List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

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The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest ranking judicial body in the United States. Its membership, as set by the Judiciary Act of 1869, consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, any six of whom would constitute a quorum.[1][2] Justices are nominated by the President of the United States and appointed after confirmation by the United States Senate. Justices of the Supreme Court have life tenure[3] and receive a salary which is set at $255,500 per year for the chief justice and at $244,400 per year for each associate justice as of 2014.[4][5][6]

The Supreme Court was created in 1789 by Article III of the United States Constitution, which stipulated that the "judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court" together with any lower courts Congress may establish.[3] Congress organized the Court that year with the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789. It specified the Court's original and appellate jurisdiction, created thirteen judicial districts, and fixed the number of justices at six (one chief justice and five associate justices).[7][8]

Since 1789, Congress has occasionally altered the size of the Supreme Court, historically in response to the country's own expansion in size. An 1801 act would have decreased the Court's size to five members upon its next vacancy. However, an 1802 act negated the effects of the 1801 act upon the Court before any such vacancy occurred, maintaining the Court's size at six members. Later legislation increased its size to seven members in 1807, to nine in 1837, and to ten in 1863. An 1866 act was to have reduced the Court's size from ten members to seven upon its next three vacancies, and two vacancies did occur during this period. However, before a third vacancy occurred, the Judiciary Act of 1869 intervened, restoring the Court's size to nine members, where it has remained since.[9]

While the justices of the Supreme Court are appointed for life, many have retired or resigned. Beginning in the early 20th century, many justices who left the Court voluntarily did so by retiring from the Court without leaving the federal judiciary altogether. A retired justice, according to the United States Code, is no longer a member of the Supreme Court, but remains eligible to serve by designation as a judge of a U.S. Court of Appeals or District Court, and many retired justices have served in these capacities. Historically, the average length of service on the Court has been less than 15 years. However, since 1970 the average length of service has increased to about 26 years.[10]

Current justices of the Supreme Court[edit]

There are currently nine justices serving on the Supreme Court; listed in order of seniority, they are:

All justices of the Supreme Court[edit]

Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, 113 persons have served on the Court. William O. Douglas holds the record for longest tenure on the Court – 36 years, 211 days, and Thomas Johnson's 163 day tenure is the shortest. Five individuals were confirmed for associate justice, and later appointed chief justice separately: Charles Evans Hughes,[a] William Rehnquist,[b] John Rutledge,[a] Harlan F. Stone,[b] and Edward Douglass White.[b] While listed twice, each of them has been assigned only one index number. The justices of the Supreme Court are:[20][21]

Justice State[c] Position Replacing Date confirmed
(Vote)
Tenure Tenure length[d] Appointed by
1 John Jay (Gilbert Stuart portrait).jpg John Jay
(1745–1829)
NY Chief
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
October 19, 1789

June 29, 1795
(Resigned)
5 years, 253 days George Washington
2 John Rutledge.jpg John Rutledge
(1739–1800)
SC Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 15, 1790

March 4, 1791
(Resigned)
1 year, 17 days
3 WilliamCushing.jpg William Cushing
(1732–1810)
MA Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 2, 1790

September 13, 1810
(Died)
20 years, 223 days
4 JusticeJamesWilson.jpg James Wilson
(1742–1798)
PA Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
October 5, 1789

August 21, 1798
(Died)
8 years, 320 days
5 JohnBlair.jpg John Blair
(1732–1800)
VA Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 2, 1790

October 25, 1795
(Resigned)
5 years, 265 days
6 JamesIredell.jpg James Iredell
(1751–1799)
NC Associate
Justice
New seat February 10, 1790
(Acclamation)
May 12, 1790

October 20, 1799
(Died)
9 years, 161 days
7 Thomas Johnson (governor).jpeg Thomas Johnson
(1732–1819)
MD Associate
Justice
J. Rutledge November 7, 1791
(Acclamation)
August 6, 1792[e]

January 16, 1793
(Resigned)
163 days
8 William Paterson copy.jpg William Paterson
(1745–1806)
NJ Associate
Justice
T. Johnson March 4, 1793
(Acclamation)
March 11, 1793

September 8, 1806
(Died)
13 years, 181 days
2 John Rutledge.jpg John Rutledge
(1739–1800)
SC Chief
Justice
Jay December 15, 1795
(10–14)[f]
August 12, 1795[e]

December 28, 1795
(Resigned, nomination having been rejected)
138 days
9 Samuel Chase.jpg Samuel Chase[g]
(1741–1811)
MD Associate
Justice
Blair January 27, 1796
(Acclamation)
February 4, 1796

June 19, 1811
(Died)
15 years, 135 days
10 Oliver ellsworth.jpeg Oliver Ellsworth
(1745–1807)
CT Chief
Justice
J. Rutledge March 4, 1796
(21–1)
March 8, 1796

