List of Kim Jong-il's titles

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Kim Jong-il, former leader of North Korea, received numerous titles during his rule. Despite his death in 2011, he is currently an Eternal Leader of Juche Korea and the Eternal Chairman of the National Defense Commission of the Republic. When he is mentioned in North Korean media and publications, he is most commonly referred to as "Great Leader Comrade Kim Jong-il" (Korean:위대한 령도자 김정일동지) or "General" (Korean: 장군님). Like his father and son, when his name is written, it is always emphasised by a special bold font or in a larger font size, for example: "The great leader Comrade Kim Jong-il provides on-the-spot guidance to the Ragwon Machine Complex." or "The great leader Comrade Kim Jong-il provides on-the-spot guidance to the Ragwon Machine Complex."[1] [2]

List of official titles and offices[edit]

Current titles and offices[edit]

Chosŏn'gŭl (Hancha) DPRK McCune–Reischauer English Comment References
공화국의 영원한 국방위원회 위원장 Gonghwagukŭi Yŏngwŏnhan Gugbangviwonhui Viwonchang Eternal Chairman of the National Defense Commission Appointed at the 12th Annual Meeting of the Supreme People's Assembly on the 14 April 2012. [3]
영원한 당 총비서 Yŏngwŏnhan Tang Chongpisŏ Eternal General Secretary of the Party Appointed at the 4th Conference of the Worker's Party of Korea on the 11 April 2012. [4]
조선민주주의인민공화국 대원수 Chosŏnminjujuŭiinmin'gonghwaguk Taewŏnsu Generalissimo of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea Posthumously promoted on the 14 February 2012.

Previously held offices and titles[edit]

Chosŏn'gŭl (Hancha) DPRK McCune–Reischauer English Tenure Comment References
Party
조선로동당 중앙위원회 위원 Member of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea September 1973 - 17 December 2011 [citation needed]
조선로동당 중앙위원회 정치국 위원 Member of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea February 1974 - 17 December 2011
조선로동당 총비서 Chosŏn Rodongdang Ch'ongbisŏ General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea 8 October 1997 - 11 April 2012 [citation needed]
State
조선민주주의인민공화국 국방위원회 제1부위원장 First-vice-chairman of the National Defence Commission of the DPRK 23 May 1990 - 9 April 1993 [5]
조선민주주의인민공화국 국방위원회 위원장 Chairman of the National Defence Commission of the DPRK 9 April 1993 - 17 December 2011 [5]
Army
조선인민군 최고사령관 Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army 24 December 1991 - 17 December 2011 [6]

List of propagated titles[edit]

