List of Indian monarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of Mauryan rulers)
Jump to: navigation, search

The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents.

Early mythical and later documented rulers and dynasties who are deemed to have ruled a portion of the Indian subcontinent are included in this list.

Contents

Magadha dynasties[edit]

This list includes the legendary kings of Magadha.

Brihadratha dynasty[edit]

  • Brihadratha
  • Jarasandha
  • Sahadeva
  • Somapi
  • Srutasravas
  • Ayutayus
  • Niramitra
  • Sukshatra
  • Brihatkarman
  • Senajit
  • Srutanjaya
  • Vipra
  • Suchi
  • Kshemya
  • Subrata
  • Dharma
  • Susuma
  • Dridhasena
  • Sumati
  • Subhala
  • Sunita
  • Satyajit
  • Biswajit
  • Ripunjaya

Pradyota dynasty[edit]

  • Pradyota
  • Palaka
  • Visakhayupa
  • Ajaka
  • Varttivarddhana

Haryanka dynasty[edit]

Shishunaga dynasty[edit]

  • Shishunaga (412–395 BCE), established the Magadha Kingdom
  • Kakavarna
  • Kshemadharman
  • Kshatraujas
  • Nandivardhana
  • Mahanandin (until 345 BCE), his empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda

Nanda dynasty[edit]

  • Mahapadma Nanda (from 345 BCE), son of Mahanandin, founded the Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin's empire
  • Pandhukananda
  • Panghupatinanda
  • Bhutapalananda
  • Rashtrapalananada
  • Govishanakananda
  • Dashasidkhakananda
  • Kaivartananda
  • Dhana Nanda (Agrammes, Xandrammes) (until 321 BCE), lost his empire to Chandragupta Maurya after being defeated by him.
  • Karvinatha Nand (Illegitimate son of Mahapadna Nanda)

Maurya dynasty (321–184 BCE)[edit]

Main article: Maurya Empire

Shunga dynasty (185–73 BCE)[edit]

  • Pushyamitra Shunga (185–149 BCE), founded the dynasty after assassinating Brhadratha
  • Agnimitra (149–141 BCE), son and successor of Pushyamitra
  • Vasujyeshtha (141–131 BCE)
  • Vasumitra (131–124 BCE)
  • Andhraka (124–122 BCE)
  • Pulindaka (122–119 BCE)
  • Ghosha
  • Vajramitra
  • Bhagabhadra (c. 110 BCE), mentioned by the Puranas
  • Devabhuti (83–73 BCE), the last Shunga king

Kanva dynasty (73–26 BCE)[edit]

  • Vasudeva (c. 75 – c. 66 BCE)
  • Bhumimitra (c. 66 – c. 52 BCE)
  • Narayana (c. 52 – c. 40 BCE)
  • Susarman (c. 40 – c. 26 BCE)

Western Kshatrapas (35–405 CE)[edit]

Gupta dynasty (c. 240–550 CE)[edit]

Ancient southern dynasties[edit]

Pandyan dynasty (c. 550 BCE – 1345)[edit]

Central Pandyas

  • Kadunkoen (c. 550–450 BCE)
  • Pandion (c. 50 BCE – 50 CE), known as Pandion to Greeks and Romans

Early Pandyas

  • Nedunj Cheliyan I (Aariyap Padai Kadantha Nedunj Cheliyan )
  • Pudappandiyan
  • Mudukudumi Paruvaludhi
  • Nedunj Cheliyan II (Pasumpun Pandiyan)
  • Nan Maran
  • Nedunj Cheliyan III (Talaiyaalanganathu Seruvendra Nedunj Cheliyan )
  • Maran Valudi
  • Musiri Mutriya Cheliyan
  • Ukkirap Peruvaluthi

First Empire

  • Kadungon (c. 600–700 CE), revived the dynasty
  • Maravarman Avani Culamani (590–620 CE)
  • Cezhiyan Cendan (620–640 CE)
  • Arikesari Maravarman Nindraseer Nedumaaran (640–674 CE)
  • Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran (675–730 CE)
  • Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman Rajasinga (730–765 CE)
  • Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan (765–790 CE)
  • Rasasingan II (790–800 CE)
  • Varagunan I (800–830 CE)
  • Sirmara Srivallabha (830–862 CE)
  • Varaguna II (862–880 CE)
  • Parantaka Viranarayana (862–905 CE)
  • Rajasima Pandian II (905–920 CE)

Pandyan Revival

  • Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (1251–1268), revived Pandyan glory, considered one of the greatest conquerors of Southern India
  • Maravarman Sundara Pandyan
  • Maravarman Kulasekaran I (1268–1308)
  • Sundara Pandya (1308–1311), son of Maravarman Kulasekaran, fought with his brother Vira Pandya over the throne
  • Vira Pandya (1308–1311), son of Maravarman Kulasekaran, fought with his brother of Sundara Pandya over the throne, Madurai was conquered by the Khilji dynasty

Pandalam Dynasty (c. 1200)

Chera dynasty[edit]

Note that years are still highly disputed among the scholars, the given is only a version.

