Kings of Israel and Judah

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Coronation of David, as depicted in the Paris Psalter.

This article is an overview of the kings of the United Kingdom of Israel as well as those of its successor states and classical period kingdoms ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty and Herodian dynasty.

Kings of Ancient Israel and Judah[edit]

The Hebrew Bible describes a succession of kings of a United Kingdom of Israel, and then of divided kingdoms, Israel and Judah.[1]

In contemporary scholarship, the united monarchy is debated, due to a lack of archaeological evidence for it. It is generally accepted that a "House of David" existed, but some scholars believe that David could have only been the king or chieftain of Judah, which was likely small, and that the northern kingdom was a separate development. There are some dissenters to this view, including those who support the traditional narrative, and those support the united monarchy's existence but believe that the Bible contains theological exaggerations.[1][2][3][4]

Overview table[edit]

Table on the kings
Kings of Judah and Israel.jpg
This table describes the kings, their parents, age they lived, the prophets who influenced them, and the emperors they encountered in battle.

House of Gideon[edit]

House of Saul[edit]

Saul and David by Rembrandt

According to the Bible, the Tribes of Israel lived as a confederation under ad hoc charismatic leaders called judges. In around 1020 BCE, under extreme threat from foreign peoples, the tribes united to form the first United Kingdom of Israel. Samuel anointed Saul from the Tribe of Benjamin as the first king.

House of David[edit]

Albright Thiele Galil Kitchen Common/Biblical name Regnal Name and style Notes
House of David
1000–962   1010–970 1010–970 David דוד בן-ישי מלך ישראל

David ben Yishai, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Judah for 7 years in Hebron, then Israel & Judah in Jerusalem for 33 years; 40 years in total. Death: natural causes
962–922   970–931 971–931 Solomon שלמה בן-דוד מלך ישראל

Shelomoh ben David, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel & Judah in Jerusalem for 40 years. Death: natural causes Son of David by Bathsheba, his rights of succession were disputed by his older half-brother Adonijah
922–915 931–913 931–914 931–915 Rehoboam רחבעם בן-שלמה מלך יהודה

Rehav'am ben Shlomoh, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 17 years. After 3 years, the kingdom was split into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. Death: natural causes

After Rehoboam reigned three years,[6] the United Kingdom of Israel was divided in two – the northern Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam, with its capital, first in Shechem, then Penuel, Tirzah, and finally Samaria, and ruled by a series of dynasties beginning with Jeroboam; and the southern Kingdom of Judah with its capital still in Jerusalem and ruled by the House of David. Under Hezekiah's rule in the Kingdom of Judah, the Neo-Assyrian Empire conquered and destroyed the northern kingdom 722 BCE leaving only the southern kingdom of Judah.

The Tel Dan Stele with reference to the "House of David"

Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)[edit]

Albright Thiele Galil Kitchen Common/Biblical name Regnal Name and style Notes

The House of Jeroboam[edit]

922–901 BCE 931–910 BCE 931–909 BCE 931–911 BCE Jeroboam I ירבעם בֵּן-נבט מלך ישראל

Yarobe'am ben Nevat, Melekh Yisra'el

Led the rebellion and divided the kingdoms. Reigned in Israel (Northern Kingdom) for 22 years. Death: Natural Causes
901–900 BCE 910–909 BCE 909–908 BCE 911–910 BCE Nadab נדב בֵּן-ירבעם מלך ישראל

Nadav ben Yarobe'am, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned in Israel for 2 years. Death: Killed by Baasha, son of Ahijah of the house of Issachar, along with his whole family.

The House of Baasha[edit]

900–877 BCE 909–886 BCE 908–885 BCE 910–887 BCE Baasha בעשא בֵּן-אחיה מלך ישראל

Ba'asha ben Achiyah, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Tirzah for 24 years. Death: Natural Causes
877–876 BCE 886–885 BCE 885–884 BCE 887–886 BCE Elah אלה בֵּן-בעשא מלך ישראל

'Ela ben Ba'asha, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Tirzah for 2 years. Death: Zimri, one of his officials, got him drunk and killed him at his house in Azra.