December 15, 1800
(Resigned)
4 years, 282 days
11 BushrodWashington.jpg Bushrod Washington
(1762–1829)
VA Associate
Justice
Wilson December 20, 1798
(Acclamation)
November 9, 1798[e]

November 26, 1829
(Died)
31 years, 17 days John Adams
12 AlfredMoore.jpg Alfred Moore
(1755–1810)
NC Associate
Justice
Iredell December 9, 1799
(Acclamation)
April 21, 1800

January 26, 1804
(Resigned)
3 years, 280 days
13 John Marshall by Henry Inman, 1832.jpg John Marshall
(1755–1835)
VA Chief
Justice
Ellsworth January 27, 1801
(Acclamation)
February 4, 1801

July 6, 1835
(died)
34 years, 152 days
14 WilliamJohnson.jpg William Johnson
(1771–1834)
SC Associate
Justice
Moore March 24, 1804
(Acclamation)
May 7, 1804

August 4, 1834
(Died)
30 years, 89 days Thomas Jefferson
15 Henry Brockholst Livingston.jpg Henry Brockholst Livingston
(1757–1823)
NY Associate
Justice
Paterson December 17, 1806
(Acclamation)
January 20, 1807

March 18, 1823
(Died)
16 years, 57 days
16 Thomas Todd SCOTUS.jpg Thomas Todd
(1765–1826)
KY Associate
Justice
New seat March 2, 1807
(Acclamation)
March 3, 1807

February 7, 1826
(Died)
18 years, 341 days
17 GabrielDuvall.jpg Gabriel Duvall
(1752–1844)
MD Associate
Justice
S. Chase November 18, 1811
(Acclamation)
November 23, 1811

January 12, 1835
(Resigned)
23 years, 50 days James Madison
18 Daguerreotype of Joseph Story, 1844 (edit).jpg Joseph Story
(1779–1845)
MA Associate
Justice
Cushing November 18, 1811
(Acclamation)
February 3, 1812

September 10, 1845
(Died)
33 years, 219 days
19 SmithThompson.jpg Smith Thompson
(1768–1843)
NY Associate
Justice
Livingston December 9, 1823
(Acclamation)
September 1, 1823[e]

December 18, 1843
(Died)
20 years, 108 days James Monroe
20 RobertTrimble.jpg Robert Trimble
(1776–1828)
KY Associate
Justice
Todd May 9, 1826
(25–5)
June 16, 1826

August 25, 1828
(Died)
2 years, 70 days John Quincy Adams
21 Justice John McLean daguerreotype by Mathew Brady 1849.jpg John McLean
(1785–1861)
OH Associate
Justice
Trimble March 7, 1829
(Acclamation)
January 11, 1830

April 4, 1861
(Died)
31 years, 83 days Andrew Jackson
22 Henry baldwin (justice).jpg Henry Baldwin
(1780–1844)
PA Associate
Justice
Washington January 6, 1830
(41–2)
January 18, 1830

April 21, 1844
(Died)
14 years, 94 days
23 JMWayne2.jpg James Moore Wayne
(1790–1867)
GA Associate
Justice
W. Johnson January 9, 1835
(Acclamation)
January 14, 1835

July 5, 1867
(Died)
32 years, 172 days
24 Roger B. Taney - Brady-Handy.jpg Roger B. Taney
(1777–1864)
MD Chief
Justice
J. Marshall March 15, 1836
(29–15)
March 28, 1836

October 12, 1864
(Died)
28 years, 198 days
25 PPBarbour.jpg Philip Pendleton Barbour
(1783–1841)
VA Associate
Justice
Duvall March 15, 1836
(30–11)
May 12, 1836

February 25, 1841
(Died)
4 years, 289 days
26 John Catron - Brady-Handy.jpg John Catron
(1786–1865)
TN Associate
Justice
New seat March 8, 1837
(28–15)
May 1, 1837

May 30, 1865
(Died)
28 years, 29 days
27 John McKinley.jpg John McKinley
(1780–1852)
AL Associate
Justice
New seat September 25, 1837
(Acclamation)
January 9, 1838

July 19, 1852
(Died)
14 years, 192 days Martin Van Buren
28 PVDaniel.jpg Peter Vivian Daniel
(1784–1860)
VA Associate
Justice
Barbour March 2, 1841
(25–5)
January 10, 1842

May 31, 1860
(Died)
18 years, 142 days
29 Samuel Nelson - Brady-Handy.jpg Samuel Nelson
(1792–1873)
NY Associate
Justice
Thompson February 14, 1845
(Acclamation)
February 27, 1845

November 28, 1872
(Retired)
27 years, 275 days John Tyler
30 LeviWoodbury.png Levi Woodbury
(1789–1851)
NH Associate
Justice
Story January 31, 1846
(Acclamation)
September 23, 1845[e]