Ancient Chera kings

  1. Udiyancheralatan
  2. Antuvancheral
  3. Imayavaramban Nedun-Cheralatan (56–115 CE)
  4. Cheran Chenkutuvan (from 115)
  5. Palyanai Sel-Kelu Kuttuvan (115–130)
  6. Poraiyan Kadungo (from 115)
  7. Kalankai-Kanni Narmudi Cheral (115–140)
  8. Vel-Kelu Kuttuvan (130–185)
  9. Selvak-Kadungo (131–155)
  10. Adukotpattu Cheralatan (140–178)
  11. Kuttuvan Irumporai (178–185)
  12. Tagadur Erinda Perumcheral (185–201)
  13. Yanaikat-sey Mantaran Cheral (201–241)
  14. Ilamcheral Irumporai (241–257)
  15. Perumkadungo (257–287)
  16. Ilamkadungo (287–317)
  17. Kanaikal Irumporai (367–397)

Kulashekhara dynasty (1020–1314 CE)

  1. Kulashekhara Varman (800–820 CE), also called Kulashekhara Alwar
  2. Rajashekhara Varman (820–844 CE), also called Cheraman Perumal
  3. Sthanu ravi Varman (844–885 CE), contemporary of Aditya Chola
  4. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (885–917 CE)
  5. Goda Ravi Varma (917–944 CE)
  6. Indu Kotha Varma (944–962 CE)
  7. Bhaskara Ravi Varman I (962–1019 CE)
  8. Bhaskara Ravi Varman II (1019–1021 CE)
  9. Vira Kerala (1021–1028 CE)
  10. Rajasimha (1028–1043 CE)
  11. Bhaskara Ravi Varman III (1043–1082 CE)
  12. Rama Varman Kulashekhara (1090–1122 CE), also called Cheraman Perumal
  13. Ravi Varman Kulashekhara (c. 1250 – 1314), last of the Cheras

Chola dynasty[edit]

Sangam Cholas

Imperial Cholas (848–1279 CE)

Foreign emperors in north-western India[edit]

These empires were vast, centered in Persia or the Mediterranean; their satrapies (provinces) in India were at their outskirts.

Satavahana dynasty[edit]

The beginning of the Satavahana rule is dated variously from 271 BCE to 30 BCE.[1] Satavahanas dominated the Deccan region from 1st century BCE to 3rd century CE.[2] It lasted till the early 3rd century CE. The following Satavahana kings are historically attested by epigraphic records, although the Puranas name several more kings (see Satavahana dynasty#List of rulers):

Vakataka dynasty (250s–500s CE)[edit]

  • Vindhyasakti (250–270)
  • Pravarasena I (270–330)

The Pravarapura-Nandivardhana branch[edit]

  • Rudrasena I (330–355)
  • Prithvisena I (355–380)
  • Rudrasena II (380–385)
  • Divakarasena (385–400)
  • Prabhavatigupta (fem.), Regent (385–405)
  • Damodarasena (Pravarasena II) (400–440)
  • Narendrasena (440–460)
  • Prithvishena II (460–480)

The Vatsagulma branch[edit]

  • Sarvasena (330–355)
  • Vindhyasena (Vindhyashakti II) (355–442)
  • Pravarasena II (400–415)
  • Unknown (415–450)
  • Devasena (450–475)
  • Harishena (475–500)

Indo-Scythian rulers (c. 90 BCE – 45 CE)[edit]

Northwestern India (c. 90 BCE – 10 CE)[edit]

Mathura area (c. 20 BCE – 20 CE)[edit]

  • Hagamasha (satrap)
  • Hagana (satrap)
  • Rajuvula (Great Satrap) (c. 10 CE)
  • Sodasa, son of Rajuvula

Apracharaja rulers (12 BCE – 45 CE)[edit]

  • Vijayamitra (12 BCE – 15 CE)
  • Itravasu (c. 20 CE)
  • Aspavarma (15–45 CE)

Minor local rulers[edit]

  • Bhadrayasha Niggas
  • Mamvadi
  • Arsakes

Indo-Parthian rulers (c. 21–100 CE)[edit]

Kushana dynasty (80–225)[edit]

Pallava dynasty (275–882)[edit]

