List of Lycian place names

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Location of ancient Lycia in modern-day Turkey
Some of the detail of ancient Lycia
Turkish coast near Dalaman, Gulf of Fethiye in background
A view in ancient Xanthus
Xanthos, theater
Xanthos River from the acropolis of Xanthos
Mosaic at Xanthos
Harpy Tomb, Xanthus
Harpies from the Harpy Tomb, Xanthus
Butterfly Valley on the Lycian Way
View of monuments at Caunus
Acropolis and theater at Caunus
Ancient Patara
Ancient Patara
Ruins of Patara
View of Patara
Patara
Dunes near Patara Beach
Pinara, amphitheater
View of ancient Tlos
Acropolis at Tlos
Theater at Tlos
Entrance to amphitheater, Myra
Masks worn by actors at Myra
Ruins of Andriake
Tomb of Amyntas, Fethiye
Ancient bridge near Limyra
On the bridge near Limyra
Ruins in ancient Phaselis
Aqueduct at Phaselis
Part of the partially sunken settlement on Dolchiste Island
Ruins on Kekova Island
Tahtali Daği, "Mount Olympus"
Tahtali Daği
Olympus Beach, mountain in background
Göcek near Fethiye, Turkish Riviera, looking into the mountains of Lycia
Kaş
An eternal flame of Chimaera Mountain
Kemer Bridge (not near the city) over the Xanthus

This article contains a list of Lycian place names that have survived from ancient Lycia in Anatolia. Names of settlements and geomorphic features are known from ancient literary sources. Ptolemy's Geography lists places in Asia Minor[1] and specifically Lycia.[2] Strabo's Geography has a section on Lycia as well,[3] as does Pliny's Natural History.[4] Stephanus of Byzantium includes a large number of Lycian places in Ethnica.[5] Hierocles in Synecdemus lists the cities in the eparchy of Lycia.[6] William Martin Leake's Journal of his own trips through Anatolia, as well as of those of many other travellers, with analyses of sources, mainly Ptolemy, is still a valuable source of information on the locations and appearances of the Lycian sites.[7] In addition, numerous inscriptions in the Lycian language state some place names in their Lycian forms.[8] The topographical information comes from the Aydin thesis, and was developed from Turkish military maps.[9]

This article does not address the task of defining Lycia. Over a thousand or more years, the borders of the historical territory, called Lycia in English, are not likely to have remained invariant. This list includes places named by some source at some time as "Lycian", and also any settlement with a Lycian language name, even though located in some other city-state. "Lycia" therefore represents a maximum territory, to which any historical Lycia was never exactly identical.

Aydin studied 44 out of 78 known ancient settlements. Many more archaeological sites are not identifiable with ancient settlements. Aydin also collected information on 870 Turkish settlements over the same region.[10] The moderns, certainly, populate the region much more densely than the ancients.

Some of the modern place names are given in Turkish. For the most part, the equivalent English, French or German pronunciations are good approximations, but Turkish has some letters not present in those languages. Ğ or ğ is not pronounced, but lengthens the preceding vowel. For example, dağ, "mountain", is pronounced daa. Substitution of an English G or g is false. Ç or ç is a ch as in child, Ş or ş is an sh as in shore. What appear to be an English C or c is a J as in John, while the J or j is pronounced as the z in azure. The vowels have a short rather than a long pronunciation. As Turkish is an agglutinative language, the endings do not have the same meanings; e.g., daği is not the plural of dağ, which is daĝlar (daalar).

