List of Mamluk sultans

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The Cairo Citadel, the seat of power of the Mamluk sultans

The following is a list of Mamluk sultans. The Mamluk Sultanate was founded in 1250 by mamluks of the Ayyubid sultan as-Salih Ayyub and it succeeded the Ayyubid state. It was based in Cairo and for much of its history, the territory of the sultanate spanned Egypt, Syria and parts of Anatolia, Upper Mesopotamia and the Hejaz. The sultanate ended with the advent of the Ottoman Empire in 1517.

There were a total of 47 sultans, although Sultan an-Nasir Muhammad reigned three times, and sultans an-Nasir Hasan, Salah ad-Din Hajji, Barquq and an-Nasir Faraj each reigned twice. The Mamluk period is generally divided into two periods, the Bahri and Burji periods. The Bahri sultans were predominantly of Turkic origins, while the Burji sultans were predominantly ethnic Circassians. While the first three Mamluk sultans, Aybak, his son al-Mansur Ali, and Qutuz, are generally considered part of the Bahri dynasty, they were not part of the Bahriyya mamluk regiment and opposed the political interests of the Bahriyya.[1] The first sultan to come from the Bahriyya's ranks was Baybars.[1] The Burji mamluks usurped the throne in 1382 with the accession of Sultan Barquq. The 34th sultan, al-Musta'in Billah, was also the Abbasid caliph and was installed in power by the Burji emirs as a figurehead.[2]

List of sultans[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Northrup 1998, pp. 69–70.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1910). The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Volume IX. The Encyclopædia Britannica Company. pp. 101–103.
  3. ^ a b Northrup 1998, p. 69.
  4. ^ Northrup 1998, p. 70.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Stewart, John (2006). African States and Rulers. McFarland & Company. p. 86. ISBN 9780786425624.
  6. ^ a b Hathaway, Jane (2003). Tale of Two Factions, A: Myth, Memory, and Identity in Ottoman Egypt and Yemen. State University of New York Press. pp. 50–52. ISBN 9780791486108.
  7. ^ a b Northrup, ed. Petry 1998, p. 250.
  8. ^ Northrup 1998, p. 71.
  9. ^ Thorau, Peter (1992). The Lion of Egypt: Sultan Baybars I and the Near East in the Thirteenth Century. Longman. p. 261. ISBN 9780582068230.
  10. ^ Holt 2004, p. 99.
  11. ^ Yosef 2012b, p. 394.
  12. ^ a b c d e Northrup, ed. Petry 1998, p. 252.
  13. ^ a b c d Yosef 2012b, p. 396.
  14. ^ Tarikh, Volumes 5-6: Peoples and Kingdoms of West Africa in the Pre-Colonial Period. Longman. 1974. p. 9.
  15. ^ a b c Drory 2006, p. 20.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Bauden 2009, p. 63.
  17. ^ Levanoni 1995, p. 102.
  18. ^ a b c Drory 2006, p. 24.
  19. ^ Drory 2006, p. 28.
  20. ^ Holt, eds. Vermeulen and De Smet, p. 319.
  21. ^ Al-Harithy, Howayda (2005). "Female Patronage of Mamluk Architecture in Cairo". In Sonbol, Amira El Azhary. Beyond The Exotic: Women's Histories In Islamic Societies. Syracuse University Press. p. 332. ISBN 9780815630555.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Garcin, ed. Petry 1998, p. 293.
  23. ^ Levanoni, eds. Winter and Levanoni 2004, p. 82.
  24. ^ Ali, Abdul (1996). Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization During the Later Medieval Times. M.D. Publications Private Limited. p. 64. ISBN 9788175330085.
  25. ^ Garcin, ed. Petry 1998, p. 295.
  26. ^ Dobrowolski, Jarosław (2001). The Living Stones of Cairo. American University in Cairo Press. p. 60. ISBN 9789774246326.
  27. ^ Mayer, L. A. (1933). Saracenic Heraldry: A Survey. Clarendon Press. p. 127.
  28. ^ Garcin, ed. Petry 1998, p. 297.
  29. ^ a b Petry 1994, p. 20.

Bibliography[edit]