Early Pallavas (275–355)[edit]

  • Simha Varman I (275–300 or 315–345)
  • Skanda Varman I (345–355)

Middle Pallavas (355–537)[edit]

  • Visnugopa (350–355)
  • Kumaravisnu I (355–370)
  • Skanda Varman II 370–385)
  • Vira Varman (385–400)
  • Skanda Varman III (400–438)
  • Simha Varman II (438–460)
  • Skanda Varman IV (460–480)
  • Nandi Varman I (480–500)
  • Kumaravisnu II (c. 500–510)
  • Buddha Varman (c. 510–520)
  • Kumaravisnu III (c. 520–530)
  • Simha Varman III (c. 530–537)

Later Pallavas (537–882)[edit]

Kadambas of Banavasi (345–525 CE)[edit]

  • Mayura Sharma (Varma) (345–365)
  • Kangavarma (365–390)
  • Bagitarha (390–415)
  • Raghu (415–435)
  • Kakusthavarma (435–455)
  • Santivarma (455–460)
  • Mrigeshavarma (460–480)
  • Shivamandhativarma (480–485)
  • Ravivarma (485–519)
  • Harivarma (519–525)

Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad (350–1024 CE)[edit]

  • Konganivarma Madhava (350–370)
  • Madhava II (370–390)
  • Harivarman (390–410)
  • Vishnugopa (410–430)
  • Tadangala Madhava (430–466)
  • Avinita (466–495)
  • Durvinita (495–535)
  • Mushkara (535–585)
  • Srivikrama (585–635)
  • Bhuvikarma (635–679)
  • Shivamara I (679–725)
  • Sripurusha (725–788)
  • Shivamara II (788–816)
  • Rajamalla I (817–853)
  • Nitimarga Ereganga (853–869)
  • Rajamalla II (870–907)
  • Ereyappa Nitimarga II (907–919)
  • Narasimhadeva (919–925)
  • Rajamalla III (925–935)
  • Butuga II (935–960)
  • Takkolam in (949)
  • Maruladeva (960–963)
  • Marasimha III (963–974)
  • Rajamalla IV (974–985)
  • Rakkasa Ganga (985–1024)

Maitrakas of Vallabhi (470–776 CE)[edit]

  • Bhatarka (c. 470–c. 492)
  • Dharasena I (c. 493–c. 499)
  • Dronasinha (also known as Maharaja) (c. 500–c. 520)
  • Dhruvasena I (c. 520–c. 550)
  • Dharapatta (c. 550–c. 556)
  • Guhasena (c. 556–c. 570)
  • Dharasena II (c. 570–c. 595)
  • Siladitya I (also known as Dharmaditya) (c. 595–c. 615)
  • Kharagraha I (c. 615–c. 626)
  • Dharasena III (c. 626–c. 640)
  • Dhruvasena II (also known as Baladitya) (c. 640–c. 644)
  • Chkravarti king Dharasena IV (also known as Param Bhatarka, Maharajadhiraja, Parameshwara) (c. 644–c. 651)
  • Dhruvasena III (c. 651–c. 656)
  • Kharagraha II (c. 656–c. 662)
  • Siladitya II (c. 662–?)
  • Siladitya III
  • Siladitya IV
  • Siladitya V
  • Siladitya VI
  • Siladitya VII (c. 766–c. 776)[3]

Chalukya dynasty (543–1156)[edit]

Chalukyas of Badami (543–757)[edit]

Chalukyas of Kalyani (973–1156)[edit]

Shashanka dynasty (600–626)[edit]

  • Shashanka (600–625), first recorded independent king of Bengal, created the first unified political entity in Bengal
  • Manava (625–626), ruled for 8 months before being conquered by Harshavardana and Bhaskarvarmana

Harsha dynasty (606–647)[edit]

  • Harsha Vardhana (606–647), unified Northern India and ruled it for over 40 years, he was the last non-Muslim emperor to rule a unified Northern India

Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty (650–1036 CE)[edit]

Rashtrakutas of Manyaketha (735–982)[edit]

Tomar's or Tuar's of Sthaneshwar and Indraprastha (736–1192 CE)[edit]

From Kshemak (last Tomar king of Indraprastha and direct descendant of Parikshit) to Anangpal I -

