Kings of Israel and Judah

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Coronation of David, as depicted in the Paris Psalter.

This article is an overview of the kings of the United Kingdom of Israel as well as those of its successor states and classical period kingdoms ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty and Herodian dynasty.

In contemporary scholarship, the united monarchy is debated, due to a lack of archaeological evidence for it. It is generally accepted that a "House of David" existed, but many believe[who?] that David could have only been the king or chieftain of Judah, which was likely small, and that the northern kingdom was a separate development. There are some dissenters to this view, including those who support the traditional narrative.[1][2][3][4]

Family tree[edit]

Genealogy of the kings of Israel and Judah.svg
Family tree
Saul
King of the United Monarchy: r. 1050–1012 BCE
Eshbaal (Ishbosheth)
King of the United Monarchy: r. 1012–1010 BCE
BathshebaDavid
King of the United Monarchy: r. 1010–970 BCE
Maacah
NaamahSolomon
King of the United Monarchy: r. 970–931 BCE
AbsalomJeroboam
King of Israel: r. 931–910 BCE
Rehoboam
King of Judah: r. 931–913 BCE
UrielNadab
King of Israel: r. 910–909 BCE
Baasha
King of Israel: r. 909–886 BCE
MacaahElah
King of Israel: r. 886–885 BCE
?Abijam
King of Judah: r. 913–910 BCE
Zimri
King of Israel: r. 885 BCE
Asa
King of Judah: r. 913–870 BCE
?Omri
King of Israel: r. 884–874 BCE
Jehoshaphat
King of Judah: r. 870–849 BCE
JezebelAhab
King of Israel: r. 871–852 BCE
Jehoram
King of Judah: r. 849–842 BCE
Athaliah
Queen of Judah: r. 842–835 BCE
Joram
King of Israel: r. 849–837 BCE
Ahaziah
King of Israel: r. 850–849 BCE
Jehu
King of Israel: r. 840—814 BCE
Ahaziah
King of Judah: r. 842–841 BCE
ZibiahJehoshebaJehoiadaJehoahaz
King of Israel: r. 814—798 BCE
Jehoash
King of Judah: r. 836–796 BCE
JehoaddanJehoash
King of Israel: r. 798—782 BCE
Amaziah
King of Judah: r. 796–767 BCE
JecoliahAmozJeroboam II
King of Israel: r. 782—753 BCE
Uzziah
King of Judah: r. 783–742 BCE
JerushaIsaiahZechariah
King of Israel: r. 753—752 BCE
Shallum
King of Israel: r. 752 BCE
Menahem
King of Israel: r. 752—742 BCE
Jotham
King of Judah: r. 742–735 BCE
?Hephzibah
Pekahiah
King of Israel: r. 742—740 BCE
Pekah
King of Israel: r. 740—732 BCE
Ahaz
King of Judah: r. 732–716 BCE
AbijahHoshea
King of Israel: r. 732–721 BCE
Hezekiah
King of Judah: r. 716–687 BCE
Manasseh
King of Judah: r. 697–643 BCE
Meshullemeth
Amon
King of Judah: r. 643–610 BCE
Jedidah
Josiah
King of Judah: r. 640–609 BCE
Jehoiakim
King of Judah: r. 609–598 BCE
NehushtaJehoahaz
King of Judah: r. 609 BCE
Zedekiah
King of Judah: r. 596–586 BCE
Jehoiachin
King of Judah: r. 598–597 BCE
Family tree (Hasmonean-Herodian)
Phinehas
(H)asmon/Hasmonaeus
Shimon
ben Asmon
Yochanan
ben Shimon
Mattathias ben YochananSimona
bat Onias III
John GaddiSimon Thassi
Prince of
Judaea

r. 141–135 BCE
Judas
Maccabeus
Eleazar
Avaran
Jonathan Apphus
John
Hyrcanus I

Prince of
Judaea

r. 134–104 BCE
Aristobulus I
King of
Judaea

r. 104–103 BCE
Alexander
Jannaeus

King of
Judaea

r. 103–76 BCE
Salome
Alexandra

Queen of
Judaea

r. 76–67 BCE
Absalom
ben Yochanan
John
Hyrcanus II

King of
Judaea

r. 67–66 BCE
Aristobulus II
King of
Judaea

r. 66–63 BCE
Salome
bat Absalom
Alexandra II
bat Hyrcanus II
Alexander IIAntigonus II
Mattathias

