamin|
|Migdal Oz||מגדל עוז||605||1977||Gush Etzion|
|Mitzpe Shalem||מצפה שלם||184||1971||Megilot|
|Mitzpe Yeriho||מצפה יריחו||2,394||1978||Mateh Binyamin|
|Modi'in Illit||מודיעין עילית||70,081||1996||Mateh Binyamin|
|Netiv HaGdud||נתיב הגדוד||191||1976||Bik'at HaYarden|
|Neve Daniel||נווה דניאל||2,370||1982||Gush Etzion|
|Ma'ale Hever||מעלה חבר||561||1982||Har Hebron|
|Rosh Tzurim||ראש צורים||934||1969||Gush Etzion|
|Sha'arei Tikva||שערי תקווה||5,921||1983||Shomron|
|Shadmot Mehola||שדמות מחולה||652||1979||Bik'at HaYarden|
|Shavei Shomron||שבי שומרון||900||1977||Shomron|
|Teneh Omarim||טנא עומרים||799||1983||Har Hebron|
|Vered Yeriho||ורד יריחו||298||1980||Megilot|
Following the capture and occupation of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem in 1967, the Israeli government effectively annexed the formerly Jordanian occupied territory and extended the Jerusalem municipality borders by adding 70,500 dunams of land with the aim of establishing Jewish settlements and cementing the status of a united city under Israeli control. The Jerusalem Master Plan 1968 called for increasing the Israeli population of Arab East Jerusalem, encircling the city with Israeli settlements and excluding large Palestinian neighborhoods from the expanded municipality. Jerusalem was effectively annexed by Israel in 1980, an act that was internationally condemned and ruled "null and void" by the United Nations Security Council in United Nations Security Council Resolution 478. The international community continues to regard East Jerusalem as occupied territory and Israel's settlements there illegal under international law.
|East Talpiot||תלפיות מזרח||13,984||1967|
|French Hill||הגבעה הצרפתית||8,660||1969|
|Giv'at Hamivtar||גבעת המבתר||2,944||1970|
|Har Homa, Givat Hamatos||הר חומה||9,811||1997|
|Ma'alot Dafna||מעלות דפנה||2,720||1972|
|Neve Yaakov||נווה יעקב||19,703||1972|
|Pisgat Ze'ev||פסגת זאב||44,512||1985|
|Ramat Eshkol||רמת אשכול||3,573||1970|
|Ramat Shlomo||רמת שלמה||14,554||1995|
|Sanhedria Murhevet||סנהדריה המורחבת||4,094||1970|
Construction of Israeli settlements began in the portion of the Golan Heights held by Israel in 1967, which was under military administration until Israel passed the Golan Heights Law extending Israeli law and administration throughout the territory in 1981. This move was condemned by the United Nations Security Council in UN Resolution 497, which stated that "the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect." Israel maintains it has a right to retain the Golan, citing the text of UN Resolution 242, which calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force". However, the international community rejects Israeli claims to title to the territory and regards it as sovereign Syrian territory.
|Ein Zivan||עֵין זִיוָן||322||1968|
|El Rom||אֶל רוֹם||381||1971|
|Kfar Haruv||כְּפַר חָרוּב||400||1974|
|Merom Golan||מְרוֹם גּוֹלָן||701||1967|
|Mevo Hama||מְבוֹא חַמָּה||398||1968|
|Alonei HaBashan||אַלּוֹנֵי הַבָּשָׁן||439||1981|
|Avnei Eitan||אַבְנֵ"י אֵיתָ"ן||700||1973|
|Bnei Yehuda||בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה||1,049||1972|
|Givat Yoav||גִּבְעַת יוֹאָב||690||1968|
|Kidmat Tzvi||קִדְמַת צְבִי||423||1981|
|Ma'ale Gamla||מַעֲלֵה גַּמְלָא||488||1975|
|Neot Golan||נְאוֹת גּוֹלָן||594||1968|
|Neve Ativ||נְוֵה אַטִי"ב||118||1972|
|Ramat Magshimim||רָמַת מַגְשִׁימִים||634||1968|
|Kela Alon||קלע אלון||277||1981, 1991|
|Had Ness||חַד נֵס||839||1989|
- Roberts, Adam. "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". The American Journal of International Law. American Society of International Law. 84 (1): 60, 69, 85–86. doi:10.2307/2203016.
p. 60: Although East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights have been brought directly under Israeli law, by acts that amount to annexation, both of these areas continue to be viewed by the international community as occupied, and their status as regards the applicability of international rules is in most respects identical to that of the West Bank and Gaza.
p 69: SC Res. 446 (Mar. 22, 1979), adopted by 12 votes to none, with 3 abstentions (Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States), reaffirmed the applicability of the fourth Geneva Convention, as well as opposing the establishment of Israeli settlements in the occupied territories
pp 85–86: The international community has taken a critical view of both deportations and settlements as being contrary to international law. General Assembly resolutions have condemned the deportations since 1969, and have done so by overwhelming majorities in recent years. Likewise, they have consistently deplored the establishment of settlements, and have done so by overwhelming majorities throughout the period (since the end of 1976) of the rapid expansion in their numbers. The Security Council has also been critical of deportations and settlements; and other bodies have viewed them as an obstacle to peace, and illegal under international law
- Pertile, Marco (2005). "'Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory': A Missed Opportunity for International Humanitarian Law?". In Conforti, Benedetto; Bravo, Luigi (eds.). The Italian Yearbook of International Law. 14. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 141. ISBN 978-90-04-15027-0.
the establishment of the Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory has been considered illegal by the international community and by the majority of legal scholars
- Barak-Erez, Daphne (2006). "Israel: The security barrier—between international law, constitutional law, and domestic judicial review". International Journal of Constitutional Law. Oxford University Press. 4: 548. doi:10.1093/icon/mol021.