  1. Kshemak
  2. Shunkh (Kshemak's seat was usurped by his minister)
  3. Tunga (took refuge in Southern India established small kingdom - River Tungbhadra named after him)
  4. Abhanga
  5. Javal
  6. Gawal
  7. Lorepind
  8. Adangal
  9. Ganmel
  10. Nabhang
  11. Chukkar
  12. Tome
  13. Dravidan Tomar
  14. Drugya Tomar
  15. Manbha Tomar
  16. Karwal Tomar
  17. Kalang Tomar, he was a local chieftain in Kurudesh (modern Haryana)
  18. Anangpal I - re-established Tomar rule at what is now Delhi, the ancient capital of his ancestors. 736 CE – March- xx, ruled 18 years
  19. Vasudev - 754–March - xx, ruled 19Y-1M-18D
  20. Gangeya Tuar - 773–Apr.-18, ruled 21Y-3M-28D
  21. Prithvimal - 794–Aug.-16, ruled 19Y-6M-19D
  22. Jagdev or Jaydev - 814–Mar.-05, ruled 20Y-7M-28D
  23. Narpal - 834–Nov.-03, ruled 14Y-4M-09D
  24. Udaysangh - 849–Mar.-12, ruled 26Y-7M-11D
  25. Jaidas - 875–Oct.-23, ruled 21Y-2M-13D
  26. Vachhal/VrikshPal - 897–Jan.-01, ruled 22Y-3M-16D. There were many brothers / uncles of Vacchal Tuar[4]
    1. Bacchdev, founded Bagor near Narnol and Bachera and Baghera near Thoda Ajmer
    2. Nagdeo[4] s/o Karnpal Tuar and brother of Vachhal dev, founded Nagor and Nagda near Ajmer. Karndeo Tuar himself established Bahadurgarh near Alwar
    3. Krishnray[4] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Kishangarh near Ajmer and Khas Ganj between Etah and Soron
    4. Nihal Ray[4] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Narayanpur near Alwar
    5. Somasi[4] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Ajabpur between present day Alwar and Jaipur
    6. Harpal[4] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Harsola and Harsoli near Alwar
  27. Pavak - 919–Apr.-22, ruled 21Y-6M-05D
  28. Vihangpal - 940–Oct.-27, ruled 24Y-4M-04D
  29. Tolpal - 961–Mar.-01, ruled 18Y-3M-15D
    1. Gopal - either another name of Gopal or ruled on his behalf for a while
  30. Sulakshanpal - 979–Jun.-16, ruled 25Y-10M-10D
  31. Jaipal Tuar - 1005–Apr.-26, ruled 25Y-10M-10D. - Fought with Raja Rangatdhwaj Rathore and lost sovereignty of Kannauj
    1. His younger brother Jhetpal Tuar captured Paithan and his descendants are called Pathania Rajputs
  32. Kanvarpal/Kumara Pal Tuar - 1021–Aug.-29, ruled 29Y-9M-18D (Masud, grandson of Md. Gazni, captured Hansi briefly in 1038), ruled from Bari[5] in Awadh, which was 3 days south of Kannauj
    1. His Rajya Purohit, the chief priest, was Indrachandra whose descendant was Ramchandra 'Rammya', Hemu's nephew and General in his army[6]
  33. Anangpal II or AnekPal or Anaypal - 1051–Jun.-17, ruled 29Y-6M-18D (1052 inscription on the Iron pillar at Mahrauli), populated Delhi and built Lalkot[7] or Old Fort of Delhi.[5][8] A few known sons of Anangpal are given here, which tell us the extent of his dominions. From Hansi in north to Agra in south and from Ajmer in west to the Ganges in east, beyond which were the Katheria Rajputs rulers[9]
    1. Bhumpal Tomar, younger son - 1081, Settled in Narwar area (Near Gwalior)
    2. Indrapal,[10] founded Indra Garh
    3. Rangraj,[10] founded two palaces by the name of Taragarh, one near Ajmer
    4. Achal Raj, founded Achner between Bharatpur and Agra
    5. Draupad, lived in Hansi
    6. Sisupal, founded Sirsa, Siswal (also called Sirsa Patan)
    7. Surajpal, Suraj Kund in Mehrauli Delhi was built by him
  34. Tejpal - 1081–Jan.-05, ruled 24Y-1M-06D, founded Tejora between Gurgaon and Alwar
  35. Mahipal/Junpal - 1105–Feb.-11, ruled 25Y-2M-23D
  36. Dakatpal (Arkpal or Anangpal III) - 1151–Jul.-19, ruled until 1192 CE until the Capture of Delhi by Md. Ghori, titular head only, lost to Someshwar dev Chauhan of Ajmer in 1152 CE and married daughter to Chauhan king and thus became a feudatory of his Chauhan son in law and later his grandson Rai Pithora of Ajmer. Prithviraj Chauhan was proclaimed the heir of Tomar Kingdom in 1170 CE and his rule was 22Y-2M-16D
    1. Govindraj Tanwar fought for Prithviraj Chauhan and was killed in battle with Md Ghori

