List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States by court composition

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest ranking judicial body in the United States. Established by Article III of the Constitution, the detailed structure of the Court was laid down by the 1st United States Congress in 1789. Congress specified the Court's original and appellate jurisdiction, created 13 judicial districts, and fixed the initial size of the Supreme Court. The number of justices on the Supreme Court changed six times before settling at the present total of nine in 1869.[1] A total of 114 justices have served on the Supreme Court since 1789. Justices have life tenure, and so they serve until they die in office, resign or retire, or are impeached and removed from office.

The graphical timeline below lists the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States by court composition. As Supreme Court historians categorize eras in the court's history by the name of the presiding chief justice,[2] the timeline is divided into sections, according to who was chief justice at the time. The incumbent associate justices at the start of each court era are listed in order of their seniority at that time. Associate justices joining the Court during an era are listed adjacent to the person whom they succeeded. Additionally, the bar for each justice is color-coded to indicate which U.S. president appointed them to their seat on the Court.

List of justices[edit]

Jay Court[edit]

The Jay Court era lasted from October 1789 until June 1795. The Judiciary Act of 1789 set the number of Supreme Court justices at six: one chief justice and five associate justices.[3]

James IredellJohn Blair Jr.James WilsonWilliam CushingWilliam Paterson (judge)Thomas Johnson (jurist)John RutledgeJohn Jay
Washington appointee

Rutledge Court[edit]

The Rutledge Court era lasted from August 1795 to December 1795. John Rutledge took office as a recess appointment of President George Washington. However, he was denied confirmation by the United States Senate, in large part because of his strident opposition to the Jay Treaty.[4]

William Paterson (judge)James IredellJohn Blair Jr.James WilsonWilliam CushingJohn Rutledge
Washington appointee

Ellsworth Court[edit]

The Ellsworth Court era lasted from March 1796 to December 1800.

Samuel ChaseWilliam Paterson (judge)Alfred MooreJames IredellBushrod WashingtonJames WilsonWilliam CushingOliver Ellsworth
Washington appointee J. Adams appointee

Marshall Court[edit]

The Marshall Court era lasted from February 1801 to July 1835. In 1807, Congress passed the Seventh Circuit Act, which added a sixth associate justice to the Supreme Court.[5]

John McLeanRobert TrimbleThomas ToddJames Moore WayneWilliam Johnson (judge)Alfred MooreHenry Baldwin (judge)Bushrod WashingtonGabriel DuvallSamuel ChaseSmith ThompsonHenry Brockholst LivingstonWilliam Paterson (judge)Joseph StoryWilliam CushingJohn Marshall
Washington appointee J. Adams appointee Jefferson appointee Madison appointee Monroe appointee J. Q. Adams appointee Jackson appointee

Taney Court[edit]

The Taney Court era lasted from March 1836 to October 1864. Two associate justice seats were added to the Court in 1837, as a result of the Eighth and Ninth Circuits Act;[6] another one was added in 1863, by the Tenth Circuit Act, enlarging the Court to 10 justices.[7]

Stephen Johnson FieldDavid Davis (Supreme Court justice)John Archibald CampbellJohn McKinleyJohn CatronSamuel Freeman MillerPeter Vivian DanielPhilip Pendleton BarbourJames Moore WayneRobert Cooper GrierHenry Baldwin (judge)Noah Haynes SwayneJohn McLeanSamuel NelsonSmith ThompsonNathan CliffordBenjamin Robbins CurtisLevi WoodburyJoseph StoryRoger Taney
Madison appointee Monroe appointee J. Q. Adams appointee Jackson appointee Van Buren appointee Tyler appointee Polk appointee Fillmore appointee Pierce appointee Buchanan appointee Lincoln appointee

Chase Court[edit]

The Chase Court era lasted from December 1864 to May 1873. Two associate justice seats were abolished as a result of the Judicial Circuits Act of 1866, which provided for the gradual elimination of seats on the Court until there would be seven justices.[8] The size of the Court was later restored to nine members through the Circuit Judges Act of 1869.[9]

Joseph P. BradleyStephen Johnson FieldDavid Davis (Supreme Court justice)Samuel Freeman MillerNoah Haynes SwayneNathan CliffordWilliam Strong (Pennsylvania judge)Robert Cooper GrierWard HuntSamuel NelsonJohn CatronJames Moore WayneSalmon P. Chase
Jackson appointee Tyler appointee Polk appointee Buchanan appointee Lincoln appointee Grant appointee

Waite Court[edit]

The Waite Court era lasted from March 1874 to March 1888.

Samuel BlatchfordWard HuntJoseph P. BradleyLucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar IIWilliam Burnham WoodsWilliam Strong (Pennsylvania judge)Stephen Johnson FieldJohn Marshall HarlanDavid Davis (Supreme Court justice)Samuel Freeman MillerStanley Matthews (lawyer)Noah Haynes SwayneHorace GrayNathan CliffordMorrison Waite
Buchanan appointee Lincoln appointee Grant appointee Hayes appointee Garfield appointee Arthur appointee Cleveland appointee

Fuller Court[edit]

The Fuller Court era lasted from October 1888 to July 1910.

