List of Japanese Nobel laureates and nominees

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The Japanese Nobel Prize Laureate (2010) Akira Suzuki and Ei-ichi Negishi

Since 1949, there have been 29 Japanese laureates of the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize is a Sweden-based international monetary prize. The award was established by the 1895 will and estate of Swedish chemist and inventor Alfred Nobel. It was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. An associated prize, thus far, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, also sometimes known as the Nobel Prize in Economics, has yet to be awarded to a Japanese national.

The Nobel Prizes in the above specific sciences disciplines and the Prize in Economics, which is commonly identified with them, are widely regarded as the most prestigious award one can receive in those fields.[1][2] Of Japanese winners, twelve have been physicists, eight chemists, three for literature, five for physiology or medicine, and one for efforts towards peace.[2]

In the 21st century, in the field of natural science, the number of Japanese winners of the Nobel Prize has been second behind the U.S.

Summary[edit]

Number of Nobel laureates by category
Category Japanese citizens Others born as Japanese citizens Total Remarks
Physics 9 3 12 Yoichiro Nambu, Shuji Nakamura, and Syukuro Manabe became American citizens.
Chemistry 8 - 8 Ei-ichi Negishi was born in Manchuria
Physiology or Medicine 5 - 5
Literature 2 1 3 Kazuo Ishiguro became a British citizen in 1983.[3][4]
Peace 1 - 1
Total 25 4 29

Laureates[edit]

Aside from the 29 Japanese Nobel laureates, a number of Japanese individuals and Japan-based organizations were affiliated with laureate organizations to which they contributed largely and were active members at the time they were awarded:

Year Image Laureate Born Died Field Citation
Citizens
1949 Hideki Yukawa 23 January 1907
Tokyo, Japan
8 September 1981
Kyoto, Japan
Physics "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces."[12]
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga 31 March 1906
Tokyo, Japan
8 July 1979
Tokyo, Japan
Physics "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles."[13] (jointly with American theoretical physicists Julian Schwinger and Richard Feynman)
1968 Yasunari Kawabata 11 June 1899
Osaka, Japan
16 April 1972
Zushi, Kanagawa, Japan
Literature "for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind."[14]
1973 Leo Esaki 12 March 1925
Takaida, Higashiōsaka, Osaka, Japan
Physics "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively."[15] (jointly with Norwegian-American physicist Ivar Giaever and shared with Welsh theoretical physicist Brian David Josephson)
1974 Eisaku Satō 27 March 1901
Tabuse, Yamaguchi, Japan
3 June 1975
Tokyo, Japan
Peace "for his contribution to stabilize conditions in the Pacific rim area and for signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty."[16] (shared with Irish politician Seán MacBride)
1981 Kenichi Fukui 4 October 1918
Ikoma, Nara, Japan
9 January 1998
Kyoto, Japan
Chemistry "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions."[17] (jointly with Polish-American theoretical chemist Roald Hoffmann)
1987 Susumu Tonegawa 5 September 1939
Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity."[18]
1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 31 January 1935
Ōse, Ehime, Japan
3 March 2023
Tokyo, Japan
Literature "who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today."[19]
2000 Hideki Shirakawa 20 August 1936
Tokyo, Japan
Chemistry "for their discovery and development of conductive polymers."[20] (jointly with American chemist Alan MacDiarmid and physicist Alan J. Heeger)
2001 Ryōji Noyori 3 September 1938
Ashiya, Hyōgo, Japan
Chemistry "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions."[21] (jointly with American chemist William S. Knowles and shared with American chemist K. Barry Sharpless)
2002 Masatoshi Koshiba 19 September 1926
Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan
12 November 2020
Tokyo, Japan
Physics "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos."[22] (jointly with American chemist Raymond Davis Jr. and shared with Italian-American Riccardo Giacconi)
Koichi Tanaka 3 August 1959
Toyama, Japan
Chemistry "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules... [and] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules."[23] (jointly with American analytical chemist John B. Fenn and Swiss chemist Kurt Wüthrich)
2008 Makoto Kobayashi 7 April 1944
Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
Physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature."[24] (shared with Japanese-American physicist Yoichiro Nambu)
Toshihide Maskawa 7 February 1940
Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
23 July 2021
Kyoto, Japan
Osamu Shimomura 27 August 1928
Fukuchiyama, Kyoto, Japan
19 October 2018