Contents: Top · 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Acalessus Greek Akalessos Stephanus, Hierocles, who has Akalisos.
Acarassus Greek Akarassos Stephanus
Aedesa River Turkish Ak Çay.[11] Pliny the Elder
Agathe Island Greek Agathe. Stephanus
Alimala Greek Alimala Stephanus
Alina Island Greek Alina. Stephanus, an island belonging to Crya.
Amelas Pliny the Elder
Andriaca 36°13′46.6″N 29°57′30.6″E / 36.229611°N 29.958500°E / 36.229611; 29.958500, Greek Andriake, 2.543 km (1.580 mi) from Tugluc, elevation 0. Ptolemy, Pliny.
Anticragus Mountain Greek Antikragos, Turkish Buba Dağ.[11] Strabo.
Antiphellus Greek Antiphellos, Turkish Kaş[11] Ptolemy, Strabo, Pliny, who says it was formerly Habessus, Stephanus, Hierocles.
Aperlae Apr and prl 36°9′43.5″N 29°47′19.9″E / 36.162083°N 29.788861°E / 36.162083; 29.788861, elevation 56 m (184 ft). Greek Aperlai, a former port of Lycia, Turkish Siçak Iskelesi,[11] the docks on Aperlai Bay, 4.11 km (2.55 mi) from Kiliçli. Lycian name from coins. Listed in Ptolemy as Aperroe, in Pliny as Aperræ. Hierocles has Aperlai.
Apollonia Island Greek Apollonia, Turkish Sıçak.[11] Stephanus
Aptera Greek Aptera Stephanus
Araxa Araththi Greek Araksa, located at Turkish Ören on the Xanthus River. Ptolemy, Stephanus, Hierocles. The Lycian name is from coins.
Argais Island Greek Argais Stephanus
Arna See Xanthus
Arneae Greek Arneiai. Stephanus, who calls it a "small city" and says that Homer called it Orneiai.
Arsinoe Greek Arsinoe Stephanus
Artymnesus Greek Artumnesos Stephanus
Arycanda Arykawanda Greek Arukanda, located at Aykiriçay in Antalya Province. Stephanus, Hierocles.
Arycandus River Greek Arukandos, Turkish Karasu Çay.[12] Pliny, who says it is a tributary of the Xanthus.
Ascandalis Pliny the Elder
Aspalathis Island Greek Aspalathis Stephanus
Aspis Island Greek Aspis Stephanus
Aulae Greek Aulai Stephanus

B[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Balbura Greek Balboura, Turkish Çölkayaği[12] or Çölkayiği[13] Ptolemy, Pliny, Stephanus
Balura Greek Baloura. Hierocles
Bubon Greek Boubon, Turkish Ibecik.[12] Ptolemy, Pliny, Stephanus, who says it is Homer's Boudeion, Hierocles.