King of
Judaea

r. 40–37 BCE
MalthaceCleopatra
of Jerulasem
Herod
the Great

King of
Judaea

r. 37–4 BCE
Mariamne I
Herod
Antipas

Tetrarch
of Galilee

r. 4 BCE – 39 CE
Herod
Archelaus

Tetrarch
of Judaea

r. 4 BCE - 6 CE
Philip the
Tetrarch

Tetrarch
of Batanea

r. 4 BCE – 34 CE
Aristobulus IV
Prince
of Judaea

r. 31—7 BCE
Herod V
King of
Chalcis

r. 41–48 CE
Herod Agrippa
King of Batanaea
r. 37–41 CE
Herod
Agrippa II

King of
Batanaea

r. 53–100 CE

List of kings[edit]

The Bible describes a succession of kings of a united kingdom, and then of divided kingdoms.[1]

House of Gideon[edit]

House of Saul[edit]

Saul and David by Rembrandt

According to the Bible, the Tribes of Israel lived as a confederation under ad hoc charismatic leaders called judges. In around 1020 BCE, under extreme threat from foreign peoples, the tribes united to form the first United Kingdom of Israel. Samuel anointed Saul from the Tribe of Benjamin as the first king.

House of David[edit]

The Tel Dan Stele with reference to the "House of David"

After Rehoboam reigned three years,[6] the United Kingdom of Israel was divided in two – the northern Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam, with its capital, first in Shechem, then Penuel, Tirzah, and finally Samaria, and ruled by a series of dynasties beginning with Jeroboam; and the southern Kingdom of Judah with its capital still in Jerusalem and ruled by the House of David. Under Hezekiah’s rule in the Kingdom of Judah, the Neo-Assyrian Empire conquered and destroyed the northern kingdom 722 BCE leaving only the southern kingdom of Judah.

Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)[edit]

First Dynasty[edit]

Second Dynasty[edit]

No Dynasty[edit]

No Dynasty[edit]

Third Dynasty[edit]

Fourth Dynasty[edit]

No dynasty[edit]

Fifth Dynasty[edit]

No dynasty[edit]

No dynasty[edit]

Kingdom of Judah[edit]

House of David (cont.)[edit]

House of Omri[edit]

House of David (restored)[edit]

Hasmonean dynasty[edit]

The descendants of Mattathias

Herodian dynasty[edit]

Table on the Kings

This table describes the Kings, their parents, age they lived, the prophets who influenced them, and the emperors they encountered in battle.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lipschits, Oded (2014). "The history of Israel in the biblical period". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi (eds.). The Jewish Study Bible (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-997846-5. The promonarchic period long ago became a literary description of the mythological roots, the early beginnings of the nation, and the way to describe the right of Israel on its land. The archeological evidence also does not support the existence of a united monarchy under David and Solomon as described in the Bible, so the rubric of "united monarchy" is best abandoned, although it remains useful for discussing how the Bible views the Israelite past.
  2. ^ Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of its Stories. New York: Simon & Schu. ISBN 0-684-86912-8.
  3. ^ Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The Ancient Near East, c. 3000-330 BC, Band 1. New York: Routledge. p. 438. ISBN 978-0-41516-762-8.
  4. ^ Wright, Jacob L. (July 2014). "David, King of Judah (not Israel)". The Bible and Interpretation.
  5. ^ Judges 9:6
  6. ^ 2 Chronicles 11:17

External links[edit]