List of Mars landers

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The following table is a list of successful and unsuccessful Mars landers. As of 2018, 16 lander missions and 5 sub-landers (Rovers and Penetrators) attempted to land on Mars. Of 16 landers, only InSight Mars Lander is currently in operation on Mars. This list excludes rovers, such as Spirit (Mars Exploration Rover-A), Opportunity (Mars Exploration Rover-B) and Curiosity (Mars Science Laboratory).

Mars landers[edit]

Table consisting of list of Mars landers
S.No Landers Launch Date Landing Date Mass (kg)[1] Landing Site Region Status MOLA Entry Velocity References
1. 2MV-3 No.1 04 Nov 1962 25 Nov 1962 890 - - Failed - - [2]
2. Mars 2 19 May 1971 27 Nov 1971 1210 45°S 47°E - Failed - - [3][4]
3. Mars 3 28 May 1971 02 Dec 1971 1210 45°S 202°E Sirenum Terra Partial Success - - [5][4]
4. Mars 6 05 Aug 1973 12 Mar 1974 635 23.90°S 19.4°N Margaritifer Terra Partial Success - - [6][4]
5. Mars 7 09 Aug 1973 - 635 - - Failed - - [7][4]
6. Viking 1 20 Aug 1975 20 Jul 1976 572 22.27°N 47.95°W Chryse Planitia Success -3.5 4.61 km/sec [8]
7. Viking 2 09 Sep 1975 03 Sep 1976 572 47.64°N 225.71°W Utopia Planitia Success -3.5 4.61 km/sec [9]
8. Phobos 1§ 07 Jul 1988 - 2600 - - Failed - - [10]
9. Phobos 2§ 12 Jul 1988 - 2600 - - Failed - - [10]
10. Mars 96 16 Nov 1996 - 3159 41°31N 153°77 W - Failed - 5.75 km/sec [11]
11. Mars Pathfinder 04 Dec 1996 04 Jul 1997 361 19°7′48″ N 33°18′12″W Ares Vallis Success -2.5 7.26 km/sec [12][13]
12. Mars Polar Lander 03 Jan 1999 03 Dec 1999 583 76°S 195°W Ultimi Scopuli Partial Success -3.0 6.91 km/sec [14][15]
13. Beagle 2 02 Jun 2003 25 Dec 2003 33.2 11.5265°N 90.4295°E Isidis Planitia Partial Success - 5.63 km/sec [16][17]
14. Phoenix Lander 04 Aug 2007 5 May 2008 350 68.22°N 125.7°W Vastitas Borealis Success -3.5 5.59 km/sec [12]
15. Schiaparelli EDM 14 Mar 2016 19 Oct 2016 577 6.208°W 2.052°S Meridiani Planum Partial Success 1.45 5.83 km/sec [18]
16. InSight Mars Lander 5 May 2018 26 Nov 2018 727 4.5°N 135.9°E Elysium Planitia Operational -2.5 6.3 km/sec [19]

§ - Spacecraft intended for Martian moons (Phobos and Deimos), Entry Mass, Estimated, MOLA - Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

Table consisting of sub-landers onboard Mars landers
S.No Sub-Landers Type Lander Slot Launch Date Mass (kg) Status References
1. Prop-M Rover Mars 2 19 May 1971 4.5 Failed [3][4]
2. Prop-M Rover Mars 3 28 May 1971 4.5 Failed [4][5]
3. Mars 96 Penetrator Mars 96 16 Nov 1996 88 Failed [11]
4. Deep Space 2 Penetrator Mars Polar Lander 03 Jan 1999 2.4 Failed [14][15]
5. Sojourner Rover Mars Pathfinder 04 Dec 1996 11.5 Success [12][13]

Future proposed Mars lander missions[edit]

