Grand Chancellor of France

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In France, under the Ancien Régime, the officer of state responsible for the judiciary was the Grand Chancellor of France (French: Grand Chancelier de France). The Chancellor was responsible for seeing that royal decrees were enrolled and registered by the sundry parlements, provincial appellate courts. However, since the Chancellor was appointed for life, and might fall from favour, or be too ill to carry out his duties, his duties would occasionally fall to his deputy, the Keeper of the Seals of France (French: Garde des sceaux de France).

The last Chancellor died in 1790, by which time the French Revolution was well underway, and the position was left vacant. Instead, in 1791, the Chancellor's portfolio and responsibilities were assigned to the Keeper of the Seals who was accordingly given the additional title of Minister of Justice under the Revolutionary government. The modern Minister of Justice is ceremonially known by both titles. See also Royal Administration of Merovingian and Carolingian Dynasties.

Frankish chancellors under the Merovingians and Carolingians[edit]

See also Royal Administration of Merovingian and Carolingian Dynasties.

Chancellors of France[edit]

Chancellor Began Ended
Renaud de Vendôme, Bishop of Paris 989 991
Gerbert d'Aurillac, later Pope Sylvester II 991 998
Roger de Blois 998 1005
Francon 1005 1015
Arnoul, Archbishop of Tours 1018
Baudouin 1030 circa 1059
Gervais de Château-du-Loir, Bishop of Le Mans 1059 1067
Pierre de Loiselève 1067 1073
Guillaume 1073
Roger II, Bishop of Beauvais 1074 1080
Geoffroy de Boulogne, Bishop of Paris 1074 1085
Gilbert 1085 1090
Ourson or Ursion, Bishop of Senlis 1090
Hubert, Bishop of Senlis 1091 1092
Gilbert 1094 1106
Étienne de Senlis, Bishop of Paris 1106 1118
Étienne de Garlande 1118 1127
Simon 1127 1132
Étienne de Garlande 1132 1137
Algrin 1137 1140
Noël, abbot of Rebais 1140
Cadurc 1140 1147
Barthélemy 1147 1149
Simon 1150
Hugues de Champfleury, Bishop of Soissons 1150 1172
Hugues du Puiset 1179 1185
Guérin, monk and Bishop of Senlis 1203 1227
Philippe d'Antogny 1227 1231
Aubry Cornu 1231 1236
Jean de la Cour 1236 1244
Nicolas Le Chien, 1244 1249
Gilles, Archbishop of Tyros 1249 1252
Raoul de Grosparmy 1252 1259
Guy Faucoi, later Pope Clement IV before 1260
Simon de Brie, later Pope Martin IV 1259 1261
Philippe de Cahors, Prior of Saint-Frambaud de Senlis 1262 1270
Guillaume de Rampillon, Archdeacon of Paris 1270
Guillaume de Chartres, Dominican friar 1270
Pierre Barbet 1271 1273
Henri de Vézélay 1273 1282
Pierre Chalon 1282 1290
Jean de Vassoigne 1291 1292
Guillaume de Crépy 1293 1296
Thibaut de Pouancé, Bishop of Dol 1296 1297
Pierre Flote, knight 1297 1302
Étienne de Suizy 1302 1304
Pierre de Mornay, Bishop of Auxerre 1304 1306
Pierre de Grez 1306
Pierre de Belleperche, Bishop of Auxerre 1306 1307
Guillaume de Nogaret, knight 1307 1310
Gilles I Aycelin de Montaigu, Archbishop of Narbonne 1310 1311
Guillaume de Nogaret 1311 1313
Pierre de Latilly, Bishop of Châlons 1313 1314
Étienne de Mornay 1314 1316
Pierre d'Arabloy 1316
Pierre de Chappes 1317 1321
Jean de Cherchemont 1320 1321
Pierre Rodier 1321 1323
Jean de Cherchemont 1323 1328
Mathieu Ferrand 1328 1329
Jean de Marigny, Bishop of Beauvais 1329
Guillaume de Saint-Maure 1329 1334
Roger, Bishop of Arras, later Pope Clement VI 1334
Guy Baudet, bishop of Langres 1335 1338
Étienne de Vissac, knight 1338 1339
Guillaume Flote 1339 1347
Firmin de Coquerel, Bishop of Noyon 1347 1349
Pierre de la Forest, Archbishop of Rouen 1349 1357
Gilles Aycelin de Montaigut, Bishop of Thérouanne 1357 1358
Foulques Bardoul, Bishop of Avranches 1357 1359
Jean de Dormans, Bishop of Lisieux 1358
Pierre de la Forest, cardinal, Archbishop of Rouen 1359 1361
Gilles Aycelin de Montaigut, Bishop of Thérouanne 1361
Jean de Dormans, Bishop of Beauvais[1] 18 September 1361 1372
Guillaume de Dormans 1372 1373
Jean de Dormans, 1373
Pierre d'Orgemont (First President of the Parlement de Paris)[2] 20 November 1373 1380
Miles de Dormans, Bishop of Beauvais October 1380 1383
Pierre de Giac 1383 December 1388
Arnaud de Corbie December 1388 1398
Nicolas du Bosc, Bishop of Bayeux 1398 1400
Arnaud de Corbie 1400 1405
Jean de Montagu, Archbishop of Sens 1405 1413
Arnaud de Corbie 1409 8 August 1413
Eustache de Laistre 1413
Henri de Marie August 1413 29 May 1418
Robert le Maçon 1418
Eustache de Laistre 1418 1420
Robert le Maçon 1419 1421
Jean Le Clerc, Burgundian party.[3] 1420 1424
Martin Gouge, Bishop of Clermont, Charles VII's faction 1421 1425
Lewis of Luxembourg, Bishop of Thérouanne, Burgundian party 1424 1435
Renault de Chartres, Archbishop of Reims, Charles VII's factions 1425 1445
Guillaume Jouvenel des Ursins 1445 1461
Pierre de Morvilliers 1461 1465
Guillaume Jouvenel des Ursins 1465 1472
Pierre Doriole 1472 1483
Guillaume de Rochefort 1483 12 August 1492
Adam Fumée 1492 November 1494
Robert Briçonnet, Archbishop of Reims August 1495 1497
Guy de Rochefort 1497 1507/1508
Jean de Ganay 1508 1512
Antoine Duprat, Cardinal, Archbishop of Sens and Bishop of Albi 1515 1535
Antoine du Bourg 1535 1538
Guillaume Poyet 1538 1545
François Olivier 1545 1560
Michel de l'Hospital 1560 1568
Jean de Morvilliers, Bishop of Orléans 1568 1571
René de Birague, Cardinal 1573 1583
Philippe Hurault, comte de Cheverny 1583 1599
Pomponne de Bellièvre 2 August 1599 9 September 1607
Nicolas Brûlart de Sillery 10 September 1607 1 October 1624
Étienne I d'Aligre 3 October 1624 11 December 1635
Pierre Séguier 19 December 1635 28 January 1672
Étienne II d'Aligre 8 January 1674 28 October 1677
Michel Le Tellier 29 October 1677 30 October 1685
Louis Boucherat, Count of Compans 1 November 1685 2 September 1699
Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain 5 September 1699 1 July 1714
Daniel Voysin de La Noiraye 2 July 1714 2 February 1717
Henri François d'Aguesseau 3 February 1717 27 October 1750
Guillaume de Lamoignon de Blancmesnil 10 December 1750 14 September 1768
René Charles de Maupeou 15 September 1768 16 September 1768
René Nicolas de Maupeou 16 September 1768 1 July 1790