September 4, 1851
(Died)
5 years, 346 days James K. Polk
31 Robert Cooper Grier - Brady-Handy.jpg Robert Cooper Grier
(1794–1870)
PA Associate
Justice
Baldwin August 4, 1846
(Acclamation)
August 10, 1846

January 31, 1870
(Retired)
23 years, 174 days
32 BRCurtis.jpg Benjamin Robbins Curtis
(1809–1874)
MA Associate
Justice
Woodbury December 20, 1851
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1851[e]

September 30, 1857
(Resigned)
5 years, 355 days Millard Fillmore
33 John Archibald Campbell - Brady-Handy.jpg John Archibald Campbell
(1811–1889)
AL Associate
Justice
McKinley March 22, 1853
(Acclamation)
April 11, 1853

April 30, 1861
(Resigned)
8 years, 19 days Franklin Pierce
34 NClifford.jpg Nathan Clifford
(1803–1881)
ME Associate
Justice
Curtis January 12, 1858
(26–23)
January 21, 1858

July 25, 1881
(Died)
23 years, 185 days James Buchanan
35 Noah Haynes Swayne, photo, head and shoulders, seated.jpg Noah Haynes Swayne
(1804–1884)
OH Associate
Justice
McLean January 24, 1862
(38–1)
January 27, 1862

January 24, 1881
(Retired)
18 years, 363 days Abraham Lincoln
36 Samuel Freeman Miller - Brady-Handy.jpg Samuel Freeman Miller
(1816–1890)
IA Associate
Justice
Daniel July 16, 1862
(Acclamation)
July 21, 1862

October 13, 1890
(Died)
28 years, 84 days
37 DDavis.jpg David Davis
(1815–1886)
IL Associate
Justice
Campbell December 8, 1862
(Acclamation)
December 10, 1862[e]

March 4, 1877
(Resigned)
14 years, 84 days
38 Stephen Johnson Field, photo half length seated, 1875.jpg Stephen Johnson Field
(1816–1899)
CA Associate
Justice
New seat March 10, 1863
(Acclamation)
May 10, 1863

December 1, 1897
(Retired)
34 years, 205 days
39 Mathew Brady, Portrait of Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, officer of the United States government (1860–1865).jpg Salmon P. Chase
(1808–1873)
OH Chief
Justice
Taney December 6, 1864
(Acclamation)
December 15, 1864

May 7, 1873
(Died)
8 years, 143 days
40 William Strong judge - Brady-Handy.jpg William Strong
(1808–1895)
PA Associate
Justice
Grier February 18, 1870
(No vote recorded)
March 14, 1870

December 14, 1880
(Retired)
10 years, 275 days Ulysses S. Grant
41 Joseph Philo Bradley - Brady-Handy.jpg Joseph Philo Bradley
(1813–1892)
NJ Associate
Justice
New seat March 21, 1870
(46–9)
March 23, 1870

January 22, 1892
(Died)
21 years, 305 days
42 Ward Hunt - Brady-Handy.jpg Ward Hunt
(1810–1886)
NY Associate
Justice
Nelson December 11, 1872
(Acclamation)
January 9, 1873

January 27, 1882
(Retired)
9 years, 18 days
43 Chief Justice Morrison Waite.jpg Morrison Waite
(1816–1888)
OH Chief
Justice
S. P. Chase January 21, 1874
(63–0)
March 4, 1874

March 23, 1888
(Died)
14 years, 19 days
44 JudgeJMHarlan.jpg John Marshall Harlan
(1833–1911)
KY Associate
Justice
Davis November 29, 1877
(Acclamation)
December 10, 1877

October 14, 1911
(Died)
33 years, 308 days Rutherford B. Hayes
45 William Burnham Woods.jpg William Burnham Woods
(1824–1887)
GA Associate
Justice
Strong December 21, 1880
(39–8)
January 5, 1881

May 14, 1887
(Died)
6 years, 129 days
46 Thomas Stanley Matthews - Brady-Handy.jpg Stanley Matthews
(1824–1889)
OH Associate
Justice
Swayne May 12, 1881
(24–23)
May 17, 1881

March 22, 1889
(Died)
7 years, 309 days James Garfield
47 Horacegrayphoto.jpg Horace Gray
(1828–1902)
MA Associate
Justice
Clifford December 20, 1881
(51–5)
January 9, 1882

September 15, 1902
(Died)
20 years, 249 days Chester A. Arthur
48 Samuel Blatchford.jpg Samuel Blatchford
(1820–1893)
NY Associate
Justice
Hunt March 22, 1882
(Acclamation)
April 3, 1882

July 7, 1893
(Died)
11 years, 95 days
49 Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II - Brady-Handy.jpg Lucius Quintus
Cincinnatus Lamar II