Horace Harmon LurtonRufus Wheeler PeckhamHowell Edmunds JacksonLucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar IIEdward Douglass WhiteSamuel BlatchfordOliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.Horace GrayDavid Josiah BrewerStanley Matthews (lawyer)John Marshall HarlanWilliam R. DayGeorge Shiras, Jr.Joseph P. BradleyJoseph McKennaStephen Johnson FieldWilliam Henry MoodyHenry Billings BrownSamuel Freeman MillerMelville Fuller
Lincoln appointee Grant appointee Hayes appointee Garfield appointee Arthur appointee Cleveland appointee B. Harrison appointee McKinley appointee T. Roosevelt appointee Taft appointee

White Court[edit]

The White Court era lasted from December 1910 to May 1921.

Louis BrandeisJoseph Rucker LamarWillis Van DevanterJohn Hessin ClarkeCharles Evans HughesJames Clark McReynoldsHorace Harmon LurtonWilliam R. DayOliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.Joseph McKennaMahlon PitneyJohn Marshall HarlanEdward Douglass White
Hayes appointee McKinley appointee T. Roosevelt appointee Taft appointee Wilson appointee

Taft Court[edit]

The Taft Court era lasted from July 1921 to February 1930.

George SutherlandJohn Hessin ClarkeLouis BrandeisJames Clark McReynoldsEdward Terry SanfordMahlon PitneyWillis Van DevanterPierce Butler (justice)William R. DayOliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.Harlan F. StoneJoseph McKennaWilliam Howard Taft
McKinley appointee T. Roosevelt appointee Taft appointee Wilson appointee Harding appointee Coolidge appointee

Hughes Court[edit]

The Hughes Court era lasted from February 1930 to June 1941.

Harlan F. StoneOwen RobertsEdward Terry SanfordFrank MurphyPierce Butler (justice)Stanley Forman ReedGeorge SutherlandWilliam O. DouglasLouis BrandeisJames Clark McReynoldsHugo BlackWillis Van DevanterFelix FrankfurterBenjamin N. CardozoOliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.Charles Evans Hughes
T. Roosevelt appointee Taft appointee Wilson appointee Harding appointee Coolidge appointee Hoover appointee F. Roosevelt appointee

Stone Court[edit]

The Stone Court era lasted from July 1941 to April 1946.

Robert H. JacksonWiley Blount RutledgeJames F. ByrnesFrank MurphyWilliam O. DouglasFelix FrankfurterStanley Forman ReedHugo BlackHarold Hitz BurtonOwen RobertsHarlan F. Stone
Hoover appointee F. Roosevelt appointee Truman appointee

Vinson Court[edit]

The Vinson Court era lasted from June 1946 to September 1953.

Harold Hitz BurtonSherman MintonWiley Blount RutledgeRobert H. JacksonTom C. ClarkFrank MurphyWilliam O. DouglasFelix FrankfurterStanley Forman ReedHugo BlackFred Vinson
F. Roosevelt appointee Truman appointee

Warren Court[edit]

The Warren Court era lasted from October 1953 to June 1969.

William J. Brennan, Jr.Sherman MintonThurgood MarshallTom C. ClarkPotter StewartHarold Hitz BurtonJohn Marshall Harlan IIRobert H. JacksonWilliam O. DouglasAbe FortasArthur GoldbergFelix FrankfurterByron WhiteCharles Evans WhittakerStanley Forman ReedHugo BlackEarl Warren
F. Roosevelt appointee Truman appointee Eisenhower appointee Kennedy appointee L. Johnson appointee

Burger Court[edit]

The Burger Court era lasted from June 1969 to September 1986.

Harry BlackmunThurgood MarshallByron WhiteSandra Day O'ConnorPotter StewartWilliam J. Brennan, Jr.William RehnquistJohn Marshall Harlan IIJohn Paul StevensWilliam O. DouglasLewis F. Powell, Jr.Hugo BlackWarren Burger
F. Roosevelt appointee Eisenhower appointee Kennedy appointee L. Johnson appointee Nixon appointee Ford appointee Reagan appointee

Rehnquist Court[edit]

The Rehnquist Court era lasted from September 1986 to September 2005.

Antonin ScaliaSandra Day O'ConnorJohn Paul StevensAnthony KennedyLewis F. Powell, Jr.Stephen BreyerHarry BlackmunClarence ThomasThurgood MarshallRuth Bader GinsburgByron WhiteDavid SouterWilliam J. Brennan, Jr.William Rehnquist
Eisenhower appointee Kennedy appointee L. Johnson appointee Nixon appointee Ford appointee Reagan appointee G. H. W. Bush appointee Clinton appointee

Roberts Court[edit]

The Roberts Court era began in September 2005, and is ongoing.

Stephen BreyerRuth Bader GinsburgClarence ThomasSonia SotomayorDavid SouterBrett KavanaughAnthony KennedyNeil GorsuchAntonin ScaliaSamuel AlitoSandra Day O'ConnorElena KaganJohn Paul StevensJohn Roberts
Ford appointee Reagan appointee G. H. W. Bush appointee Clinton appointee G. W. Bush appointee Obama appointee Trump appointee

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Court as an Institution". www.supremecourt.gov. Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  2. ^ "10 fascinating facts about the Supreme Court on its birthday". Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: National Constitution Center. September 24, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  3. ^ "Landmark Legislation: Judiciary Act of 1789". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  4. ^ Schwartz, Bernard (1993). A History of the Supreme Court. New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-19-509387-9. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  5. ^ "Landmark Legislation: Seventh Circuit". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  6. ^ "Landmark Legislation: Eighth and Ninth Circuits". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  7. ^ "Landmark Legislation: Tenth Circuit". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  8. ^ "Landmark Legislation: Reorganization of the Judicial Circuits". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  9. ^ "Landmark Legislation: Circuit Judgeships". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved January 28, 2018.