Pala dynasty (c. 750–1174)[edit]

Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine.[11] Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[12]

RC Majumdar (1971)[13] AM Chowdhury (1967)[14] BP Sinha (1977)[15] DC Sircar (1975–76)[16] D. K. Ganguly (1994)[11]
Gopala I 750–770 756–781 755–783 750–775 750-774
Dharmapala 770–810 781–821 783–820 775–812 774-806
Devapala 810–c. 850 821–861 820–860 812–850 806-845
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.) 845-860
Shurapala I 850–853 861–866 860–865 850–858 860-872
Vigrahapala I 858–60 872-873
Narayanapala 854–908 866–920 865–920 860–917 873-927
Rajyapala 908–940 920–952 920–952 917–952 927-959
Gopala II 940–957 952–969 952–967 952–972 959-976
Vigrahapala II 960–c. 986 969–995 967–980 972–977 976-977
Mahipala I 988–c. 1036 995–1043 980–1035 977–1027 977-1027
Nayapala 1038–1053 1043–1058 1035–1050 1027–1043 1027-1043
Vigrahapala III 1054–1072 1058–1075 1050–1076 1043–1070 1043–1070
Mahipala II 1072–1075 1075–1080 1076–1078/9 1070–1071 1070-1071
Shurapala 1075–1077 1080–1082 1071–1072 1071-1072
Ramapala 1077–1130 1082–1124 1078/9–1132 1072–1126 1072-1126
Kumarapala 1130–1125 1124–1129 1132–1136 1126–1128 1126–1128
Gopala III 1140–1144 1129–1143 1136–1144 1128–1143 1128–1143
Madanapala 1144–1162 1143–1162 1144–1161/62 1143–1161 1143–1161
Govindapala 1155–1159 NA 1162–1176 or 1158–1162 1161–1165 1161–1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165–1199 1165–1200

Note:[12]

  • Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.
  • AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.
  • According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the "14th year of Govindapala's reign" or "14th year after Govindapala's reign". Thus, two sets of dates are possible.

Paramara dynasty of Malwa (9th century to c. 1305)[edit]

The Paramara rulers mentioned in the various inscriptions and literary sources include:[17]

Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri (850–1334 CE)[edit]

  • Dridhaprahara
  • Seunachandra (850–874)
  • Dhadiyappa (874–900)
  • Bhillama I (900–925)
  • Vadugi (Vaddiga) (950–974)
  • Dhadiyappa II (974–975)
  • Bhillama II (975–1005)
  • Vesugi I (1005–1020)
  • Bhillama III (1020–1055)
  • Vesugi II (1055–1068)
  • Bhillama III (1068)
  • Seunachandra II (1068–1085)
  • Airamadeva (1085–1115)
  • Singhana I (1115–1145)
  • Mallugi I (1145–1150)
  • Amaragangeyya (1150–1160)
  • Govindaraja (1160)
  • Amara Mallugi II (1160–1165)
  • Kaliya Ballala (1165–1173)
  • Bhillama V (1173–1192), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukya
  • Jaitugi I (1192–1200)
  • Singhana II (1200–1247)
  • Kannara (1247–1261)
  • Mahadeva (1261–1271)
  • Amana (1271)
  • Ramachandra (1271–1312)
  • Singhana III (1312–1313)
  • Harapaladeva (1313–1318)
  • Mallugi III (1318–1334)

Roopak dynasty (c. 890–895)[edit]

Brahmin Shahi dynasty (c. 890–964)[edit]

  • Lalliya (c. 890–895)
  • Kamaluka (895–921)
  • Bhima (921–964), son of Kamaluka

Janjua Shahi dynasty (964–1026 CE)[edit]

  • Jayapala (964–1001)
  • Anandapala (1001–1011)
  • Roopak (1011–1022)
  • Bhímapála (1022–1026)

Hoysala dynasty (1000–1346)[edit]

  • Nripa Kama (1000–1045)
  • Vinayaditya I (1045–1098)
  • Ereyanga (1098–1100)
  • Ballala (1100–1108)
  • Vishnuvardhana (1108–1142)
  • Narasimha I (1142–1173), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukya
  • Ballala II (1173–1220)
  • Narasimha II (1220–1235)
  • Vira Someshwara (1235–1253)
  • Narasimha III and Ramanatha (1253–1295)
  • Ballala III (1295–1342)

Sena dynasty rule over Bengal (1070–1230 CE)[edit]

  • Hemanta Sen (1070–1096)
  • Vijay Sen (1096–1159)
  • Ballal Sen (1159–1179)
  • Lakshman Sen (1179–1206)
  • Vishwarup Sen (1206–1225)
  • Keshab Sen (1225–1230)