List of future proposed Mars lander missions
Lander Proposed Launch Country Agency Type Sub-Lander References
Mars MetNet Precursor ? Finland FMI Impact Lander - [20]
Mars MetNet ? Finland FMI Multi-lander - [21]
Icebreaker 2026 US NASA Lander - [22]
Martian Moons Exploration 2024 Japan JAXA Lander Sample Return [23]
Phootprint 2024 Europe ESA Lander Ascent Stage [24]
Fobos-Grunt (Repeat) 2024 Russia ROSCOSMOS Lander Ascent Stage [25]
Mars-Grunt 2024 Russia ROSCOSMOS Lander - [1]
BOLD 2020 US NASA Impact Lander 6-Impact Lander [26]
Mars Lander 2020 South Korea KARI Lander - [27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b M, Malaya Kumar Biswal; A, Ramesh Naidu (2018-08-23). "A Novel Entry, Descent and Landing Architecture for Mars Landers". arXiv:1809.00062 [physics.pop-ph].
  2. ^ Biswal.m, Malaya Kumar; Annavarapu, Ramesh Naidu (2019). "Comparative EDL Summary of Mars Landers". doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.13568.07682. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ a b "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Perminov, V. G. (1999). The difficult road to Mars: a brief history of Mars exploration in the Soviet Union.
  5. ^ a b "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
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  8. ^ "Viking 1 Lander". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  9. ^ "Viking 2 Lander". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
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  11. ^ a b Marov, Mikhail Ya; Huntress, Wesley T. (2011), "The last gasp: Mars-96", Soviet Robots in the Solar System, Springer Praxis Books, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 387–405, doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-7898-1_20, ISBN 9781441978974
  12. ^ a b c Shevalev, I. L.; Huntress, W. T.; Moroz, V. I. (2002-09-01). "Planetary Missions of the 20th Century*". Cosmic Research. 40 (5): 419–445. doi:10.1023/A:1020690700050.
  13. ^ a b Nilsen, E. N. (2012). Exploring Mars: an overview
  14. ^ a b Willcockson, William H. (1999). "Mars Pathfinder Heatshield Design and Flight Experience". Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 36 (3): 374–379. Bibcode:1999JSpRo..36..374W. doi:10.2514/2.3456.
  15. ^ a b "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  16. ^ Lindstrand, Per (2003). "Parachute Subsystems for the Beagle 2 Mars Lander Entry Descent and Landing Systems". 44th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference. doi:10.2514/6.2003-1902. ISBN 978-1-62410-100-7.
  17. ^ Linkin, V.; et al. (1998-06-01). "A sophisticated lander for scientific exploration of Mars: scientific objectives and implementation of the Mars-96 Small Station". Planetary and Space Science. 46 (6–7): 717–737. Bibcode:1998P&SS...46..717L. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(98)00008-7.
  18. ^ "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  19. ^ Greicius, Tony (2015-02-23). "InSight Mars Lander | Missions". NASA. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  20. ^ Harri, A.-M.; et al. (2008). "MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission". European Planetary Science Congress 2008, Proceedings of the conference held 21-25 September, 2008 in Münster, Germany. p. 361. Bibcode:2008epsc.conf..361H.
  21. ^ Landis, Geoffrey; Oleson, Steven; McGuire, Melissa (2012). "Design Study for a Mars Geyser Hopper". 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition. doi:10.2514/6.2012-631. hdl:2060/20120004036. ISBN 978-1-60086-936-5.
  22. ^ McKay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.; Glass, Brian J.; Davé, Arwen I.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Marinova, Margarita M.; Fairen, Alberto G.; Quinn, Richard C.; Zacny, Kris A.; Paulsen, Gale; Smith, Peter H.; Parro, Victor; Andersen, Dale T.; Hecht, Michael H.; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne H. (2013). "The Icebreaker Life Mission to Mars: A Search for Biomolecular Evidence for Life". Astrobiology. 13 (4): 334–353. Bibcode:2013AsBio..13..334M. doi:10.1089/ast.2012.0878. PMID 23560417.
  23. ^ Miyamoto, Hirdly (17 March 2016). "Japanese mission of the two moons of Mars with sample return from Phobos" (PDF). NASA MEPAG. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
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  25. ^ Zelenyi, L.; Zakharov, A.; Polischuk, G.; Pichkhadze, K.; Akim, E.; Hirahara, Masfumi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Terada, Naoki; Mukai, Toshifumi (2009). "Phobos Sample Return mission". AIP Conference Proceedings. 1144 (1): 128–137. Bibcode:2009AIPC.1144..128Z. doi:10.1063/1.3169276.
  26. ^ Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Head, James N.; Houtkooper, Joop M.; Knoblauch, Michael; Furfaro, Roberto; Fink, Wolfgang; Fairén, Alberto G.; Vali, Hojatollah; Kelly Sears, S.; Daly, Mike; Deamer, David; Schmidt, Holger; Hawkins, Aaron R.; Sun, Henry J.; Lim, Darlene S.S.; Dohm, James; Irwin, Louis N.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Mendez, Abel; Andersen, Dale (2012). "The Biological Oxidant and Life Detection (BOLD) mission: A proposal for a mission to Mars". Planetary and Space Science. 67 (1): 57–69. Bibcode:2012P&SS...67...57S. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.008.
  27. ^ Lee, Eun-Seok; Chang, Keun-Shik; Park, Chul (2004). "Design Study of a Korean Mars Mission". International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences. 5 (2): 54–61. Bibcode:2004IJASS...5...54.. doi:10.5139/IJASS.2004.5.2.054.