(1825–1893)
MS Associate
Justice
Woods January 16, 1888
(32–28)
January 18, 1888

January 23, 1893
(Died)
5 years, 5 days Grover Cleveland
50 Melville Weston Fuller Chief Justice 1908.jpg Melville Fuller
(1833–1910)
IL Chief
Justice
Waite July 20, 1888
(41–20)
October 8, 1888

July 4, 1910
(Died)
21 years, 269 days
51 DavidBrewer.jpg David Josiah Brewer
(1837–1910)
KS Associate
Justice
Matthews December 18, 1889
(53–11)
January 6, 1890

March 28, 1910
(Died)
20 years, 81 days Benjamin Harrison
52 Portrait of Henry Billings Brown.jpg Henry Billings Brown
(1836–1913)
MI Associate
Justice
Miller December 29, 1890
(Acclamation)
January 5, 1891

May 28, 1906
(Retired)
16 years, 143 days
53 George Shiras Jr.jpg George Shiras, Jr.
(1832–1924)
PA Associate
Justice
Bradley July 26, 1892
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1892

February 23, 1903
(Retired)
10 years, 136 days
54 Justice Howell Jackson2.jpg Howell Edmunds Jackson
(1832–1895)
TN Associate
Justice
L. Lamar February 18, 1893
(Acclamation)
March 4, 1893

August 8, 1895
(Died)
2 years, 157 days
55 Edward White, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left, 1905.jpg Edward Douglass White
(1845–1921)
LA Associate
Justice
Blatchford February 19, 1894
(Acclamation)
March 12, 1894

December 18, 1910
(Continued as chief justice)
16 years, 281 days Grover Cleveland
56 Rufus Wheeler Peckham cph.3b30513.jpg Rufus Wheeler Peckham
(1838–1909)
NY Associate
Justice
H. Jackson December 9, 1895
(Acclamation)
January 6, 1896

October 24, 1909
(Died)
13 years, 291 days
57 Joseph McKenna (assoc justice).jpg Joseph McKenna
(1843–1926)
CA Associate
Justice
[h]
Field January 21, 1898
(Acclamation)
January 26, 1898

January 5, 1925
(Retired)
26 years, 345 days William McKinley
58 Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr circa 1930-edit.jpg Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
(1841–1935)
MA Associate
Justice
[i]
Gray December 4, 1902
(Acclamation)
December 8, 1902

January 12, 1932
(Retired)
29 years, 35 days Theodore Roosevelt
59 William Rufus Day cph.3b31004.jpg William R. Day
(1849–1923)
OH Associate
Justice
Shiras February 23, 1903
(Acclamation)
March 2, 1903

November 13, 1922
(Retired)
19 years, 256 days
60 WHMoody.jpg William Henry Moody
(1853–1917)
MA Associate
Justice
Brown December 12, 1906
(Acclamation)
December 17, 1906

November 20, 1910
(Retired)
3 years, 338 days
61 HoraceHarmonLurton.jpg Horace Harmon Lurton
(1844–1914)
TN Associate
Justice
Peckham December 20, 1909
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1910

July 12, 1914
(Died)
4 years, 204 days William Howard Taft
62 Charles Evans Hughes cph.3b15401.jpg Charles Evans Hughes
(1862–1948)
NY Associate
Justice
Brewer May 2, 1910
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1910

June 10, 1916
(Resigned)
5 years, 244 days
55 Edward White, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left, 1905.jpg Edward Douglass White
(1845–1921)
LA Chief
Justice
Fuller December 12, 1910
(Acclamation)
December 19, 1910

May 19, 1921
(Died)
10 years, 151 days
63 Willis Van Devanter.jpg Willis Van Devanter
(1859–1941)
WY Associate
Justice
E. D. White December 15, 1910
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1911[j]

June 2, 1937
(Retired)
26 years, 150 days
64 Joseph Lamar.jpg Joseph Rucker Lamar
(1857–1916)
GA Associate
Justice
Moody December 15, 1910
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1911[j]

January 2, 1916
(Died)
4 years, 364 days
65 Mahlon Pitney cph.3b30300.jpg Mahlon Pitney
(1858–1924)
NJ Associate
Justice
J. Harlan March 13, 1912
(50–26)
March 18, 1912

December 31, 1922
(Resigned)
10 years, 288 days
66 Jamescmcreynolds.jpg James Clark McReynolds
(1862–1946)
TN Associate
Justice
Lurton August 29, 1914
(44–6)
October 12, 1914

January 31, 1941
(Retired)
26 years, 111 days Woodrow Wilson
67 Brandeisl.jpg Louis Brandeis
(1856–1941)
KY Associate
Justice
J. Lamar June 1, 1916
(47–22)
June 5, 1916