Eastern Ganga dynasty (1078–1434)[edit]

  • Anantavarman Chodaganga (1078–1147)
  • Ananga Bhima Deva II (1170–1198)
  • Anangabhima Deva III (1211–1238)
  • Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264)
  • Bhanu Deva I (1264–1279)
  • Narasimha Deva II (1279–1306)
  • Bhanu Deva II (1306–1328)
  • Narasimha Deva III (1328–1352)
  • Bhanu Deva III (1352–1378)
  • Narasimha Deva IV (1378–1414)
  • Bhanu Deva IV (1414–1434)

Kakatiya dynasty (1083–1323 CE)[edit]

  • Beta I (1000–1030)
  • Prola I (1030–1075)
  • Beta II (1075–1110)
  • Prola II (1110–1158)
  • Prataparudra I/Rudradeva I (1158–1195)
  • Mahadeva (1195–1198). Brother of King Rudradeva
  • Ganapathi deva (1199–1261)
  • Rudrama devi (1262–1296)
  • Prataparudra II/ Rudradeva II (1296–1323). Grandson of Queen Rudramba

Kalachuri (Southern) dynasty (1130–1184)[edit]

  • Bijjala II (1130–1167), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukyas in 1162 CE
  • Sovideva (1168–1176)
  • Mallugi → overthrown by his brother Sankama
  • Sankama (1176–1180)
  • Ahavamalla (1180–83)
  • Singhana (1183–84)

Sutiya dynasty ruled over eastern Assam (1187–1524)[edit]

  • Birpal (1187–1224)
  • Ratnadhwajpal (1224–1250)
  • Vijayadhwajpal (1250–1278)
  • Vikramadhwajpal (1278–1302)
  • Gauradhwajpal (1302–1322)
  • Sankhadhwajpal (1322–1343)
  • Mayuradhwajpal (1343–1361)
  • Jayadhwajpal (1361–1383)
  • Karmadhwajpal (1383–1401)
  • Satyanarayan (1401–1421)
  • Laksminarayan (1421–1439)
  • Dharmanarayan (1439–1458)
  • Pratyashnarayan (1458–1480)
  • Purnadhabnarayan (1480–1502)
  • Dharmadhajpal (1502–1522)
  • Nitypal (1522–1524)

Bana dynasty rule over Magadaimandalam (c. 1190–1260 CE)[edit]

Kadava dynasty (c. 1216–1279 CE)[edit]

  • Kopperunchinga I (c. 1216 – 1242)
  • Kopperunchinga II (c. 1243 – 1279)

Muslim rule (1206–1526)[edit]

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526)[edit]

Despite the name, the capital was repeatedly elsewhere than Delhi city, and not always near.

Mamluk dynasty of Delhi (1206–1290)[edit]

Khilji dynasty (1290–1320)[edit]

Tughlaq dynasty (1321–1414)[edit]

Invasion of Timur in 1398 and the end of the Tughluq Dynasty as known earlier.

Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451)[edit]

  • Khizr (1414–1421)
  • Mubarik II (1421–1434)
  • Muhamed IV (1434–1445)
  • Alem I (1445–1451)

Lodi dynasty (1451–1526)[edit]

Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1527)[edit]

  • Ala ud din Bahman Shah (1347–1358), established his capital at Gulbarga
  • Muhammad Shah I (1358–1375)
  • Ala ud din Mujahid Shah (1375–1378)
  • Daud Shah I (1378)
  • Muhammad Shah II (1378–1397)
  • Ghiyas ud din Tahmatan Shah (1397)
  • Shams ud din Daud Shah II (1397)
  • Taj ud din Feroz Shah (1397–1422)
  • Shahab ud din Ahmad Shah I (1422–1435), established his capital at Bidar
  • Ala ud din Ahmad Shah II (1436–1458)
  • Ala ud din Humayun Shah (1458–1461)
  • Nizam ud din Ahmad Shah III (1461–1463)
  • Shams ud din Muhammad Shah III (1463–1482)
  • Mahmud Shah (1482–1518)
  • Ahmad Shah IV (1518–1521)
  • Ala ud din Shah (1521–1522)
  • Waliullah Shah (1522–1524)
  • Kalimullah Shah (1524–1527)

Malwa Sultanate (1392–1562)[edit]

Ghoris (1390–1436)[edit]

Khiljis (1436–1535)[edit]

Under Gujarat (1530–1534)

Qadirid (1535–1555)[edit]

Under the Mughal Empire (1542–1555)

Shaja'atid (1555–1562)[edit]

