List of Jurchen inscriptions

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Rock inscription in Jurchen dated 1196 at Serven Khaalga, Bayankhutag, Mongolia. The inscription relates to Genghis Khan's alliance with the Jin against the Tatars.

The list of Jurchen inscriptions comprises a list of the corpus of known inscriptions written in the Jurchen language using the Jurchen script. There are ten monumental inscriptions, mostly dating to the Jin dynasty (1115–1234), but the latest monument dates to the early Ming Dynasty (1413). There are also a number of short Jurchen inscriptions on portable artefacts such as mirrors, seals and paiza.

Monumental inscriptions in the Jurchen script[edit]

Monument Date Place of discovery Year of discovery Current Location Description
Monument commemorating the victory of Emperor Taizu of Jin over the Khitans in 1114
(Da-Jin desheng tuosong bei 大金得勝陀頌碑)
1185 Shibei Weizi, Fuyu County
Jilin
45°20′46″N 125°36′43″E / 45.346°N 125.612°E / 45.346; 125.612 (Monument commemorating the victory of Emperor Taizu of Jin over the Khitans in 1114)
known since about 1820–1850 Jilin Provincial Museum Bilingual Chinese and Jurchen memorial with 30 lines of Chinese text on the front, and 33 lines of Jurchen text on the back, about 1,500 Jurchen characters in total.[1][2]
Monument recording the names of successful candidates for the degree of jinshi in 1224
(Nüzhen jinshi timing bei 女真進士題名碑)
1224 Yantaihe 宴台河, Kaifeng
Henan
34°48′22″N 114°25′19″E / 34.806°N 114.422°E / 34.806; 114.422 (Monument recording the names of successful candidates for the degree of jinshi in 1224)
known since the early 14th century Erected at the Confucian Temple (Wen Miao 文廟) in Kaifeng Originally a bilingual memorial, but the original Chinese text was deleted and re-engraved with a new text commemorating the restoration of the Temple of the River Spirit 河神廟 during the Ming dynasty. The Jurchen text comprises about 1,100 characters.[2][3]
Monument commemorating a picnic held by Aotun Liangbi
(Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei 奧屯良弼餞飲碑)
1210 Unknown (originally in the collection of Luo Zhenyu) known since 1931 National Museum of China, Beijing Chinese inscription by Aotun Liangbi 奧屯良弼 in 4 lines, dated 1206, on the front; and a Jurchen inscription in 3 lines (about 60 characters) on the left side, dated 1210, added by Aotun Liangbi's friend Bu Xiuhong 卜修洪.[2][4]
Monument inscribed with a poem by Aotun Liangbi
(Aotun Liangbi shi bei 奧屯良弼詩碑)
Youde Temple 佑德觀, Penglai City
Shandong
37°49′55″N 120°45′11″E / 37.832°N 120.753°E / 37.832; 120.753 (Monument inscribed with a poem by Aotun Liangbi)
1960s Eight-line poem with preface by Aotun Liangbi 奧屯良弼, comprising about 170 characters in total. The poem is written in Aotun Liangbi's cursive calligraphy, and was inscribed on the orders of his friend Bu Xiuhong.[5][6]