C[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Cabalia A region Ptolemy, Strabo, who calls it Cabalis, and says it contains Oenianda, Balbura, Bubon. The Solymi lived there and the Lydians of Cibyra settled there. Part was in Milyas, part in Pisidia, and part in Rhodian territory, as well as in Lycia.
Cabessus Greek Kabessos Stephanus
Cadianda Khadawãti Greek Kaduanda, near Üzümlü.
Cadrema Stephanus
Calbius Spring Greek Kalbios Krene. Stephanus says that some say it is Kalainon.
Callatebus Greek Kallatebos Stephanus
Calinda Greek Kalunda, Turkish Kozpınar.[14] Listed in Ptolemy in coastal Lycia
Canas Pliny the Elder
Candyba Khãkba Greek Kanduba, close to Gendive. Ptolemy, Pliny. Possibly the same as Hittite Hinduwa. Named for the son of Deucalion, according to Stephanus. Hierocles.
Cannus Listed by Ptolemy as a coastal town
Carbana Greek Karbana Stephanus
Carmylessus adjacent to Kaya[15] Strabo says it is a settlement on a ravine of Anticragus Mountain.
Carya Listed by Ptolemy as a coastal town
Carysis Island Greek Karusis. Stephanus, island belonging to Crya.
Caunus Khbide Greek Kaunos, a major city and seaport near Dalyan Ptolemy lists the city as part of Doris, meaning Dorian Anatolia, near the Lycian border. Hierocles.
Chelidoniae Islands Greek Chelidoniai, Turkish Beş Adalar.[12] Strabo says there are three off the promontory, one with a landing for vessels.
Chelidonia Promontory Greek Hiera Akra, "Sacred promontory," Turkish Gelidonya Burnu.[12] Ptolemy, who calls it cliffs, and Strabo, who says the continuous chain of the Taurus Mountains start here.
Cherrhonesus Promontory Greek Cherrhonesos Akra Stephanus
Chimaera Ravine Avlan valley.[12] Strabo says it is a ravine "extending up from the shore."
Chimaera Mountain Turkish Yanartaş.[12] Pliny speaks of an eternal flame, which turns out to be a steady stream of inflammable gas.
Chlyda Listed by Ptolemy as a coastal town
Choma Near Sarılar.[12] Ptolemy, Pliny, who says it is on the Aedesa, Hierocles.
Chrysaor Greek Chrysaoris. Stephanus says this is a Carian city with substantial Lycian residents.
Cibyra Greek Kibura, abandoned site north of Gölhisar. Strabo. An independent city, ruler of the Tetrapolis, never politically part of Lycia, but housing a population element speaking the language of the Solymi. The state was called the Cibyratis.
Cisthene island and town Strabo
Climax Mountain Greek Klimaks Strabo
Cochliousa Island Greek Kochliousa Stephanus
Comba Greek Kombe Ptolemy, Hierocles has Kombe.
Comistaraus Greek Komistaraos. Hierocles
Corycus Greek Korukos Described by Strabo as a stretch of coast.
Corydalla 36°22′5.9″N 30°18′4.6″E / 36.368306°N 30.301278°E / 36.368306; 30.301278, Greek Korudalla, 424 m (1,391 ft) from Kumluca. Elevation 30 m (98 ft), not a mountain village. Ptolemy, a mountain village of Pliny.
Cragus (KP) Greek Kragos, a monetary district of Lycia It had its own coinage. Implied by Ptolemy's "near the Cragus mountains."
Cragus Mountain Greek Kragos, Turkish Avdancık or Sandak Dağ.[16] Pliny, Ptolemy, Strabo, who says it has eight promontories.
Cragus Greek Kragos. Strabo mentions a city of the same name as the mountain.
Crambusa Strabo
Crya Greek Krua Stephanus
Cyaneae 36°15′10.5″N 29°49′45.7″E / 36.252917°N 29.829361°E / 36.252917; 29.829361, elevation 653 m (2,142 ft), Greek Kuaneai, 350 m (1,150 ft) from Turkish Yavı.[16] Pliny the Elder
Cydna Ptolemy

D[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Daedala Greek Daidala. A known archaeological site at Inlice Asari on an uninhabited hill in the countryside about 2.5 mi. to the northeast of Göcek.[17] A coastal town in Ptolemy, under Rhodes in Strabo and Stephanus, who says it was named after Dedalus.
Daedala Mountain Kizildağ[18] A mountain within Lycia on the western border, in Strabo, Stephanus.
Daphne Stephanus
Dias Stephanus
Dolchiste island Greek Dolchiste, Turkish Kekova.[18] Ptolemy, Stephanus.
Doliche Island Greek Doliche. Stephanus, who relates that Alexandros says it is the same as Dolchiste Island, but Callimachus does not.
Drepana Stephanus

E[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Edebessus Greek Edebessos Stephanus
Elaiou Teichos Stephanus
Elebesus Greek Elebesos. Hierocles
Eleutherai Stephanus
Ereuates Stephanus
Eudocia Greek Eudokia Hierocles

G[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Gagae 36°17′56.4″N 30°21′17.3″E / 36.299000°N 30.354806°E / 36.299000; 30.354806, elevation 34 m (112 ft). Greek Gagai, located at Yali, within Mavikent, within Kumluca. This is not, however, a mountain community. Opinions vary. A mountain village in Pliny, an old fort in Stephanus. Hierocles has Gaga.
Glaukou demos Stephanus says it was named after the hero, Glaucus.