The House of Zimri[edit]

876 BCE 885 BCE 884 BCE 886 BCE Zimri זמרי מלך ישראל

Zimri, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Tirzah for 7 days. Death: He set his palace on fire when Omri and all the Israelites with him withdrew from Gibbethon and laid siege to Tirzah.

The House of Omri[edit]

876–869 BCE 885–874 BCE 884–873 BCE 886–875 BCE Omri עמרי מלך ישראל

'Omri, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 12 years. Death: Natural Causes
869–850 BCE 874–853 BCE 873–852 BCE 875–853 BCE Ahab אחאב בֵּן-עמרי מלך ישראל

Ach'av ben 'Omri, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 22 years. Death: Shot by an archer during the battle at Ramoth Gilead. He died upon his arrival at Samaria.
850–849 BCE 853–852 BCE 852–851 BCE 853–852 BCE Ahaziah אחזיהו בֵּן-אחאב מלך ישראל

'Ahazyahu ben 'Ach'av, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 2 years. Death: He fell through the lattice of his upper room and injured himself. Elijah the prophet told him he would never leave his bed and would die on it.
849–842 BCE 852–841 BCE 851–842 BCE 852–841 BCE Joram יורם בֵּן-אחאב מלך ישראל

Yehoram ben 'Ach'av, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 12 years. Death: Killed by Jehu, the next king of Israel

The House of Jehu[edit]

842–815 BCE 841–814 BCE 842–815 BCE] 841–814 BCE Jehu יהוא בֵּן-נמשי מלך ישראל

Yehu ben Nimshi, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 28 years.[7] Death: Natural Causes
815–801 BCE 814–798 BCE 819–804 BCE 814–806 BCE Jehoahaz יהואחז בֵּן-יהוא מלך ישראל

Yeho'ahaz ben Yehu, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 17 years. Death: Natural Causes
801–786 BCE 798–782 BCE 805–790 BCE 806–791 BCE Jehoash(Joash) יואש בֵּן-יואחז מלך ישראל

Yo'ash ben Yeho'ahaz, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 16 years. Death: Natural Causes
786–746 BCE 782–753 BCE 790–750 BCE 791–750 BCE Jeroboam II ירבעם בֵּן-יואש מלך ישראל

Yarobe'am ben Yo'ash, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 41 years. Death: Natural Causes. The Book of Jonah or Jonah's journey to Nineveh (when he was swallowed by a whale or fish) happened at that time.
746 BCE 753 BCE 750–749 BCE 750 BCE  Zachariah זכריה בֵּן-ירבעם מלך ישראל

Zekharya ben Yarobe'am, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 6 months. Death: Shallum son of Jabesh killed him in front of the people and succeeded as king.

The House of Shallum[edit]

745 BCE 752 BCE 749 BCE 749 BCE Shallum שלם בֵּן-יבש מלך ישראל

Shallum ben Yavesh, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 1 month. Death: Menahem son of Gadi attacked Shallum and assassinated him.

The House of Menahem (also known as the House of Gadi)[edit]

745–738 BCE 752–742 BCE 749–738 BCE 749–739 BCE Menahem מְנַחֵם בֵּן-גדי מלך ישראל

Menachem ben Gadi, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 10 years. Death: Natural Causes
738–737 BCE 742–740 BCE 738–736 BCE 739–737 BCE Pekahiah פקחיה בֵּן-מְנַחֵם מלך ישראל

Peqachya ben Menahem, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 2 years. Death: Pekah son of Remaliah, one of the chief officers, took 50 men with him and assassinated the king in his palace at Samaria.

The House of Pekah[edit]

737–732 BCE 740–732 BCE 736–732 BCE 737–732 BCE Pekah פקח בֵּן-רמליהו מלך ישראל

Peqach ben Remalyahu, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 20 years. Death: Hoshea son of Elah conspired against him and assassinated him.

The House of Hoshea[edit]

732–722 BCE 732–722 BCE 732–722 BCE 732–722 BCE Hoshea הושע בֵּן-אלה מלך ישראל

Hoshe'a ben 'Ela, Melekh Yisra'el

Reigned over Israel in Samaria for 9 years.[8] Death: King Shalmaneser attacked and captured Samaria. He charged Hoshea with treason and he put him in prison, then, he deported the Israelites to Assyria.