Two rock inscriptions at Hailong
(Hailong Nüzhen guoshu moya 海龍女真國書摩崖)
1167 Yangshulin Mountain 楊樹林山, Meihekou
Jilin
42°17′42″N 125°27′00″E / 42.295°N 125.450°E / 42.295; 125.450 (Two rock inscriptions at Hailong)
known since about 1875–1908 In situ Bilingual Chinese and Jurchen inscription commemorating the defeat of the Khitans by Emperor Taizu of Jin (15 Chinese characters and about 20 Jurchen characters); and a Jurchen inscription of about 80 characters dated 1167 commemorating the establishment of an office in 1116.[7][8]
Monument commemorating the construction of a Buddhist temple
(Qingyuanjun Nüzhen guoshu bei 慶源郡女真國書碑)
1138–1153 Buddhist temple, Kyongwon
North Korea
42°48′N 130°12′E / 42.8°N 130.2°E / 42.8; 130.2 (Monument commemorating the construction of a Buddhist temple)
1918 Seoul Museum of History List of names and titles of people who contributed to the construction of the Buddhist temple where the monument was originally found. 22 lines on four sides, but the top of the monument is missing so the inscription is incomplete, with about 500 characters remaining.[8][9]
Rock inscription commemorating the presentation of a Buddhist statue
(Beiqing Nüzhen guoshu moya 北青女真國書摩崖)
1218 Mount Kwansan 串山, Pukchong
North Korea
40°15′N 128°18′E / 40.25°N 128.30°E / 40.25; 128.30 (Rock inscription commemorating the presentation of a Buddhist statue)
1911 In situ Jurchen inscription comprising about 40 characters.[8][10]
Yongning Temple Stele
Monument commemorating the foundation of Yongning Temple
(Yongningsi bei 永寧寺碑)
1413 Tyr
Russia
52°56′N 139°46′E / 52.93°N 139.76°E / 52.93; 139.76 (Monument commemorating the foundation of Yongning Temple)
known since 1639 Vladivostok Museum Main inscription in Chinese on the front, and secondary inscriptions (approximate translations of the Chinese) in Mongolian and Jurchen on the back (about 700 Jurchen characters); with the mantra Om mani padme hum written in Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan and Jurchen on both sides.[8][11]
Tomb memorial for the Zhaoyong General
(Zhaoyong dajiangjun tongzhi Xiongzhou jiedushi mubei 昭勇大將軍同知雄州節度使墓碑)
1186 Xiaocheng, Shulan
Jilin
44°14′06″N 127°09′18″E / 44.235°N 127.155°E / 44.235; 127.155 (Tomb memorial for the Zhaoyong General)
1979 1 line of Jurchen text (21 characters).[12]
Rock inscription commemorating a victory by Wanyan Xiang (1140–1202)
(Wanyan Xiang jigong moya bei 完顏襄記功摩崖碑)
1196 Bayankhutag, Khentii Province
Mongolia
47°10′N 110°49′E / 47.17°N 110.82°E / 47.17; 110.82 (Rock inscription commemorating a victory by Wanyan Xiang)
1979 9 lines of Jurchen text (about 140 characters), with Chinese translation nearby.[12]