February 13, 1939
(Retired)
22 years, 253 days
68 John Hessin Clarke cph.3b09252.jpg John Hessin Clarke
(1857–1945)
OH Associate
Justice
Hughes July 24, 1916
(Acclamation)
October 9, 1916

September 18, 1922
(Retired)
5 years, 344 days
69 William Howard Taft 1909b.jpg William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
CT Chief
Justice
E. D. White June 30, 1921
(Acclamation)
July 11, 1921

February 3, 1930
(Retired)
8 years, 207 days Warren G. Harding
70 Justice George Sutherland 5.jpg George Sutherland
(1862–1942)
UT Associate
Justice
Clarke September 5, 1922
(Acclamation)
October 2, 1922

January 17, 1938
(Retired)
15 years, 107 days
71 Pierce Butler of the United States Supreme Court.jpg Pierce Butler
(1866–1939)
MN Associate
Justice
Day December 21, 1922
(61–8)
January 2, 1923

November 16, 1939
(Died)
16 years, 318 days
72 Justice Edward Terry Sanford.jpg Edward Terry Sanford
(1865–1930)
TN Associate
Justice
Pitney January 29, 1923
(Acclamation)
February 19, 1923

March 8, 1930
(Died)
7 years, 17 days
73 Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone photograph circa 1927-1932.jpg Harlan F. Stone
(1872–1946)
NY Associate
Justice
[k]
McKenna February 5, 1925
(71–6)
March 2, 1925

July 2, 1941
(Continued as chief justice)
16 years, 122 days Calvin Coolidge
62 Charles Evans Hughes cph.3b15401.jpg Charles Evans Hughes
(1862–1948)
NY Chief
Justice
Taft February 13, 1930
(52–26)
February 24, 1930

June 30, 1941
(Retired)
11 years, 126 days Herbert Hoover
74 Owen J. Roberts cph.3b11988.jpg Owen Josephus Roberts
(1875–1955)
PA Associate
Justice
Sanford May 20, 1930
(Acclamation)
June 2, 1930

July 31, 1945
(Resigned)
15 years, 59 days
75 Benjamin Cardozo.jpg Benjamin N. Cardozo
(1870–1938)
NY Associate
Justice
Holmes February 24, 1932
(Acclamation)
March 14, 1932

July 9, 1938
(Died)
6 years, 117 days
76 HugoLaFayetteBlack.jpg Hugo Black
(1886–1971)
AL Associate
Justice
[l]
Van Devanter August 17, 1937
(63–16)
August 19, 1937

September 17, 1971
(Retired)
34 years, 29 days Franklin D. Roosevelt
77 Stanley Forman Reed.jpg Stanley Forman Reed
(1884–1980)
KY Associate
Justice
Sutherland January 25, 1938
(Acclamation)
January 31, 1938

February 25, 1957
(Retired)
19 years, 25 days
78 Frankfurter-Felix-LOC.jpg Felix Frankfurter
(1882–1965)
MA Associate
Justice
Cardozo January 17, 1939
(Acclamation)
January 30, 1939

August 28, 1962
(Retired)
23 years, 210 days
79 Justice William O Douglas.jpg William O. Douglas
(1898–1980)
CT Associate
Justice
Brandeis April 4, 1939
(62–4)
April 17, 1939

November 12, 1975
(Retired)
36 years, 211 days
80 Justice Frank Murphy.jpg Frank Murphy
(1890–1949)
MI Associate
Justice
Butler January 16, 1940
(Acclamation)
February 5, 1940

July 19, 1949
(Died)
9 years, 164 days
73 Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone photograph circa 1927-1932.jpg Harlan F. Stone
(1872–1946)
NY Chief
Justice
Hughes June 27, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 3, 1941

April 22, 1946
(Died)
4 years, 293 days
81 James F. Byrnes cph.3c32232.jpg James F. Byrnes
(1882–1972)
SC Associate
Justice
McReynolds June 12, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 8, 1941

October 3, 1942
(Resigned)
1 year, 87 days
82 Roberthjackson.jpg Robert H. Jackson
(1892–1954)
NY Associate
Justice
Stone July 7, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 11, 1941

October 9, 1954
(Died)
13 years, 90 days
83 Wiley Rutledge.jpg Wiley Blount Rutledge
(1894–1949)
IA Associate
Justice
Byrnes February 8, 1943
(Acclamation)
February 15, 1943

September 10, 1949
(Died)
6 years, 207 days
84 Harold Burton.jpg Harold Hitz Burton
(1888–1964)
OH Associate
Justice
O. Roberts September 19, 1945
(Acclamation)
October 1, 1945

October 13, 1958
(Retired)
13 years, 12 days Harry S. Truman
85 Fred m vinson.jpg Fred M. Vinson
(1890–1953)
KY Chief
Justice
Stone June 20, 1946
(Acclamation)
June 24, 1946