Kingdom of Judah[edit]

Albright Thiele Galil Kitchen Common/Biblical name Regnal Name and style Notes

House of David[edit]

915–913 913–911 914–911 915–912 Abijah אבים בן-רחבעם מלך יהודה

'Aviyam ben Rehav'am, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 3 years. Death: natural causes
913–873 911–870 911–870 912–871 Asa אסא בן-אבים מלך יהודה

'Asa ben 'Aviyam, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 41 years. Death: severe foot disease
873–849 870–848 870–845 871–849 Jehoshaphat יהושפט בן-אסא מלך יהודה

Yehoshafat ben 'Asa, Melekh Yahudah

Reigned for 25 years. Death: natural causes
849–842 848–841 851–843 849–842 Jehoram יהורם בן-יהושפט מלך יהודה

Yehoram ben Yehoshafat, Melekh Yahudah

Reigned for 8 years. Death: severe stomach disease
842–842 841–841 843–842 842–841 Ahaziah אחזיהו בן-יהורם מלך יהודה

'Achazyahu ben Yehoram, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 1 year. Death: killed by Jehu, who usurped the throne of Israel
842–837 841–835 842–835 841–835 Athaliah

(Queen)

עתליה בת-עמרי מלכת יהודה

'Atalya bat 'Omri, Malkat Yehudah

Reigned for 6 years. Death: killed by the troops assigned by Jehoiada the Priest to protect Joash.Queen Mother, widow of Jehoram and mother of Ahaziah
837–800 835–796 835–802 835–796 Jehoash (Joash) יהואש בן-אחזיהו מלך יהודה

Yeho'ash ben 'Ahazyahu, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 40 years. Death: killed by his officials namely: Zabad, son of Shimeath, an Ammonite Woman, and Jehozabad, son of Shimrith, a Moabite Woman.
800–783 796–767 805–776 796–776 Amaziah אמציה בן-יהואש מלך יהודה

'Amatzyah ben Yehoash, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 29 years. Death: killed in Lachish by the men sent by his officials who conspired against him.
783–742 767–740 788–736 776–736 Uzziah עזיהו בן-אמציה מלך יהודה

'Uzziyahu ben 'Amatzyah, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 52 years. Death: TzaraathGeorge Syncellus wrote that the First Olympiad took place in Uzziah's 48th regnal year.
742–735 740–732 758–742 750–735/30 Jotham יותם בן-עזיהו מלך יהודה

Yotam ben 'Uzziyahu, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 16 years. Death: natural causes
735–715 732–716 742–726 735/31–715 Ahaz אחז בן-יותם מלך יהודה

'Achaz ben Yotam, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 16 years. Death: natural causesThe Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III records he received tribute from Ahaz; compare 2 Kings 16:7-9
715–687 716–687 726–697 715–687 Hezekiah חזקיהו בן-אחז מלך יהודה

Chizeqiyahu ben 'Achaz, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 29 years. Death: Natural CausesContemporary with Sennacherib of Assyria and Merodach-Baladan of Babylon.
687–642 687–643 697–642 687–642 Manasseh מנשה בן-חזקיהו מלך יהודה

Menashe ben Chizeqiyahu, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 55 years. Death: natural causesMentioned in Assyrian records as a contemporary of Esarhaddon
642–640 643–641 642–640 642–640 Amon אמון בן-מנשה מלך יהודה

'Amon ben Menashe, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 2 years. Death: killed by his officials, who were killed later on by the people of Judah.
640–609 641–609 640–609 640–609 Josiah יאשיהו בן-אמון מלך יהודה

Yo'shiyahu ben 'Amon, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 31 years. Death: shot by archers during the battle against Neco of Egypt. He died upon his arrival on Jerusalem.
609 609 609 609 Jehoahaz יהואחז בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה

Yeho'achaz ben Yo'shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 3 months. Death: Necho II, king of Egypt, dethroned him, and got him replaced by his brother, Eliakim. Carried off to Egypt, where he died.
609–598 609–598 609–598 609–598 Jehoiakim יהויקים בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה

Yehoyaqim ben Yo'shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 11 years. Death: Natural CausesThe Battle of Carchemish occurred in the fourth year of his reign (Jeremiah 46:2)
598 598 598–597 598–597 Jehoiachin/Jeconiah יהויכין בן-יהויקים מלך יהודה

Yehoyakhin ben Yehoyaqim, Melekh Yehudah

יכניהו בן-יהויקים מלך יהודה

Yekhonyahu ben Yehoyaqim, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 3 months & 10 days. Death: King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon sent for him and brought him to Babylon, where he lived and died.Jerusalem was captured by the Babylonians and Jehoiachin deposed on 16 March, 597 BCE. Called Jeconiah in Jeremiah and Esther
597–587 597–586 597–586 597–586 Zedekiah צדקיהו בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה

Tzideqiyahu ben Yo'shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah

Reigned for 11 years. Death: In prison.[9]His reign saw the second rebellion against Nebuchadnezzar (588–586 BC). Jerusalem was captured after a lengthy siege, the temple burnt, Zedekiah blinded and taken into exile, and Judah reduced to a province.

Family Tree[edit]

Summary diagram
Genealogy of the kings of Israel and Judah.svg
Family tree
Saul
King of the United Monarchy: r. 1050–1012 BCE
Eshbaal (Ishbosheth)
King of the United Monarchy: r. 1012–1010 BCE
BathshebaDavid
King of the United Monarchy: r. 1010–970 BCE
Maacah
NaamahSolomon
King of the United Monarchy: r. 970–931 BCE
AbsalomJeroboam
King of Israel: r. 931–910 BCE
Rehoboam
King of Judah: r. 931–913 BCE
UrielNadab
King of Israel: r. 910–909 BCE
Baasha
King of Israel: r. 909–886 BCE
Maacah
Queen Mother of Judah: r. 910–895 BCE
Elah
King of Israel: r. 886–885 BCE
?Abijam
King of Judah: r. 913–910 BCE
Zimri
King of Israel: r. 885 BCE
Asa
King of Judah: r. 910–870 BCE
?Omri
King of Israel: r. 884–874 BCE
Jehoshaphat
King of Judah: r. 870–849 BCE
JezebelAhab
King of Israel: r. 871–852 BCE
Jehoram
King of Judah: r. 849–842 BCE
Athaliah
Queen of Judah: r. 842–835 BCE
Joram
King of Israel: r. 849–837 BCE
Ahaziah
King of Israel: r. 850–849 BCE
Jehu
King of Israel: r. 840—814 BCE
Ahaziah
King of Judah: r. 842–841 BCE
ZibiahJehoshebaJehoiadaJehoahaz
King of Israel: r. 814—798 BCE
Jehoash
King of Judah: r. 836–796 BCE
JehoaddanJehoash
King of Israel: r. 798—782 BCE
Amaziah
King of Judah: r. 796–767 BCE
JecoliahAmozJeroboam II
King of Israel: r. 782—753 BCE
Uzziah
King of Judah: r. 783–742 BCE
JerushaIsaiahZechariah
King of Israel: r. 753—752 BCE
Shallum
King of Israel: r. 752 BCE
Menahem
King of Israel: r. 752—742 BCE
Jotham
King of Judah: r. 742–735 BCE
?Hephzibah
Pekahiah
King of Israel: r. 742—740 BCE
Pekah
King of Israel: r. 740—732 BCE
Ahaz
King of Judah: r. 732–716 BCE
AbijahHoshea
King of Israel: r. 732–721 BCE
Hezekiah
King of Judah: r. 716–687 BCE
Manasseh
King of Judah: r. 697–643 BCE
Meshullemeth
Amon
King of Judah: r. 643–610 BCE
Jedidah
Josiah
King of Judah: r. 640–609 BCE
Jehoiakim
King of Judah: r. 609–598 BCE
NehushtaJehoahaz
King of Judah: r. 609 BCE
Zedekiah
King of Judah: r. 596–586 BCE
Jehoiachin
King of Judah: r. 598–597 BCE

Monarchs of the Kingdom of Judea[edit]

Hasmonean Dynasty[edit]

Dates Common name Name and style Notes

Hasmonean Dynasty[edit]