Nagasaki, Japan
Chemistry "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP."[25] (jointly with American neurobiologist Martin Chalfie and biochemist Roger Y. Tsien)
2010 Ei-ichi Negishi 14 July 1935
Changchun, Jilin, China
6 June 2021
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
Chemistry "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis."[26] (jointly with American chemist Richard F. Heck)
Akira Suzuki 12 September 1930
Mukawa, Hokkaido, Japan
2012 Shinya Yamanaka 4 September 1962
Higashiōsaka, Osaka, Japan
Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent."[27] (jointly with British developmental biologist John B. Gurdon)
2014 Isamu Akasaki 30 January 1929
Chiran, Kagoshima, Japan
1 April 2021
Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
Physics "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources."[28] (jointly with Japanese-born American Shuji Nakamura)
Hiroshi Amano 11 September 1960
Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan
2015 Satoshi Ōmura 12 July 1935
Nirasaki, Yamanashi, Japan
Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites."[29] (jointly with Irish-American parasitologist William C. Campbell and shared with Chinese pharmaceutical chemist Tu Youyou)
Takaaki Kajita 9 March 1959
Higashimatsuyama, Saitama, Japan
Physics "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass."[30] (jointly with Canadian astrophysicist Arthur B. McDonald)
2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 9 February 1945
Fukuoka, Japan
Physiology or Medicine "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy."[31]
2018 Tasuku Honjo 27 January 1942
Kyoto, Japan
Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation."[32] (jointly with American immunologist James P. Allison)
2019 Akira Yoshino 30 January 1948
Osaka, Japan
Chemistry "for the development of lithium ion batteries."[33] (jointly with American materials scientist John B. Goodenough and British-American chemist M. Stanley Whittingham)
Diaspora[f]
1987 Charles J. Pedersen[g] 3 October 1904
Busan, South Korea
26 October 1989
Salem, New Jersey, United States
Chemistry "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity."[34] (jointly with American chemist Donald J. Cram and French chemist Jean-Marie Lehn)
2008 Yoichiro Nambu 18 January 1921
Tokyo, Japan
5 July 2015
Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan
Physics "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics."[24] (jointly with Japanese physicists Toshihide Maskawa and Makoto Kobayashi)
2014 Shuji Nakamura 22 May 1954
Ikata, Ehime, Japan
Physics "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources."[28] (jointly with Japanese physicists Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano)
2017 Kazuo Ishiguro 8 November 1954
Nagasaki, Japan
Literature "who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world."[35]
2021 Syukuro Manabe 21 September 1931
Uma, Ehime, Japan
Physics "for the physical modelling of Earth's climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming."[36] (jointly with German climate modeller Klaus Hasselmann and shared with Italian theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi)

Nominees[edit]

Image Nominee[37] Born Died Years
Nominated
Citation Nominator(s)
Physics
Kotaro Honda 24 March 1870
Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
12 February 1954
Bunkyō, Tokyo, Japan
1932 "for his invention of KS steel which had 250 oersteds magnetic resistance and developed through rigorous basic research on steel and alloys."[38] Seiji Nakamura
(1869–1960)
 Japan
Junzo Okubo (?)
 Japan
Hikoo Saegusa
(1890–1948)
 Japan
Hideki Yukawa 23 January 1907
Tokyo, Japan
8 September 1981
Kyoto, Japan
1940 "for his research on elementary particles, particularly for the prediction of a new particle called mesons based on a proposed theory on strong and weak nuclear forces."[39] Hantaro Nagaoka
(1865–1950)
 Japan
Dirk Coster
(1889–1950)
 Netherlands
1941 Toshizo Matsumoto (?)
 Japan
1943, 1944 Louis de Broglie
(1892–1987)
 France
1945 Maurice de Broglie
(1875–1960)
 France
1946 Jean Thibaud
(1901–1960)
 France
1946, 1948 Gregor Wentzel
(1898–1978)
 Germany
1948 Marcel Schein
(1902–1960)
 United States
1949 Theodor Svedberg et al.[h]
(1884–1971)
 Sweden
Otto Stern
(1888–1969) et al.  Germany
1950 Harold Urey
(1893–1981)
 United States
Harald Wergeland
(1912–1987)
 Norway
Shin'ichirō Tomonaga 31 March 1906
Tokyo, Japan
8 July 1979
Tokyo, Japan
1951 "for his fundamental contributions in the development of quantum electrodynamics and for discovering the renormalization method."[40] Takahiko Yamanouchi
(1902–1986)
 Japan
Samuel Devons
(1914–2006)
 United Kingdom
1952 Hideki Yukawa
(1907–1981)
 Japan
1955 Isao Imai
(1914–2004)
1956 Carl D. Anderson
(1905–1991)
 United States
Robert Bacher
(1905–2004)
 United States
Robert F. Christy
(1916–2012)
 United States
1957 Helmut Hönl
(1903–1981)
 Germany
Leonard I. Schiff
(1915–1971)