Ahom dynasty ruled over Assam (1228–1826)[edit]

Reddy dynasty (1325–1448 CE)[edit]

  • Prolaya Vema Reddy (1325–1335)
  • Anavota Reddy (1335–1364)
  • Anavema Reddy (1364–1386)
  • Kumaragiri Reddy (1386–1402)
  • Kataya Vema Reddy (1395–1414)
  • Allada Reddy (1414–1423)
  • Veerabhadra Reddy (1423–1448)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)[edit]

Sangama dynasty (1336–1487)[edit]

Saluva dynasty (1490–1567)[edit]

  • Narasimha (1490–1503)
  • Narasa (Vira Narasimha) (1503–1509)
  • Achyuta (1530–1542)
  • Sadasiva (1542–1567)

Tuluva dynasty (1542–1576)[edit]

  • Sri Krishnadevrayalu (1509 - 1530)
  • Achyuthadevarayalu (1530 - 1542)
  • Sadasiva rayalu (1543 - 1576)

ARAVEETI DYNASTY (1565 - 1680)

  • Aliya Rama rayalu (1542–1565)unofficial ruler
  • Tirumala rayalu (1570 - 1572)
  • Ranga rayalu I (1572 - 1585)
  • Venkatapathi rayalu II (1586–1614)
  • Ranga rayalu II (1614)
  • Venkatapathi rayalu III (1630 - 1642)
  • Ranga rayalu III (1642)

Rulers of Mysore/Khudadad (1399–1950)[edit]

Wodeyar dynasty (first rule, 1399–1761)[edit]

  • Yaduraya (1399–1423)
  • Hiriya Bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar I (1423–1459)
  • Thimmaraja Wodeyar I (1459–1478)
  • Hiriya Chamaraja Wodeyar II (1478–1513)
  • Hiriya bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar III (1513–1553)
  • Thimmaraja Wodeyar II (1553–1572)
  • Bola Chamaraja Wodeyar IV (1572–1576)
  • Bettada Devaraja Wodeyar (1576–1578)
  • Raja Wodeyar I (1578–1617)
  • Chamaraja Wodeyar V (1617–1637)
  • Raja Wodeyar II (1637–1638)
  • (Ranadhira) Kantheerava Narasaraja Wodeyar I (1638–1659)
  • Dodda Devaraja Wodeyar (1659–1673)
  • Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704)
  • Kantheerava Narasaraja Wodeyar II (1704–1714)
  • Dodda Krishnaraja Wodeyar I (1714–1732)
  • Chamaraja Wodeyar VI (1732–1734)
  • (Immadi) Krishnaraja Wodeyar II (1734–1766), ruled under Hyder Ali from 1761
  • Nanajaraja Wodeyar (1766–1772), ruled under Hyder Ali
  • Bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar VII (1772–1776), ruled under Hyder Ali
  • Khasa Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII (1776–1796), ruled under Hyder Ali until 1782, then under Tipu Sultan until his deposition in 1796

The reign of the Kings of Mysore (Wodeyar line) was interrupted from 1796 to 1799.

Hyder Ali's dynasty of Mysore (1761–1799)[edit]

Wodeyar dynasty (second rule, 1799–1950)[edit]

Gajapati Kingdom (1434–1541 CE)[edit]

  • Kapilendra Deva (1434–67)
  • Purushottama Deva (1467–97)
  • Prataparudra Deva (1497–1540)
  • Kalua Deva (1540–41)
  • Kakharua Deva (1541)

Maharajas of Cochin (Perumpadapu Swaroopam, 1503–1964)[edit]

Veerakerala Varma, nephew of Cheraman Perumal, is supposed to have been the first king of Cochin around the 7th century CE. But the records we have start in 1503.