September 8, 1953
(Died)
7 years, 76 days
86 Tom C. Clark.gif Tom C. Clark
(1899–1977)
TX Associate
Justice
Murphy August 18, 1949
(73–8)
August 24, 1949

June 12, 1967
(Retired)
17 years, 292 days
87 Sherman Minton's official United States Supreme Court photograph.jpg Sherman Minton
(1890–1965)
IN Associate
Justice
W. Rutledge October 4, 1949
(48–16)
October 12, 1949

October 15, 1956
(Retired)
7 years, 3 days
88 Earl Warren.jpg Earl Warren
(1891–1974)
CA Chief
Justice
Vinson March 1, 1954
(Acclamation)
October 5, 1953[e]

June 23, 1969
(Retired)
15 years, 261 days Dwight D. Eisenhower
89 John Marshall Harlan II official.jpg John Marshall Harlan II
(1899–1971)
NY Associate
Justice
R. Jackson March 16, 1955
(71–11)
March 28, 1955

September 23, 1971
(Retired)
16 years, 179 days
90 William Brennan color.jpg William J. Brennan
(1906–1997)
NJ Associate
Justice
Minton March 19, 1957
(Acclamation)
October 16, 1956[e]

July 20, 1990
(Retired)
33 years, 277 days
91 Charles Whittaker.jpg Charles Evans Whittaker
(1901–1973)
MO Associate
Justice
Reed March 19, 1957
(Acclamation)
March 25, 1957

March 31, 1962
(Resigned)
5 years, 6 days
92 US Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart - 1976 official portrait.jpg Potter Stewart
(1915–1985)
OH Associate
Justice
Burton May 5, 1959
(70–17)
October 14, 1958[e]

July 3, 1981
(Retired)
22 years, 262 days
93 Justice White Official.jpg Byron White
(1917–2002)
CO Associate
Justice
Whittaker April 11, 1962
(Acclamation)
April 16, 1962

June 28, 1993
(Retired)
31 years, 73 days John F. Kennedy
94 Arthur Goldberg (1971).jpg Arthur Goldberg
(1908–1990)
IL Associate
Justice
Frankfurter September 25, 1962
(Acclamation)
October 1, 1962

July 25, 1965
(Resigned)
2 years, 300 days
95 SCOTUS Justice Abe Fortas.jpeg Abe Fortas
(1910–1982)
TN Associate
Justice
Goldberg August 11, 1965
(Acclamation)
October 4, 1965

May 14, 1969
(Resigned)
3 years, 222 days Lyndon B. Johnson
96 Thurgood-marshall-2.jpg Thurgood Marshall
(1908–1993)
NY Associate
Justice
Clark August 30, 1967
(69–11)
October 2, 1967

October 1, 1991
(Retired)
23 years, 364 days
97 Warren e burger photo.jpeg Warren E. Burger
(1907–1995)
VA Chief
Justice
Warren June 9, 1969
(74–3)
June 23, 1969

September 26, 1986
(Retired)
17 years, 95 days Richard Nixon
98 Justice Blackmun Official.jpg Harry Blackmun
(1908–1999)
MN Associate
Justice
Fortas May 12, 1970
(94–0)
June 9, 1970

August 3, 1994
(Retired)
24 years, 55 days
99 US Supreme Court Justice Lewis Powell - 1976 official portrait.jpg Lewis F. Powell Jr.
(1907–1998)
VA Associate
Justice
Black December 6, 1971
(89–1)
January 7, 1972[m]

June 26, 1987
(Retired)
15 years, 170 days
100 William Rehnquist.jpg William Rehnquist
(1924–2005)
AZ Associate
Justice
J. Harlan II December 10, 1971
(68–26)
January 7, 1972[m]

September 26, 1986
(Continued as chief justice)
14 years, 262 days
101 John Paul Stevens, SCOTUS photo portrait.jpg John Paul Stevens
(born 1920)
IL Associate
Justice
[n]
Douglas December 17, 1975
(98–0)
December 19, 1975

June 29, 2010
(Retired)
34 years, 192 days Gerald Ford
102 Sandra Day O'Connor.jpg Sandra Day O'Connor
(born 1930)
AZ Associate
Justice
Stewart September 21, 1981
(99–0)
September 25, 1981

January 31, 2006
(Retired)
24 years, 128 days Ronald Reagan
100 William Rehnquist.jpg William Rehnquist
(1924–2005)
VA Chief
Justice
Burger September 17, 1986
(65–33)
September 26, 1986

September 3, 2005
(Died)
18 years, 342 days
103 Antonin Scalia Official SCOTUS Portrait crop.jpg Antonin Scalia
(1936–2016)
VA Associate
Justice
Rehnquist September 17, 1986
(98–0)
September 26, 1986