104–103 BCE Judah Aristobulus I

King and High Priest of Judaea

The first leader from the Hasmonean lineage to call himself king, and also the first of any Judean king to claim both the high priesthood and kingship title.
103–76 BCE Jonathan Yannai Alexander Jannaeus

King and High Priest of Judaea

76–67 BCE Shelomzion Salome Alexandra

Queen of Judaea

67–63 BCE Aristobulus Aristobulus II

King and High Priest of Judaea

63–40 BCE Yohanan Hurqanos Hyrcanus II

King and High Priest of Judaea; Ethnarch of Judaea

King from 67 BCE, High Priest from 76 BCE
40–37 BCE Matityahu Antigonus II Mattathias

King and High Priest of Judaea

The descendants of Mattathias

Herodian Dynasty[edit]

Family Tree[edit]

Family tree (Hasmonean-Herodian)
Phinehas
(H)asmon/Hasmonaeus
Shimon
ben Asmon
Yochanan
ben Shimon
Mattathias ben Yochanan
John GaddiSimon Thassi
Prince of
Judaea

r. 141–135 BCE
Judas
Maccabeus
Eleazar
Avaran
Jonathan Apphus
John
Hyrcanus I

Prince of
Judaea

r. 134–104 BCE
Aristobulus I
King of
Judaea

r. 104–103 BCE
Alexander
Jannaeus

King of
Judaea

r. 103–76 BCE
Salome
Alexandra

Queen of
Judaea

r. 76–67 BCE
Absalom
ben Yochanan
John
Hyrcanus II

King of
Judaea

r. 67–66 BCE
Aristobulus II
King of
Judaea

r. 66–63 BCE
Salome
bat Absalom
Alexandra II
bat Hyrcanus II
Alexander IIAntigonus II
Mattathias

King of
Judaea

r. 40–37 BCE
MalthaceCleopatra
of Jerulasem
Herod
the Great

King of
Judaea

r. 37–4 BCE
Mariamne I
Herod
Antipas

Tetrarch
of Galilee

r. 4 BCE – 39 CE
Herod
Archelaus

Ethnarch
of Judaea

r. 4 BCE - 6 CE
Philip the
Tetrarch

Tetrarch
of Batanea

r. 4 BCE – 34 CE
Aristobulus IV
Herod V
King of
Chalcis

r. 41–48 CE
Herod Agrippa
King of Batanaea
r. 37–41 CE
King of Judea
r. 41–44 CE
Aristobulus
Tetrarch of
Chalcis

r. 57–92 CE
Herod
Agrippa II

King of
Batanaea

r. 53–100 CE

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lipschits, Oded (2014). "The history of Israel in the biblical period". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi (eds.). The Jewish Study Bible (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-997846-5. The promonarchic period long ago became a literary description of the mythological roots, the early beginnings of the nation, and the way to describe the right of Israel on its land. The archeological evidence also does not support the existence of a united monarchy under David and Solomon as described in the Bible, so the rubric of "united monarchy" is best abandoned, although it remains useful for discussing how the Bible views the Israelite past.
  2. ^ Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of its Stories. New York: Simon & Schu. ISBN 0-684-86912-8.
  3. ^ Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The Ancient Near East, c. 3000–330 BC, Band 1. New York: Routledge. p. 438. ISBN 978-0-41516-762-8.
  4. ^ Wright, Jacob L. (July 2014). "David, King of Judah (not Israel)". The Bible and Interpretation.
  5. ^ Judges 9:6
  6. ^ 2 Chronicles 11:17
  7. ^ Considered to be a contemporary of the Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (858–824 BC) to whom he paid tribute. This is based on an inscription on The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III showing "Yaua" son of Omri paying tribute, dated to 841 BCE.
  8. ^ Paid tribute to the Assyrian King Shalmaneser V (727–722 BCE) but rebelled in 725 BCE. Shalmaneser besieged the capital, Samaria, but died shortly before the fall of the city. His brother Sargon II (722–705 BCE) completed the siege with success in 722. Some of the population of the Northern Kingdom was exiled to other parts of the Assyrian Empire and new population groups were resettled in the new Assyrian province of Samaria. A small group of people fled south to take refuge in Judah.
  9. ^ Jeremiah 52:11

External links[edit]