The real controversy hovering over all the litigation on the security barrier concerns the fate of the Israeli settlements in the occupied territories. Since 1967, Israel has allowed and even encouraged its citizens to live in the new settlements established in the territories, motivated by religious and national sentiments attached to the history of the Jewish nation in the land of Israel. This policy has also been justified in terms of security interests, taking into consideration the dangerous geographic circumstances of Israel before 1967 (where Israeli areas on the Mediterranean coast were potentially threatened by Jordanian control of the West Bank ridge). The international community, for its part, has viewed this policy as patently illegal, based on the provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention that prohibit moving populations to or from territories under occupation
- Drew, Catriona (1997). "Self-determination and population transfer". In Bowen, Stephen (ed.). Human rights, self-determination and political change in the occupied Palestinian territories. International studies in human rights. 52. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-90-411-0502-8.
It can thus clearly be concluded that the transfer of Israeli settlers into the occupied territories violates not only the laws of belligerent occupation but the Palestinian right of self-determination under international law. The question remains, however, whether this is of any practical value. In other words, given the view of the international community that the Israeli settlements are illegal under the law if belligerent occupation
- International Labour Organization (2005). "The situation of workers of the occupied Arab territories" (PDF). p. 14.
The international community considers Israeli settlements within the occupied territories illegal and in breach of, inter alia, United Nations Security Council resolution 465 of 1 March 1980 calling on Israel "to dismantle the existing settlements and in particular to cease, on an urgent basis, the establishment, construction and planning of settlements in the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem"
- Benveniśtî, Eyāl (2004). The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-691-12130-7.
In its advisory opinion of July 9, 2004, on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, the International Court of Justice found Israel in breach of several international law obligations by its construction of a separation barrier on West Bank territory. ... The Court flatly rejects the Israeli claims concerning the inapplicability of the Fourth Geneva Convention to the West Bank and concerning the inapplicability of Article 49 to the Jewish settlements in the areas occupied by Israel. Neither of these claims gained serious support from the international community
- "Localities File" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- Rawan Asali Nuseibeh (8 October 2015). Political Conflict and Exclusion in Jerusalem: The Provision of Education and Social Services. Taylor & Francis. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-1-317-53576-8.
- East Jerusalem Settlements, Foundation for Middle East Peace, January 13, 2011
- Golan Heights Law, MFA.
- Korman, Sharon, The Right of Conquest: The Acquisition of Territory by Force in International Law and Practice, Oxford University Press, pp. 262–263
- UN Security Council Resolution 497
- Y.Z Blum "Secure Boundaries and Middle East Peace in the Light of International Law and Practice" (1971) pages 24–46
- "The international community maintains that the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan is null and void and without international legal effect." International Labour Office (2009). The situation of workers of the occupied Arab territories (International government publication ed.). International Labour Office. p. 23. ISBN 978-92-2-120630-9.
- In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favour of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497. (General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, United Nations, 5 December 2008.)
- "the Syrian Golan Heights territory, which Israel has occupied since 1967". Also, "the Golan Heights, a 450-square mile portion of southwestern Syria that Israel occupied during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war." (CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, Congressional Research Service. 19 January 2006)[dead link]
- Occupied territory:
- "Israeli-occupied Golan Heights" (Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook 2010, Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 2009. pg. 339. ISBN 1-60239-727-9.)
- "...the United States considers the Golan Heights to be occupied territory subject to negotiation and Israeli withdrawal..." ("CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Israeli-United States Relations", Congressional Research Service, 5 April 2002. pg. 5. Retrieved 1 August 2010.)
- "Occupied Golan Heights" (Travel advice: Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories Archived 20 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 1 August 2010.)
- "In the ICRC's view, the Golan is an occupied territory." (ICRC activities in the occupied Golan during 2007, International Committee of the Red Cross, 24 April 2008.)
- Korman, Sharon. The right of conquest: the acquisition of territory by force in international law and practice, Oxford University Press, 1996. pg. 265. ISBN 0-19-828007-6. "The continued occupation of the Syrian Golan Heights is recognized by many states as valid and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Charter, on a self-defence basis. Israel, on this view, would be entitled to exact as a condition of withdrawal from the territory the imposition of security measures of an indefinite character--such as perpetual demilitarization, or the emplacement of a United Nations force--which would ensure, or tend to ensure, that the territory would not be used against it for aggression on future occasions. But the notion that Israel is entitled to claim any status other than that of belligerent occupant in the territory which it occupies, or to act beyond the strict bounds laid down in the Fourth Geneva Convention, has been universally rejected by the international community--no less by the United States than by any other state."