 United States
1960 Norman F. Ramsey Jr.
(1915–2011)
 United States
1962 A. K. Dutta (?)
 India
1963 Sidney Drell
(1926–016)
 United States
1964 Hans-Arwed Weidenmüller
(born 1933)
 Germany
W. Wessel (?)
 Germany
1965 Alfred K. Mann
(1920–2013)
 United States
Kazuhiko Nishijima 4 October 1926
Tsuchiura, Ibaraki, Japan
15 February 2009
Tokyo, Japan
1960 "for his contributions to particle physics, particularly on his work on the Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula, and the concept of strangeness, which he called the "eta-charge" or "η-charge", after the eta meson."[41] Marian Günther
(1928–?)
 Poland
1961 Frederick Seitz
(1911–2008)
 United States
1964 G. Höhler (?)
 Germany
1966 W. Theis (?)
 Germany
1967 Sergio DeBenedetti (?)
 United States
F. Cap (?)
 Austria
1968 Yoichiro Nambu
(1921–2015)
 Japan
Jun John Sakurai
(1933–1982)
 United States
1969 H. Pierre Noyes
(born 1923)
 France
Bunji Sakita
(1930–2002)
 Japan
Haakon A. Olsen
(1923–2010)
 Norway
1970 Hideki Yukawa
(1907–1981)
 Japan
Tadao Nakano 1926
Tokyo, Japan
15 August 2004
1961 "his collaborative work with Nishijima on the Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula and quark model."[42] Frederick Seitz
(1911–2008)
 United States
1970 Hideki Yukawa
(1907–1981)
 Japan
Susumu Okubo 20 February 1930
Tokyo, Japan
17 July 2015
Rochester, New York, United States
1965 "for the Gell-Mann–Okubo mass formula for mesons and baryons in the quark model whichpredicts the relations of masses of the members of SU(3) multiplets in terms of hypercharge and isotopic spin."[43] Robert Marshak
(1916–1992)
 United States
Yoshio Ōnuki 7 November 1928
Tochigi, Japan
1965, 1966 "for his research on the Sakata model based on the Yamaguchi-Ogawa-Ohnuki symmetry determining that hidden particles are equivalent to each other."[44] Gordon Sutherland
(1907–1980)
 United Kingdom
Sigenori Miyamoto 20 October 1931
Akashi, Hyōgo, Japan
31 December 2017
Japan
1966 [45] Y. Nogami (?)
 Japan
Shuji Fukui 19 August 1923
Osaka, Japan
4 May 2018
Japan
1966 "for developing a "discharge chamber" (later called "spark chamber") that observes the tracks of high-energy charged particles."[46]
Leo Esaki 12 March 1925
Takaida, Higashiōsaka, Osaka, Japan
1968 "for his work in electron tunneling in semiconductor materials which finally led to his invention of the Esaki diode, which exploited that phenomenon."[47] John Bardeen
(1908–1991)
 United States
Hiroomi Umezawa 20 September 1924
Kuki, Saitama, Japan
24 March 1995
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
1968 "for his fundamental contributions to quantum field theory and for his work on quantum phenomena in relation to the mind."[48] Eduardo R. Caianiello
(1921–1993)
 Italy
Jun Kondō 6 February 1930
Tokyo, Japan
11 March 2022
Suginami, Tokyo, Japan
1969 "for his research on the Kondo effect, a scattering of conduction electrons in a metal due to magnetic impurities, resulting in a characteristic change."[49] Osmund Dorenfeldt Jenssen
(1923–2009)
 Norway
Ryogo Kubo 15 February 1920
Tokyo, Japan
31 March 1995
Tokyo, Japan
1970 "for his works in statistical physics, particularly on non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and the theory of fluctuation phenomena."[50] Yoshio Yamaguchi
(1926–2016)
 Japan
Shoichi Sakata 18 January 1911
Tokyo, Japan
16 December 1970
Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
1970 "for his research on subatomic particles and the two meson theory: the Sakata model and the Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata neutrino mixing matrix."[51] Hideki Yukawa
(1907–1981)
 Japan
Physiology or Medicine
Kitasato Shibasaburō 29 January 1853
Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan
13 June 1931
Tokyo, Japan
1901 "for his discovery the plague bacillus, independently of Alexandre Yersin."[52] A. de Bokay (?)