Chosŏn'gŭl (Hancha) DPRK McCune–Reischauer English Comment References
당중앙
(黨中央)
Tangjungang Party Centre/Center of the Party The first of Kim Jong-il's titles. Has been in use since 1973 after Kim was secretly appointed as his father's successor and until it was officially announced in order to mention Kim Jong-il in press without calling him by name. [7]
웃분 Utpun Superior Person The title has been in use since the middle of the 1970s. [7]
친애하는 지도자
(親愛하는 指導者)
Ch'inaehanŭn chidoja Dear Leader This title was the most common title during Kim Il-sung's rule. [7]
존경하는 지도자
(尊敬하는 指導者)
Chon'gyŏnghanŭn chidoja Respected Leader The title has been in use since the middle of the 1970s. [7]
현명한 지도자
(賢明한 指導者)
Hyŏnmyŏnghan chidoja Wise Leader
영명하신 지도자
(英明하신 指導者)
Yŏngmyŏnghasin chidoja Brilliant Leader
유일한 지도자
(唯一한 指導者)
Yuilhan chidoja Unique Leader The title has been in use since June 1975. [7]
령도자가 갖추어야 할 풍모를 완벽하게 지닌 친애하는 지도자
(領導者가 갖추어야 할 風貌를 完璧하게 지닌 親愛하는 指導者)
Ryŏngdojaga katch'uŏya hal p'ungmorŭl wanbyŏk'age chinin ch'inaehanŭn chidoja Dear Leader, Who is a Perfect Incarnation of the Appearance that a Leader Should Have In use since the mid-1980s on special occasions. [7]
최고사령관
(最高司令官)
Choegosaryŏnggwan Supreme Commander First mentioned in the middle of the 1980s before Kim was officially appointed as Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army. [7]
위대한 령도자
(偉大한 領導者)
Widaehan ryŏngdoja Great Leader The most common of current Kim Jong-il's titles. [7]
인민의 어버이
(人民의 어버이)
Inminŭi ŏbŏi Father of the People In use since February 1986. [7]
공산주의 미래의 태양
(共産主義 未來의 太陽)
Kongsanjuŭi miraeŭi t'aeyang Sun of the Communist Future In use since the middle of the 1980s. [7]
백두광명성
(百頭光明星)
Paektugwangmyŏngsŏng Shining Star of Paektu Mountain
향도의 해발
(嚮導의 해발)
Hyangdoŭi haepal Guiding Sun Ray
혁명무력의 수위
(革命武力의 首位)
Hyŏngmyŏngmuryŏgŭi suwi Leader of the Revolutionary Armed Forces In use since December 21, 1991, when Kim Jong-il became Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army. [7]
조국통일의 구성
(祖國統一의 構成)
Choguk t'ongirŭi kusŏng Guarantee of the Fatherland's Unification
조국 통일의 상징
(祖國 統一의 象徵)
Choguk t'ongirŭi sangjing Symbol of the Fatherland's Unification
민족의 운명
(民族의 命運)
Minjokŭi Unmyŏng Fate of the Nation
자애로운 아버지
(慈愛로운 아버지)
Chaaeroun Abŏji Beloved Father
당과 국가와 군대의 수위
(黨과 國家와 軍隊의 首位)
Tanggwa kukkawa kundaeŭi suwi Leader of the Party, the country, and the Army
수령
(首領)
Suryŏng Leader Became common after Kim Il-sung's death. [7]
장군
(將軍)
Changgun General One of the most common titles. In use since 1994. [7]
우리당과 우리 인민의 위대한 령도자
(우리黨과 우리 人民의 偉大한 領導者)
Uridanggwa uri inminŭi widaehan ryŏngdoja Great Leader of our Party and of our Nation In use since 1994. [7]
위대한 장군님
(偉大한 將軍님)
widaehan changgunnim Beloved Great General
경애하는 장군님
(敬愛하는 將軍님)
Kyŏngaehanŭn changgunnim Beloved and Respected General
위대한 수령
(偉大한 首領)
widaehan Suryŏng Great Leader When Kim Il-sung was alive, this title was used only to refer to him. [7]
경애하는 수령
(敬愛하는 首領)
Kyŏngaehanŭn Suryŏng Beloved and Respected Leader
백전백승의 강철의 령장
(百戰百勝의 鋼鐵의 靈將)
Paekchŏnbaeksŭngŭi kangch'ŏrŭi ryŏngjang Ever-Victorious, Iron-Willed Commander In use since 1997 after the 3-year mourning for Kim Il-sung ended. [7]