H[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources-
Henoanda Greek Henoanda. Hierocles
Hiera See Chelidonia Promontory
Hephæstium City located by Pliny below Chimaera Mountain
Hippou Kome Turkish İtasar.[18] Stephanus
Hoauapus Greek Hoauapos. Hierocles
Hylami Greek Hulamoi. Stephanus
Hytenna Greek Hutenna Stephanus

I[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Ilaris Stephanus
Isinda Isñta Located at Belenli, or, at another period, Alaettin Mahalle, Korkuteli.[14] Strabo

L[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Lamyra Greek Lamura Stephanus
Lamyrus River Greek Lamuros Stephanus
Limyra Zẽmuri Greek Limura, a coastal city Ptolemy, Strabo, Pliny, Stephanus, Hierocles.
Limyrus river The Alakır Çay.[16] Ptolemy, Strabo, Pliny.
Lycia Trm̃mis Greek Lukia, the ancient region now in Turkey. Listed in Ptolemy and numerous classical texts and inscriptions, as well as being the Lukka lands of Late Bronze Age Hittite and Egyptian inscriptions.
Lycian Promontory Pliny. See Chelidonia Promontory.

M[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Macra Island Greek Makra, Turkish Meğri Ada.[19] Stephanus
Masicytus A political unit of Lycia It had its own coinage. Implied by Ptolemy's "near the Masicytus mountains."
Masicytus mountains Greek Masikytos, Turkish Alaca Dağ.[19] Ptolemy lists without coordinates, Pliny has Masycites.
Megale Island Greek Megale. Stephanus
Megiste Ancient Greek Megiste, modern Greek Kastellorizon.[19] Strabo, Stephanus, who place it on the island, same name.
Megiste Island Ancient Greek Megiste, Modern Greek Megiste, belongs to Greece. Ptolemy, Strabo, Stephanus.
Melaenae Greek Melainai Stephanus
Melanippion Greek Melanippion, on Turkish Karaöz Limanı.[19] Stephanus
Menedemion Stephanus
Meroe Stephanus
Milias Greek Miluas, Anglicised to Milyas. A district located on an alpine plain near Bay Dağ, identified by the Greek name on an inscription. Ptolemy, Strabo.
Misai Misae Hierocles
Molydeia Moludeia Stephanus
Myra 36°15′47.1″N 29°58′37.0″E / 36.263083°N 29.976944°E / 36.263083; 29.976944, elevation 239 m (784 ft), Greek Mura, 295 m (968 ft) from Sumeli in Demre.[19] Strabo, Pliny, Stephanus. Hierocles has Myra Metropolis.

N[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Nisa Ptolemy
Noscopium Pliny the Elder

O[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Octapolis Listed in Ptolemy
Oenoanda Hieroglyphic Luwian Wiyanawanda Turkish İncealiler.[19] Ptolemy, Stephanus, Pliny as Oenianda
Olympus Turkish Deliktaş.[19] Also called Hadrianopolis. Listed by Ptolemy, Strabo, Pliny.
Olympus, Mountain Tahtalı Dağ.[19] Strabo, who says it is also called Phoenicus.

P[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Patara Lycian Pttara, Hieroglyphic Luwian Patara, Hittite Patar. 36°15′58.0″N 29°18′54.3″E / 36.266111°N 29.315083°E / 36.266111; 29.315083, elevation 2 metres (6.6 ft), Greek Patara, a port city, capital of the Lycian League, at Turkish Gelemiş.[20] Also named Arsinoe. Ptolemy, Strabo, Stephanus, Hierocles.
Perdicia Greek Perdikia Village and harbor in Stephanus
Phaselis 36°31′35.2″N 30°32′53.3″E / 36.526444°N 30.548139°E / 36.526444; 30.548139, elevation 9 m (30 ft). 3,190 m (1.98 mi) from Egelkoyu in Tekirova.[20] Ptolemy, Strabo, who says it is a city with three harbors and a lake.
Phasydis Greek Phasudis. Hierocles
Phellus Wehñta Greek Phellos, at Turkish Çukurbağ.[20] Ptolemy, Strabo, Pliny, Stephanus, Hierocles.
Phoinkous Island Stephanus, "an island against Lycia."
Phrixus Greek Phriksos Stephanus
Physcia Greek Phuskia Stephanus, a mountain city
Pinara Lycian Pilleñni, Hieroglyphic Luwian Pinali Near the village of Minara in the Xanthus Valley. Ptolemy, Strabo, Pliny, Stephanus, who says it is a large city under Cragus. Hierocles.
Plateis Island Greek Plateis. Stephanus
Podalia Greek Podalia, Turkish Söğle.[20] Ptolemy, Pliny, Stephanus, Hierocles.
Pyrra Pliny the Elder