 Austria-Hungary
Oscar Loew* 2 April 1844
Marktredwitz, Bavaria, Germany
26 January 1941
Berlin, Germany
1912 "for his discovery of the antibacterial effect of formaldehyde."[53] Rudolph Emmerich
(1856–1914)
 Germany
Sahachiro Hata 23 March 1873
Masuda, Shimane, Japan
22 November 1938
Tokyo, Japan
1912 "for his work on chemotherapy."[54] Hayazō Itō
(1864–1929)
 Japan
1913 "for the development of a drug against spirillosis."[54] Gakutaro Osawa
(1863–1920)
 Japan
Umetaro Suzuki 7 April 1874
Makinohara, Shizuoka, Japan
20 September 1943
Tokyo, Japan
1914 "for his work on essential substances in rice and their importance in beri-beri."[55] Wolfgang Heubner
(1877–1957)
 Germany
Ryukichi Inada 18 March 1874
Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
27 February 1950
Tokyo, Japan
1919 "for their discovery of the spirochaete of hemorrhagic icterus."[56][57] Louis Martin
(1864–1946)
 France
Ido 1919
Yamagiwa Katsusaburō 23 February 1863
Ueda, Nagano, Japan
2 March 1930
Tokyo, Japan
1925 "for his work on epithelial tumors."[58] Harno Hayashi (?)
 Japan
Matarō Nagayo
(1878–1941)
 Japan
C. Yokote (?)
 Japan
Shūzō Kure
(1865–1932)
 Japan
1926 "for his research on experimentally induced tumors."[58] Ludwig Aschoff
(1866–1942)
 Germany
1928 "for being the first to show that malignant tumors, carcinoma and sarcoma, could be produced by application of tar to the tissues of certain mammals."[58] Alexander A. Maximow
(1874–1928)
 United States
1936 "for his work on the production of tumors with chemical substances."[58] R. Kimura (?)
 Japan
Genichi Kato 11 February 1890
Niimi, Okayama, Japan
1 May 1979
Niimi, Okayama, Japan
1928 "for his investigations in the field of nerve-muscle physiology and establishing a new theory of decrementless conduction of nerve impulses."[59] Sahachiro Hata
(1873–1938)
 Japan
13 Japanese physicians
1935 "for his work on the isolation of single nerve fibers and muscle fibers and demonstration of the existence of reflex excitatory fibers and reflex inhibitory fibers."[59] 23 Japanese physicians[i]
Ivan Pavlov
(1849–1936)
 Soviet Union
1937 "for his work on the microphysiology of nerve muscle."[59] Mariano Rafael Castex
(1886–1968)
 Argentina
Ken Kuré 27 October 1883
Tokyo, Japan
27 June 1940
Tokyo, Japan
1931, 1937 "for his work on the tonic and trophic innervation of voluntary muscles and spinal parasympathicus, and progressive muscular dystrophy."[60] M. Itagaki (?)
 Japan
1933 Seizaburo Nasu (?)
 Japan
O. Kimura (?)
 Japan
1935 Tomosaburō Ogata
(1883–1973)
 Japan
19 Japanese physicians
Ivan Pavlov
(1849–1936)
 Soviet Union
1936 "for his work on the autonomous innervation of skeletal muscle, progressive muscular dystrophy and spinal parasympaticus."[60] H. Okabayashi (?)
 Japan
1937 N. Onodera (?)
 Japan
1939 "for his work on the autonomous innervation of skeleton muscle and progressive muscular dystrophy."[60] Naomi Kageura (?)
 Japan
Takaoki Sasaki 5 May 1878
Tokyo, Japan
31 October 1966
Tokyo, Japan
1935 "for his work on the production of tumors with chemical substances."[61] Kenzo Tamura (?)
 Japan
Kunihiko Hashida
(1882–1945)
 Japan
1936 R. Kimura (?)
 Japan
C. Ogawa (?)
 Japan
1939 "for his work on experimentally induced liver tumors using chemical means (o-amidoazotoluol)."[61] S. Tsunoo (?)