사회주의 태양
(社會主義 太陽)
Sahoejuŭi T'aeyang Sun of Socialism
민족의 태양
(民族의 太陽)
Minjokŭi T'aeyang Sun of the Nation
삶의 태양
(삶의 太陽)
Salmŭi T'aeyang The Great Sun of Life
민족의 위대한 태양
(民族의 偉大한 太陽)
Minjokŭi widaehan T'aeyang Great Sun of The Nation In use since 1999 after the new DPRK constitution was accepted in 1998. [7]
민족의 어버이
(民族의 어버이)
Minjokŭi ŎbŎi Father of the Nation
21세기의 세계 수령
(21世紀의 世界 首領)
Ishipilsekiŭi Sege Suryŏng World Leader of The 21st Century In use since 2000. [7]
불세출의 령도자
(不世出의 領導者)
Pulsech'urŭi ryŏngdoja Peerless Leader
21세기 찬란한 태양
(21世紀 燦爛한 太陽)
Ishipilsegi ch'allanhan t'aeyang Bright Sun of the 21st Century
21세기 위대한 태양
(21世紀 偉大한 太陽)
Ishipilsegi widaehan t'aeyang Great Sun of the 21st Century
21세기 향도자
(21世紀 嚮導者)
Ishipilseki Hyangdoja Leader of the 21st Century
희세의 정치가
(稀世의 政治家)
Hŭiseŭi chŏngch'iga Amazing Politician
천출위인
(天出偉人)
Ch'ŏnch'urwiin Great Man, Who Descended From Heaven
천출명장
(天出明將)
Ch'ŏnch'ulmyŏngjang Glorious General, Who Descended From Heaven
민족의 최고영수
(民族의 最高領袖)
Minjokŭi ch'oegoyŏngsu Supreme Leader of the Nation
주체의 찬란한 태양
(主體의 燦爛한 太陽)
Chuch'eŭi ch'allanhan t'aeyang Bright Sun of Juche
당과 인민의 수령
(黨과 人民의 首領)
Tanggwa Inminŭi Suryŏng Leader of the Party and the People [citation needed]
위대한 원수님
(偉大한 元帥님)
widaehan Wŏsunim Great Marshal [citation needed]
무적필승의 장군
(無敵必勝의 將軍)
Mujŏkp'ilsŭngŭi changgun Invincible and Triumphant General [citation needed]
경애하는 아버지
(敬愛하는 아버지)
Kyŏngaehanŭn Abŏji Dear Father [citation needed]
21세기의 향도성
(21世紀의 嚮導星)
Ishipilsegiŭi Hyangdosŏng Guiding Star of the 21st Century [citation needed]
실천가형의 위인
(實踐家型의 偉人)
Silchŏngahyŏngŭi wiin Great Man, Who Is a Man of Deeds [citation needed]
위대한 수호자
(偉大한 守護者)
widaehan Suhoja Great Defender [citation needed]
구원자
(救援者)
Kuwŏnja Saviour [citation needed]
혁명의 수뇌부
(革命의 首腦部)
Hyŏnmyŏngŭi Sunoepu Mastermind of the Revolution [citation needed]
혁명적 동지애의 최고화신
(革命的 同志愛의 最高化身)
Hyŏnmyŏngjŏk Tongjiaeŭi Choegohwasin Highest Incarnation of the Revolutionary Comradeship [citation needed]
각하
(閣下)
Kakha His Excellency [citation needed]
주체조선의 영원한 수령 Chuch'ech'osŏnŭi Yŏngwŏnhan Suryŏng Eternal Leader of Juche Korea Established by a line in the preamble to the Constitution, as amended on 30 June 2016.

See also[edit]

Held titles[edit]

Related[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martyn Williams (July 20, 2011). "Coding the Kims". North Korea Tech. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
  2. ^ "55-year-long History of Development of Foreign Trade". Foreign trade. March 2005. Archived from the original on 2005-11-19. Retrieved 2010-01-05. Article from North Korean magazine.
  3. ^ "공화국의 영원한 국방위원회 위원장이신 김정일동지". Uri Minzokkiri.
  4. ^ Gambino, Lauren (11 April 2012). "Kim Jong-il made General Secretary for Eternity at North Korea ceremony". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  5. ^ a b 윤일건 (2012년 4월 13일). “北, 김정은 국방위 제1위원장 신설추대(종합)”. 《연합뉴스》. 2018년 8월 21일에 확인함.
  6. ^ "조선인민군 최고사령관 김정은동지께서 조선인민군 제264대련합부대 지휘부를 시찰하시였다".
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r 전, 영선 (2006). 다시 고쳐 쓴 북한의 사회와 문화 [A New View of North Korean Society and Culture]. 역락. ISBN 89-5556-491-0.