February 13, 2016
(Died)
29 years, 140 days
104 Anthony Kennedy official SCOTUS portrait.jpg Anthony Kennedy
(born 1936)
CA Associate
Justice
Powell February 3, 1988
(97–0)
February 18, 1988

Incumbent
30 years, 5 days[o]
105 DavidSouter.jpg David Souter
(born 1939)
NH Associate
Justice
Brennan October 2, 1990
(90–9)
October 9, 1990

June 29, 2009
(Retired)
18 years, 263 days George H. W. Bush
106 Clarence Thomas official SCOTUS portrait.jpg Clarence Thomas
(born 1948)
GA Associate
Justice
T. Marshall October 15, 1991
(52–48)
October 23, 1991

Incumbent
26 years, 123 days[o]
107 Ruth Bader Ginsburg 2016 portrait.jpg Ruth Bader Ginsburg
(born 1933)
NY Associate
Justice
B. White August 3, 1993
(96–3)
August 10, 1993

Incumbent
24 years, 197 days[o] Bill Clinton
108 Stephen Breyer, SCOTUS photo portrait.jpg Stephen Breyer
(born 1938)
MA Associate
Justice
Blackmun July 29, 1994
(87–9)
August 3, 1994

Incumbent
23 years, 204 days[o]
109 Official roberts CJ.jpg John Roberts
(born 1955)
MD Chief
Justice
Rehnquist September 29, 2005
(78–22)
September 29, 2005

Incumbent
12 years, 147 days[o] George W. Bush
110 010 alito.jpg Samuel Alito
(born 1950)
NJ Associate
Justice
O'Connor January 31, 2006
(58–42)
January 31, 2006

Incumbent
12 years, 23 days[o]
111 Sonia Sotomayor in SCOTUS robe.jpg Sonia Sotomayor
(born 1954)
NY Associate
Justice
Souter August 6, 2009
(68–31)
August 8, 2009

Incumbent
8 years, 199 days[o] Barack Obama
112 Elena Kagan Official SCOTUS Portrait (2013).jpg Elena Kagan
(born 1960)
MA Associate
Justice
Stevens August 5, 2010
(63–37)
August 7, 2010

Incumbent
7 years, 200 days[o]
113 Associate Justice Neil Gorsuch Official Portrait.jpg Neil Gorsuch
(born 1967)
CO Associate
Justice
Scalia April 7, 2017
(54–45)
April 10, 2017

Incumbent
319 days[o] Donald Trump
Justice State[c] Position Replacing Date confirmed
(Vote)
Tenure Tenure length Appointed by

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Served on the Supreme Court twice, first as associate justice, and then, after a period of years off the Court, as chief justice.
  2. ^ a b c Elevated from associate justice to chief justice while serving on the Supreme Court. Such appointments are subject to a separate confirmation process.
  3. ^ a b State of residence at the time of appointment. For example, in 1971, Rehnquist was appointed from Arizona, but in 1986, when elevated to chief justice, he was appointed from Virginia.[22]
  4. ^ The start date given for each justice is the day he or she took the prescribed judicial oath of office, with the end date being the date of the justice's death, resignation, or retirement.[21]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Recess appointment
  6. ^ This was the first Supreme Court nomination to be rejected by the Senate. Rutledge remains the only "recess appointed" justice not to be subsequently confirmed by the Senate.
  7. ^ Was impeached, but not convicted, and remained in office.
  8. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, May 19 – July 11, 1921.
  9. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, February 3–24, 1930.
  10. ^ a b While Willis Van Devanter and Joseph Rucker Lamar were sworn in as associate justice on the same date, their seniority (precedence) on the Supreme Court was determined by the seniority of their commissions—Van Devanter received and accepted his first—in accordance with XIII Rev. Stat. 9 § 674.
  11. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, June 30 – July 3, 1941.
  12. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, April 22 – June 24, 1946, and again, under 62 Stat. 869, September 8 – October 5, 1953.
  13. ^ a b While Lewis Powell and William Rehnqust were sworn in as associate justice on the same date, their seniority (precedence) on the Supreme Court was determined by the seniority of their commissions—Powell received and accepted his first—in accordance with accordance with 62 Stat. 869.
  14. ^ Acted as chief justice under 62 Stat. 869, September 3–29, 2005.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i As of February 23, 2018.

Timelines[edit]

All justices[edit]

This graphical timeline depicts the progression of the justices on the Supreme Court. Information regarding each justice's predecessors, successors and fellow justices, as well as their tenure on the court can be gleaned (and comparisons betwen justices drawn) from it. Additionally, The progression of presidents, along with the number of justices each nominated, is shown at the top of the timeline to give a more detailed historical context. Regarding the associate justice seat numbers, due to the several changes in the size of the Court since 1789, two of the ten seats chronicled below—"Seat 7" and "Seat 5"—have been abolished, both as a result of the Judicial Circuits Act of 1866.