 Japan
K. Hirai (?)
 Japan
T. Naito (?)
 Japan
Literature
Toyohiko Kagawa 10 July 1888
Kobe, Hyōgo, Japan
23 April 1960
Tokyo, Japan
1947 A Shooter at the Sun (1925)
Love - The Law of Life (1930)
Meditations on the Cross (1935)
Songs from the Slums (1935)
Brotherhood Economics (1936)[62]
Knut B. Westman
(1881–1967)
 Sweden
1948 Sven Hedin
(1865–1952)
 Sweden
Jun'ichirō Tanizaki 24 July 1886
Tokyo, Japan
30 July 1965
Yugawara, Kanagawa, Japan
1958 Naomi (1925)
Some Prefer Nettles (1929)
Quicksand (1928–1930)
Arrowroot (1931)
In Praise of Shadows (1933)
The Makioka Sisters (1943–48)
The Key (1956)
Childhood Years: A Memoir (1957)
Diary of a Mad Old Man (1961)[63]
Pearl S. Buck
(1892–1973)
 United States
1960 Sigfrid Siwertz
(1882–1970)
 Sweden
1961 The Japanese Authors' Union
1962 Howard Hibbett
(1920–2019)
 United States
1963 Donald Keene
(1922–2019)
 United States
1964, 1965 Harry Martinson
(1904–1978)
 Sweden
Junzaburō Nishiwaki 20 January 1894
Ojiya, Niigata, Japan
5 June 1982
Ojiya, Niigata, Japan
1958, 1960, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967 Spectrum (1925)
Ambarvalia (1933)
No Traveler Returns (1947)
Modern Fables (1953)[64][65]
Naoshirō Tsuji
(1899–1979)
 Japan
1961 The Japanese Authors' Union
1963 Japan Academy
1968
Yasunari Kawabata 11 June 1899
Osaka, Japan
16 April 1972
Zushi, Kanagawa, Japan
1961, 1963 Snow Country (1948)
Thousand Cranes (1952)
The Master of Go (1954)
The Sound of the Mountain (1954)
The House of the Sleeping Beauties (1961)
The Old Capital (1962)
Dandelions (1972)[66]
Henry Olsson
(1896–1985)
 Sweden
1962 The Japanese P.E.N. Club
1964, 1965 Harry Martinson
(1904–1978)
 Sweden
1966 Karl Ragnar Gierow
(1904–1982)
 Sweden
1967 Howard Hibbett
(1920–2019)
 United States
1968 Eyvind Johnson
(1900–1976)
 Sweden
Yukio Mishima 14 January 1925
Tokyo, Japan
25 November 1970
Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan
1963 Confessions of a Mask (1949)
The Sound of Waves (1954)
The Temple of the Golden Pavilion (1956)
The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea (1963)
Sun and Steel (1968)
The Sea of Fertility (1969–1971)[67]
Johannes Rahder
(1898–1988)
 Netherlands
1964, 1965, 1967 Harry Martinson
(1904–1978)
 Sweden
1968 Henry Olsson
(1896–1985)
 Sweden
Yasushi Inoue 6 May 1907
Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan
29 January 1991
Tokyo, Japan
1969 The Bullfight (1949)
Hyōheki (1956)
The Roof Tile of Tempyō (1957)
Tun-huang (1959)[68]
Erich Ruprecht
(1906–1997)
 Germany
Sei Itō
(posthumously nominated)
16 January 1905
Matsumae, Hokkaido, Japan
15 November 1969
Tokyo, Japan
1970 Snow-lit Road (1926)
Streets of Fiendish Ghosts (1937)
Senkichi Narumi (1948)
History of Japanese Literary Circles (1955–1969)[69]
Kōjirō Serizawa
(1897–1993)
 Japan
Tatsuzō Ishikawa 2 July 1905
Yokote, Akita, Japan
31 January 1985
Tokyo, Japan
1970 Sōbō (1935)
Soldiers Alive (1945)
Kinkanshoku (1966)[70]