R[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Rhengcylias Greek Rhegkulias Hierocles
Rhax Island Greek Rhaks Stephanus
Rhoge Island Greek Rhoge, Turkish Kara Ada.[21] Stephanus
Rhodia 36°22′38.0″N 30°16′31.7″E / 36.377222°N 30.275472°E / 36.377222; 30.275472, elevation 44 m (144 ft), not a mountain village. Greek Rhodia, near Kumluca.[21] Stephanus, Ptolemy, Pliny, who calls it Rhodiopolis, and a mountaian village.

S[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Sacred Promontory See Chelidonia Promontory
Sagalassus Greek Sagalassos Ptolemy, Strabo.
Sebeda Greek Sebeda, Turkish Bayındır Liman.[21] Stephanus, town and harbor.
Sidake Greek Sidake. Stephanus
Sidarous Greek Sidarous, Turkish Ceneviz Limanı.[21] Stephanus, town and harbor
Sidene Greek Sidene Stephanus
Sidyma 36°24′36.9″N 29°11′30.1″E / 36.410250°N 29.191694°E / 36.410250; 29.191694, elevation 545 m (1,788 ft). Greek Siduma, Turkish Dodurga.[21] Ptolemy, Strabo, who says it was on a mountain. Stephanus, Hierocles.
Simena 36°11′41.2″N 29°51′49.7″E / 36.194778°N 29.863806°E / 36.194778; 29.863806, elevation 13 m (43 ft), 1.513 km (0.940 mi) from Kaleüçağız. Stephanus, Pliny.
Sindia Greek Sindia Stephanus, possibly the same as Strabo's Sinda near or in Cabalis.
Scari Greek Skaroi Stephanus
Sirbis River See Xanthus River.
Solyma Mountain Turkish Güllük Dağ.[21] Strabo. Elsewhere he calls it Solymus and says it is above Termessus.
Sura Oracle Surezi Greek Soura, Turkish Sura.[21] Stephanus
Syessa Sanctuary to Leto Greek Suessa Stephanus
Symbra Ptolemy

T[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Taurus Mountains Greek Tauros, Turkish Toros Dağları Strabo, who says they start at Cape Chelidonia.
Telandrus Turkish Tersane.[22] Pliny the Elder
Telephian Community Greek Telephios Demos Stephanus, a community at the spring.
Telephus Spring Greek Telephou Krene. Stephanus
Telmessis Promontory Greek Telmessis akra, Turkish Çamlı Burun.[22] Strabo says it is a promontory with a harbor. Stephanus.
Telmessus Telebehi 36°37′21.3″N 29°6′41.4″E / 36.622583°N 29.111500°E / 36.622583; 29.111500, Greek Telmessos, at Turkish Fethiye, elevation 6 m (20 ft). Ptolemy, Strabo, Pliny. Stephanus says it is a city of Caria, although expressing also the Lycian view. Hierocles has Telmisos.
Tenedos Stephanus
Termera Stephanus
Termessus Trm̃mis Greek Termēs(s)os Described by Strabo as a city of Pisidia in the pass to Milyas. Same name as Lycia. Strabo says the Termessians are called the Solymi. Cibyra is just below and near Termessus.
Thryanda Greek Thruanda Stephanus
Tlos Lycian Tlãñna, Hieroglyphic Luwian Talawa 36°33′51.9″N 29°25′14.8″E / 36.564417°N 29.420778°E / 36.564417; 29.420778, elevation 370 m (1,210 ft). Greek Tlos, near Turkish Düğer.[22] Ptolemy, Strabo, Pliny, Stephanus. Hierocles has Tlo.
Trauala Greek Trauala. Stephanus
Tymena Greek Tumena Stephanus says it is a village of Lycia.
Tymnessus Tuminehi < *Tumine, * Tumini, or *Tumina Greek Tumnessos. Stephanus says it is a city of Caria but the citizens were Lycian at first.