Neil Gorsuch Elena Kagan Sonia Sotomayor Samuel Alito John G. Roberts Stephen Breyer Ruth Bader Ginsburg Clarence Thomas David Souter Anthony Kennedy Antonin Scalia Sandra Day O'Connor John Paul Stevens William Rehnquist Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Harry Blackmun Warren E. Burger Thurgood Marshall Abe Fortas Arthur Goldberg Byron White Potter Stewart Charles Evans Whittaker William J. Brennan, Jr. John Marshall Harlan II Earl Warren Sherman Minton Tom C. Clark Fred M. Vinson Harold Hitz Burton Wiley Blount Rutledge Robert H. Jackson James F. Byrnes Frank Murphy William O. Douglas Felix Frankfurter Stanley Forman Reed Hugo Black Benjamin N. Cardozo Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Edward Terry Sanford Pierce Butler (justice) George Sutherland William Howard Taft John Hessin Clarke Louis Brandeis James Clark McReynolds Mahlon Pitney Joseph Rucker Lamar Willis Van Devanter Charles Evans Hughes Horace Harmon Lurton William Henry Moody William R. Day Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Joseph McKenna Rufus Wheeler Peckham Edward Douglass White Howell Edmunds Jackson George Shiras, Jr. Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer Melville Weston Fuller Lucius Q. C. Lamar Samuel Blatchford Horace Gray Thomas Stanley Matthews William Burnham Woods John Marshall Harlan Morrison Remick Waite Ward Hunt Joseph Philo Bradley William Strong (Pennsylvania judge) Salmon Portland Chase Stephen Johnson Field David Davis (Supreme Court justice) Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne Nathan Clifford John Archibald Campbell Benjamin Robbins Curtis Robert Cooper Grier Levi Woodbury Samuel Nelson Peter Vivian Daniel John McKinley John Catron Philip Pendleton Barbour Roger Brooke Taney James Moore Wayne Henry Baldwin (judge) John McLean Robert Trimble Smith Thompson Joseph Story Gabriel Duvall Thomas Todd Henry Brockholst Livingston William Johnson (judge) John Marshall Alfred Moore Bushrod Washington Oliver Ellsworth Samuel Chase William Paterson (judge) Thomas Johnson (governor) James Iredell John Rutledge John Blair Jr. William Cushing John Jay (American statesman) James Wilson

Current justices[edit]

This graphical timeline depicts the length of each current Supreme Court justice's tenure on the Court.

Neil Gorsuch Elena Kagan Sonia Sotomayor Samuel Alito John G. Roberts Stephen Breyer Ruth Bader Ginsburg Clarence Thomas Anthony Kennedy

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stathis, Stephen W. (2014). Landmark Legislation 1774–2012: Major U.S. Acts and Treaties. CQ Press. p. 122. 
  2. ^ Hall, Kermit L. (2005). "Judiciary Act of 1869". In Hall, Kermit L.; Ely, James W.; Grossman, Joel B. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Oxford University Press. p. 548. 
  3. ^ a b "Article III". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  4. ^ Mears, Bill (January 1, 2010). "Chief Justice Roberts has little to say at year's end". CNN. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  5. ^ Barnes, Robert (January 1, 2010). "Supreme Court Chief Justice Roberts opts not to ask Congress to raise judicial salaries". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  6. ^ Rowley, James (January 13, 2014). "Federal Judges in U.S. See $25,000 More as Salary Freeze Falls". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 28, 2014. 
  7. ^ "About The Supreme Court". Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  8. ^ "Supreme Court Research Guide". Georgetown Law Library. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  9. ^ Smith, Jean Edward (July 26, 2007). "Stacking the Court". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  10. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey (February 26, 2008). "Dems' Choices For Bench Surprisingly Slim". CBS News. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018. 
  12. ^ "Justice Anthony M. Kennedy". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018. 
  13. ^ "Justice Clarence Thomas". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018. 
  14. ^ "Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018. 
  15. ^ "Justice Stephen G. Breyer". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018. 
  16. ^ "Justice Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018. 
  17. ^ "Justice Sonia Sotomayor". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018. 
  18. ^ "Justice Elena Kagan". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018. 
  19. ^ "Justice Neil M. Gorsuch". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018. 
  20. ^ "U.S. Senate: Supreme Court Nominations: 1789–Present". www.senate.gov. United States Senate. Retrieved November 11, 2016. 
  21. ^ a b "Justices 1789 to Present". www.supremecourt.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2018. 
  22. ^ "Members of the Supreme Court of the United States". www.supremecourt.gov. United States Supreme Court. Retrieved November 14, 2016. 

External links[edit]