Peace
Nagao Ariga 13 November 1860
Osaka, Japan
17 May 1921
Tokyo, Japan
1909 No motivation given.[71] V. H. Hilty (?)
  Switzerland
Shibusawa Eiichi 16 March 1840
Fukaya, Saitama, Japan
11 November 1931
Tokyo, Japan
1926 "for his involvement in almost every enterprise associated with Japanese industrial development and worked to improve the relations between the United States and Japan concerning the legal status of Japanese workers in California."[72] Tasuku Harada
(1863–1940)
 Japan
Katō Takaaki
(1860–1926)
 Japan
1927
Toyohiko Kagawa 10 July 1888
Kobe, Hyōgo, Japan
23 April 1960
Tokyo, Japan
1954 "for his work for reconciliation among nations."[62] Tetsu Katayama
(1887–1978)
Emily Greene Balch
(1867–1961)
 United States
1955 5 members of the Norwegian Storting
1956 7 members of the Norwegian Storting
1960 No motivation given.[62] Jōtarō Kawakami
(1889–1965)
 Japan
Motojirō Sugiyama
(1885–1964)
 Japan
Tokutarō Kitamura
(1886–1968)
 Japan
Nobusuke Kishi 13 November 1896
Tabuse, Yamaguchi, Japan
7 August 1987
Tokyo, Japan
1960 "for his work for disarmament and banning of nuclear weapons."[73] Spessard Holland
(1892–1971)
 United States
Daisetsu Teitaro Suzuki 18 October 1870
Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
12 July 1966
Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan
1963 "for his high cultural achievements."[74] Hideo Kishimoti
(1903–1964)
 Japan
Shigeru Yoshida 22 September 1878
Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
20 October 1967
Tokyo, Japan
1965 "for his efforts to prevent the Pacific War although it was in vain, and his devotion to the restoration of peace."[75] Eisaku Satō
(1901–1975)
 Japan
3 Finnish nominators
1966 "for his efforts to prevent the Pacific War, and for his efforts to bring restoration of peace."[75] Kisaburo Yokota
(1896–1993)
 Japan
1967 No motivation given.[75] Shigeru Kuriyama
(1886–1971)
 Japan
3 members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Hideki Yukawa 23 January 1907
Tokyo, Japan
8 September 1981
Kyoto, Japan
1966 No motivation given[39] Hideo Kaneko
(1934–2013)
 Japan
Selhataro Salsadia (?)
 Japan
Yoshio Koya 1890
Japan
1974
Japan
1968 "for his many outstanding services to humanity and for his pioneering efforts as a world-renowned gynecologist that the birth rate and rate of induced abortions in Japan have declined."[76] Martin Allwood
(1916–1999)
 Sweden
Kaoru Hatoyama 21 November 1888
Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
15 August 1982
Tokyo, Japan
1969 "for her contribution to the reopening of diplomatic relations between Japan and the U.S.S.R., and Japan's entry into the United Nations, and for her contribution to the Yuai ("Fraternity") Movement and for her achievements as an educator."[77] members of the Japanese Government and Parliament

Notes[edit]

Physics
Shoichi Sakata reported the "Sakata model" - a model of hadrons in 1956, that inspired Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig's quark model. Moreover, Kazuhiko Nishijima and Tadao Nakano originally given the Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula in 1953.[78] However, 1969 physics prize was only awarded to Murray Gell-Mann. Afterward, Ivar Waller, the member of Nobel Committee for Physics was sorry that Sakata had not received a physics prize.[79]
Yoji Totsuka was leading the experiment that the first definitive evidence for neutrino oscillations was measured, via a high-statistics, high-precision measurement of the atmospheric neutrino flux. His Super-K group also confirmed, along with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), the solution to the solar neutrino problem. The Nobel Prize winning physicist Masatoshi Koshiba was told that if Totsuka could extend his lifespan by eighteen months, he would receive the physics prize.[80]
Chemistry
Eiji Osawa prediction of the C60 molecule at Hokkaido University in 1970.[81][82] He noticed that the structure of a corannulene molecule was a subset of an Association football shape, and he hypothesised that a full ball shape could also exist. Japanese scientific journals reported his idea, but it did not reach Europe or the Americas.[83][84] Because of this, he was not awarded the 1996 chemistry prize.
Seiji Shinkai invented the first molecular machine in 1979,[85] but he was not awarded the 2016 chemistry prize. On the contrary, Ben Feringa, one of the 2016 Nobel laureates, made a special trip to Japan in the 1980s to ask Shinkai for advice in the research.[86]
Physiology or Medicine
Kitasato Shibasaburō and Emil von Behring working together in Berlin in 1890 announced the discovery of diphtheria antitoxin serum; Von Behring was awarded the 1901 prize because of this work, but Kitasato was not. Meanwhile, Hideyo Noguchi[87] and Sahachiro Hata,[88] those who missed out on the early Nobel Prize for many times.