X[edit]

English classical name Inscriptional name Description Sources
Xanthus Lycian Arñna, Hieroglyphic Luwian Awarna, and possibly Arinna Greek Ksanthos, the largest city of Lycia, the site of present-day Kınık, Antalya Province, Turkey. Listed in Ptolemy, Hierocles, Strabo, who says it was later called Arsinoe, and Pliny. Stephanus says it was called Arna before Xanthus.
Xanthus river Hittite Siyanti Turkish Esen Çay.[22] Listed by Ptolemy, Strabo, who says it was formerly the Sirbis, and Pliny.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Book 5, Chapter 2.
  2. ^ Book 5, Chapter 3.
  3. ^ Strabo. "Book XIV, Chapter 3". Geography. Also Strabo. "Book XIII, Chapter 4, Sections 15-17". Geography.
  4. ^ Pliny the Elder. "Book V, Chapter 28". Natural History.
  5. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. "Index". Ethnica.
  6. ^ Hierocles (1893). "Eparchia Lukias". In Augustus Burckhardt. Synecdemus. Lipsiae: Teubner. pp. 26–28.
  7. ^ Leake 1824, Chapter 5.
  8. ^ This article relies heavily for its Lycian names on Bryce 1986, pp. xvi, 70, 76–93, 211. Bryce in turn was influenced by Ten Cote, PH. H.J. Houwink (1961). "Chapter Four, The Transliteration of Proper Names, 3. The Greek transliteration of Lycian place names". The Luwian Population Groups of Lycia and Cilicia Aspera During the Hellenistic Period. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. pp. 106–108. Ten Cate lists all the inscriptions bearing on the names. Most present variants. Only one appears in column 2 above, typically that favored by Bryce. There are slight differences in the transliteration to English as well.
  9. ^ Aydin 2006, pp. 39, 102
  10. ^ Aydin 2006, p. 84.
  11. ^ a b c d e Foss & Mitchell 2000, p. 997.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Foss & Mitchell 2000, p. 998.
  13. ^ Stillwell, Richard. MacDonald, William L. McAlister, Marian Holland (1976). "The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites". Princeton University Press. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
  14. ^ a b Foss & Mitchell 2000, p. 1000.
  15. ^ Richard Talbert. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. p. 1000. ISBN 0-691-03169-X. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
  16. ^ a b c Foss & Mitchell 2000, p. 1001
  17. ^ Freely 2004, p. 270.
  18. ^ a b c Foss & Mitchell 2000, p. 999.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Foss & Mitchell 2000, p. 1002.
  20. ^ a b c d Foss & Mitchell 2000, p. 1003.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Foss & Mitchell 2000, p. 1004
  22. ^ a b c d Foss & Mitchell 2000, p. 1005. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "FM1005" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).

References[edit]

  • Bryce, Trevor (1986). The Lycians. Volume 1, The Lycians in literary and epigraphic sources. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-023-1.
  • Leake, William Martin (1824). Journal of a tour in Asia Minor, with comparative remarks on the ancient and modern geography of that country. London: Murray.
  • Freely, John (2004). The western shores of Turkey: discovering the Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts. Tauris Parke paperbacks. London: Tauris Parke.
  • Foss, C.; Mitchell, S. (2000), "Map 65 Lycia - Pisidia", in Talbert, J.A., Map-by-Map Directory (PDF), Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 998–1012
  • Aydın, Ervin Kenan (2006). Examining the Lycian sites by using GIS (PDF). Dissertation, Middle East Technical University. Ankara: [s.n.]

External links[edit]

  • Foss, Pedar W. "Lycia". Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces (ERP). Archived from the original on 2012-02-26.