Keepers of the Seals, 1699–1790[edit]

Keeper of the Seals Began Ended
Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain 5 September 1699 1 July 1714
Daniel Voysin de La Noiraye 2 July 1714 2 February 1717
Henri François d'Aguesseau 3 February 1717 28 January 1718
Marc René de Voyer de Paulmy, Marquis d'Argenson 28 January 1718 7 June 1720
Henri François d'Aguesseau 8 June 1720 28 February 1722
Joseph Jean Baptiste Fleuriau d'Armenonville 28 February 1722 17 August 1727
Germain Louis Chauvelin 23 August 1727 20 February 1737
Henri François d'Aguesseau 20 February 1737 27 November 1750
Jean-Baptiste de Machault d'Arnouville 27 November 1750 1 February 1757
vacant 1 February 1757 13 October 1761
Nicolas René Berryer 13 October 1761 15 September 1762
Paul Esprit Feydeau de Brou 27 September 1762 3 October 1763
René Charles de Maupeou 3 October 1763 18 September 1768
René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou 18 September 1768 24 August 1774
Armand Thomas Hue de Miromesnil 24 August 1774 8 April 1787
Chrétien François de Lamoignon de Basville 8 April 1787 14 September 1788
Charles Louis François de Paule de Barentin 17 September 1788 3 August 1789
Jérôme Champion de Cicé 4 August 1789 21 November 1790

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Conradus Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi Tomus I, editio altera (Monasterii 1913), p. 132.
  2. ^ The only chancellor to have been elected by an assembly gathered by Charles V.
  3. ^ Chancellor for Henry VI's position as king of France.