Katsusaburō Yamagiwa and his student Kōichi Ichikawa successfully induced squamous cell carcinoma by painting crude coal tar on the inner surface of rabbits' ears. Yamagiwa's work has become the primary basis for research of cause of cancer.[89] However, Johannes Fibiger was awarded the 1926 medicine prize because of his incorrect Spiroptera carcinoma theory, while the Yamagiwa group was snubbed by Nobel Committee. In 1966, the former committee member Folke Henschen claimed "I was strongly advocate Dr. Yamagiwa deserve the Nobel Prize, but unfortunate it did not realize".[90] In 2010, the Encyclopædia Britannica 's guide to Nobel Prizes in cancer research mentions Yamagiwa's work as a milestone without mentioning Fibiger.[91]
Umetaro Suzuki completed the first vitamin complex was isolated in 1910.[92] When the article was translated into German, the translation failed to state that it was a newly discovered nutrient, a claim made in the original Japanese article, and hence his discovery failed to gain publicity. Because of this, he was not awarded the 1929 medicine prize.
Satoshi Mizutani[93] and Howard Martin Temin jointly discovered that the Rous sarcoma virus particle contained the enzyme reverse transcriptase, and Mizutani was solely responsible for the original conception and design of the novel experiment that confirmed Temin's provirus hypothesis.[94] However, Mizutani was not awarded the 1975 medicine prize along with Temin.
As of 2015, there have been seven Japanese who have received the Lasker Award and twelve Japanese who have received the Canada Gairdner International Award, but only three Japanese who have received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Others
A number of important Japanese native scientists were not nominated for early Nobel Prizes, such as Yasuhiko Kojima and Yasuichi Nagano (jointly discovered Interferon), Jōkichi Takamine (first isolated epinephrine),[95] Kiyoshi Shiga (discovered Shigella dysenteriae), Tomisaku Kawasaki (Kawasaki disease is named after him), and Hakaru Hashimoto. After World War II, Reiji Okazaki and his wife Tsuneko were known for describing the role of Okazaki fragments, but he died of leukemia (sequelae of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima) in 1975 at the age of 44.
Masahiko Aoki, seen as the most likely candidate to become the first Japanese to win the Nobel Prize for economics, for developing the Institutional Comparative Analysis, he taught at Kyoto University and Stanford University. He died in Palo Alto, California, in July, 2015. He was 77.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Japan Committee for UNICEF was founded on 1 February 1950 in Tokyo, Japan.
  2. ^ JCBL was founded on July 1997 in Tokyo, Japan.[5]
  3. ^ From September 2005 to September 2006, Amano served as the Chairman of the IAEA Board of Governors.[6] During this time, the IAEA and its Director General Mohamed ElBaradei received the Nobel Peace Prize. Amano represented the IAEA as the chairman at the Nobel Prize award ceremony held in December 2005.
  4. ^ Kawasaki (born on 1968 in Tokyo, Japan) joined the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) for Peace Boat in 2010 and served as Co-chair (2012-2014), leading the campaign to be awarded the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize.[7] When the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced the prize on October 6, Kawasaki was flying to Iceland via the United States to be present at an event to share stories of atomic bomb survivors.[8]
  5. ^ Mrs Thurlow (born on 3 January 1932 in Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan) was a founding member and gave the keynote speech at the international launch of International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) in Canada in 2007. When the organization received the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize, she attended the Nobel Prize award ceremony, received the Nobel Medal, Nobel Diploma and delivered speeches (Nobel Lecture) on December 2017.[9][10][11]
  6. ^ Nobel laureates of Japanese birth and origin but subsequently acquired foreign citizenship.
  7. ^ The 1987 Nobel Prize in Chemistry winner Charles J. Pedersen has a Japanese mother and his Japanese first name was Yoshio (良男). Born in Busan, Korea, Japanese protectorate, he moved to Japan with his family at the age of 8 years to attend a convent school in Nagasaki. When he was 10 years old, he moved to Yokohama and entered an international school, called Saint Joseph College in Yamate, Naka-ku.
  8. ^ Other nominators include: Bruno Rossi (1905–1993), John C. Slater (1900–1976), Victor Weisskopf (1908–2002), Jerrold R. Zacharias (1905–1986), Philip M. Morse (1903–1985), Albert G. Hill (1910–1996), Jacques Hadamard (1865–1963) and Peter Kruger (?).