Other inscriptions in the Jurchen script[edit]

Object Date Place of discovery Year of discovery Current Location Description
Inscriptions on a pagoda White Pagoda, Hohhot
Inner Mongolia
40°50′N 111°54′E / 40.84°N 111.90°E / 40.84; 111.90 (Inscriptions on a pagoda)
[13]
Rock inscriptions Du'erji, Horqin Right Middle Banner
Inner Mongolia
45°12′N 121°10′E / 45.20°N 121.16°E / 45.20; 121.16 (Rock inscriptions)
[14]
Rock inscriptions Wulanmaodu, Horqin Right Front Banner
Inner Mongolia
46°23′N 121°12′E / 46.39°N 121.20°E / 46.39; 121.20 (Rock inscriptions)
[14]
Inscription on a sacrificial platform Heaven Lake, Fusong County
Jilin
42°01′30″N 128°03′18″E / 42.025°N 128.055°E / 42.025; 128.055 (Inscription on a sacrificial platform)
3 Jurchen characters on a Jin dynasty sacrificial platform at the edge of the lake.[citation needed]
Medallion Unknown Unknown (only known from a drawing in a Ming Dynasty catalogue of molds for making ink) Medallion with the Jurchen translation of a Chinese couplet, "When a wise king is heedful of virtue, foreigners from all quarters come as guests" (Ming wang shen de, si yi xian bin 明王慎德, 四夷咸賓).[15]
Seal of the head of the Kechenshan 100 households
(Kechenshan mouke yin 可陳山謀克印)
1178 Helong, Yanbian
Jilin
42°33′N 129°00′E / 42.55°N 129.00°E / 42.55; 129.00 (Seal of the head of the Kechenshan 100 households)
1916 Official seal with Chinese inscription on the seal face, and a Jurchen inscription of 13 characters on the side.[16]
Seal of the head of the Yigaidagehe 100 households
(Yigaidagehe mouke yin 移改達葛河謀克印)
1179 Palace Museum, Beijing Official seal with Chinese inscription on the seal face, and a Jurchen inscription of 7 characters on the side.[16]
Seal of the head of the Hetouhulunhe 100 households
(Hetouhulunhe mouke yin 河頭胡論河謀克印)
1176 Tianjin Museum Official seal with Chinese inscription on the seal face, and a Jurchen inscription of 6 characters on the side.[16]
Seal of the head of the Hezhuohailuan 100 households
(Hezhuohailuan mouke yin 和拙海欒謀克印)
1178 Tianjin Museum Official seal with Chinese inscription on the seal face, and a Jurchen inscription of 8 characters on the side.[16]
Seal of the head of the Jiahunshan 100 households
(Jiahunshan mouke yin 夾渾山謀克印)
1178 Palace Museum, Beijing Official seal with Chinese inscription on the seal face, and a Jurchen inscription of 7 characters on the side.[16]
Seal of the head of the Milidiehe 100 households
(Milidiehe mouke yin 迷里迭河謀克印)
1179 Harbin
Heilongjiang
45°51′N 126°39′E / 45.85°N 126.65°E / 45.85; 126.65 (Seal of the head of the Milidiehe 100 households)
1986 Harbin Cultural Office Official seal with Chinese inscription on the seal face, and a Jurchen inscription on the side.[17]
Seal of the head of the Supakunshan 100 households
(Supakunshan mouke yin 速怕昆山謀克印)
1222 (Eastern Xia) Aolimi Ancient City (奥里米古城), Suibin County
Heilongjiang
47°17′24″N 131°48′54″E / 47.290°N 131.815°E / 47.290; 131.815 (Seal of the head of the Supakunshan 100 households)
1987 Hegang Cultural Relics Office Official seal with Chinese inscription on the seal face, and a Jurchen inscription on the side.[17]
Bronze mirror
(Kouwei meng'an tongjing 叩畏猛安銅鏡)
Song dynasty mirror with a later Jurchen inscription ("head of Kouwei 1,000 households") engraved along the edge.[18]
Bronze mirror Chengzi He 承紫河, Mishan
Heilongjiang
45°26′N 132°22′E / 45.44°N 132.37°E / 45.44; 132.37 (Bronze mirror)
1974 Mirror with a 9 character Jurchen inscription engraved along the edge.[13]
Silver paiza Shaygino, Primorsky Krai
Russia
43°20′N 133°00′E / 43.33°N 133.00°E / 43.33; 133.00 (Silver paiza)
1976 Silver pass with a Jurchen inscription in five characters reading gurun ni xada-xun meaning "Trust of the Country".[19]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Kane 1989, pp. 43–45
  2. ^ a b c Jin Guangping & Jin Qizong 1980, p. 37
  3. ^ Kane 1989, pp. 46–50
  4. ^ Kane 1989, pp. 51–53
  5. ^ Kane 1989, pp. 54–55
  6. ^ Jin Guangping & Jin Qizong 1980, pp. 37–38
  7. ^ Kane 1989, pp. 56–59
  8. ^ a b c d Jin Guangping & Jin Qizong 1980, p. 38
  9. ^ Kane 1989, pp. 59–62
  10. ^ Kane 1989, pp. 62–63
  11. ^ Kane 1989, pp. 63–68
  12. ^ a b Kane 1989, p. 69
  13. ^ a b Jin Guangping & Jin Qizong 1980, p. 40
  14. ^ a b Jin Guangping & Jin Qizong 1980, p. 41
  15. ^ Kane 1989, pp. 71–72
  16. ^ a b c d e Jin Guangping & Jin Qizong 1980, p. 39
  17. ^ a b Usuki Isao 臼杵勲. "北東アジア出土官印表(稿)". Retrieved 2010-12-28. 
  18. ^ Jin Guangping & Jin Qizong 1980, pp. 39–40
  19. ^ Kane 1989, pp. 72–73

References[edit]

  • Jin Guangping 金廣平; Jin Qizong 金啓孮 (1980). 女真語言文字妍究 (in Chinese). Wenwu chubanshe. 
  • Kane, Daniel (1989). The Sino-Jurchen Vocabulary of the Bureau of Interpreters. Indiana University, Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies. ISBN 978-0-933070-23-3. 

External links[edit]