  9. ^ The group includes Sahachiro Hata (1873–1938) who nominated G. Kato in 1928.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b "All Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 June 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  3. ^ Wroe, Nicholas (19 February 2005). "Living memories". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2017. When Ishiguro was included as the youngest member of the 1983 best of young British writers, he wasn't a British citizen. He took citizenship later that year as a very practical decision.
  4. ^ "Kazuo Ishiguro wins 2017 Nobel Prize for literature". The Financial Times. 5 October 2017. Archived from the original on 2 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2017. He became a British citizen in 1983.
  5. ^ "The International Campaign ICBL". Jesuit Social Center Tokyo. Archived from the original on 13 March 2023. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
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  12. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949 Archived 22 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  13. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965 Archived 22 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  14. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 1968 Archived 1 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
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  16. ^ The Nobel Peace Prize 1974 Archived 22 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
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  18. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987 Archived 23 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  19. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994 Archived 25 November 2021 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
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  22. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002 Archived 22 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  23. ^ The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002 Archived 21 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  24. ^ a b The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008 Archived 25 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  25. ^ The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008 Archived 22 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  26. ^ The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010 Archived 21 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  27. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 Archived 23 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  28. ^ a b The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014 Archived 23 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  29. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015 Archived 23 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  30. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015 Archived 14 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  31. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016 Archived 23 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  32. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018 Archived 1 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  33. ^ The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019 Archived 29 June 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  34. ^ The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987 Archived 21 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  35. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017 Archived 19 May 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  36. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2021 Archived 20 July 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  37. ^ The (*) asterisks on the name denote the nominees were expatriates who resided or died in Japan.
  38. ^ Nomination archive – Kotaro Honda Archived 1 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  39. ^ a b Nomination archive – Hideki Yukawa Archived 13 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  40. ^ Nomination archive – Sin-Itiro Tomonaga Archived 13 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  41. ^ Nomination archive – Kazuhiko Nishijima Archived 24 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  42. ^ Nomination archive – Tadao Nakano Archived 13 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  43. ^ Nomination archive – Susumu Okubo Archived 13 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  44. ^ Nomination archive – Y Onuki Archived 13 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  45. ^ Nomination archive – S Miyamoto Archived 3 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  46. ^ Nomination archive – S Fukui Archived 5 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  47. ^ Nomination archive – Leo Esaki Archived 13 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  48. ^ Nomination archive – Hiromi Umezawa Archived 13 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  49. ^ Nomination archive – K Kondo Archived 13 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  50. ^ Nomination archive – Ryogo Kubo Archived 13 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  51. ^ Nomination archive – Shoichi Sakata Archived 13 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  52. ^ Nomination archive – Shibasaburo Kitasako Archived 20 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  53. ^ Nomination archive – Oskar Loew Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  54. ^ a b Nomination archive – Sachachiro Hata Archived 26 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  55. ^ Nomination archive – U Suzuki Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  56. ^ Nomination archive – Inada Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  57. ^ Nomination archive – Ido Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  58. ^ a b c d Nomination archive – Katsusaburo Yamagiwa Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  59. ^ a b c Nomination archive – Genichi M Kato Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  60. ^ a b c Nomination archive – Ken Kuré Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  61. ^ a b Nomination archive – Takaoki Sasaki Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  62. ^ a b c Nomination archive – Toyohiko Kagawa Archived 31 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  63. ^ Nomination archive – Junichiro Tanizaki Archived 7 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  64. ^ Nomination archive – Janzaburo Nihiwaki Archived 29 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  65. ^ Nomination archive – Junzaburo Nishiwaki Archived 29 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  66. ^ Nomination archive – Yasunari Kawabata Archived 29 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  67. ^ Nomination archive – Yukio Mishima Archived 1 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  68. ^ Nomination archive – Yasushi Inoue Archived 29 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  69. ^ Nomination archive – Sei Itō Archived 7 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  70. ^ Nomination archive – Tatsuzō Ishikawa Archived 6 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  71. ^ Nomination archive – Nagao Ariga Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  72. ^ Nomination archive – Viscount Shishaku Shibusawa Eiichi Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  73. ^ Nomination archive – Nobusuke Kishi Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  74. ^ Nomination archive – Daisetz T Suzuki Archived 4 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  75. ^ a b c Nomination archive – Shigeru Yoshida Archived 14 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  76. ^ Nomination archive – Yoshio Koya Archived 9 November 2022 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
  77. ^ Nomination archive – Kaoru Hatoyama Archived 6 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine nobelprize.org
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External links[edit]