  1. Unniraman Koyikal I (?–1503)
  2. Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537)
  3. Veera Kerala Varma (1537–1565)
  4. Keshava Rama Varma (1565–1601)
  5. Veera Kerala Varma (1601–1615)
  6. Ravi Varma I (1615–1624)
  7. Veera Kerala Varma (1624–1637)
  8. Godavarma (1637–1645)
  9. Veerarayira Varma (1645–1646)
  10. Veera Kerala Varma (1646–1650)
  11. Rama Varma I (1650–1656)
  12. Rani Gangadharalakshmi (1656–1658)
  13. Rama Varma II (1658–1662)
  14. Goda Varma (1662–1663)
  15. Veera Kerala Varma (1663–1687)
  16. Rama Varma III (1687–1693)
  17. Ravi Varma II (1693–1697)
  18. Rama Varma IV (1697–1701)
  19. Rama Varma V (1701–1721)
  20. Ravi Varma III (1721–1731)
  21. Rama Varma VI (1731–1746)
  22. Veera Kerala Varma I (1746–1749)
  23. Rama Varma VII (1749–1760)
  24. Veera Kerala Varma II (1760–1775)
  25. Rama Varma VIII (1775–1790)
  26. Shaktan Thampuran (Rama Varma IX) (1790–1805)
  27. Rama Varma X (1805–1809) - Vellarapalli-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Vellarapali")
  28. Veera Kerala Varma III (1809–1828) - Karkidaka Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "karkidaka" month (Malayalam Era))
  29. Rama Varma XI (1828–1837) - Thulam-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Thulam" month (ME))
  30. Rama Varma XII (1837–1844) - Edava-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Edavam" month (ME))
  31. Rama Varma XIII (1844–1851) - Thrishur-il Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Thrishivaperoor" or Thrishur)
  32. Veera Kerala Varma IV (1851–1853) - Kashi-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Kashi" or Varanasi)
  33. Ravi Varma IV (1853–1864) - Makara Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Makaram" month (ME))
  34. Rama Varma XIV (1864–1888) - Mithuna Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Mithunam" month (ME))
  35. Kerala Varma V (1888–1895) - Chingam Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chingam" month (ME))
  36. Rama Varma XV (1895–1914) - a.k.a. Rajarshi, abdicated (d. in 1932)
  37. Rama Varma XVI (1915–1932) - Madrasil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in Madras or Chennai)
  38. Rama Varma XVII (1932–1941) - Dhaarmika Chakravarthi (King of Dharma), Chowara-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chowara")
  39. Kerala Varma VI (1941–1943) - Midukkan (syn: Smart, expert, great) Thampuran
  40. Ravi Varma V (1943–1946) - Kunjappan Thampuran (Brother of Midukkan Thampuran)
  41. Kerala Varma VII (1946–1948) - Ikya-Keralam (Unified Kerala) Thampuran
  42. Rama Varma XVIII (1948–1964) - Pareekshit Thampuran

Qutb Shahi dynasty (1518–1687)[edit]

Mughal Empire (1526–1857)[edit]

Rajput rulers[edit]

Mewar (Sisodia)[edit]

Sisodia Rajputs of Mewar II (1326–1884) Hammir Singh (1326–1364) Kshetra Singh (1364–1382) Lakha Singh (1382–1421) Mokal Singh (1421–1433) Rana Kumbha (1433–1468) Udai Singh I (1468–1473) Rana Raimal (1473–1508) Rana Sanga (1508–1527) Ratan Singh II (1528–1531) Vikramaditya Singh (1531–1536) Vanvir Singh (1536–1540) Udai Singh II (1540–1572) Maharana Pratap (1572–1597) Amar Singh I (1597–1620) Karan Singh II (1620–1628) Jagat Singh I (1628–1652) Raj Singh I (1652–1680) Jai Singh (1680–1698) Amar Singh II (1698–1710) Sangram Singh II (1710–1734) Jagat Singh II (1734–1751) Pratap Singh II (1751–1754) Raj Singh II (1754–1762) Ari Singh II (1762–1772) Hamir Singh II (1772–1778) Bhim Singh (1778–1828) Jawan Singh (1828–1838) Shambhu Singh (1861–1874) Sajjan Singh (1874–1884) Fateh Singh (1884–1930) Bhupal Singh

Rathore[edit]

Suri dynasty (1540–1555)[edit]

Chogyal, monarchs of Sikkim and Ladakh (1642–1975)[edit]

Main article: Chogyal

Deccan Sultanates[edit]

Adil Shahi dynasty (1490-1686)[edit]

Nizam Shahi dynasty (1490–1636)[edit]

Berar Sultanate (1490-1572)[edit]

  • Fathullah Imad-ul-Mulk (1490–1504)
  • Ala-ud-din Imad Shah 1504–1530)
  • Darya Imad Shah (1530–1562)
  • Burhan Imad Shah (1562–1574)
  • Tufal Khan (usurper) 1574

Bidar Sultanate(1492-1542)[edit]

Qutb Shahi dynasty(1518-1687)[edit]

Maratha Empire (1674–1818)[edit]

Shivaji era[edit]

The Empire was divided between two branches of the family c. 1707–10; and the division was formalized in 1731.

Bhosale Chhatrapatis at Kolhapur (1700–1947)[edit]

  • Chhatrapati Shivaji II (b. 1696, ruled 1700–14)
  • Sambhaji II of Kolhapur (b. 1698, r. 1714–60)
  • Rajmata Jijibai of Kolhapur|Rajmata Jijibai, regent (1760–73), senior widow of Sambhaji II
  • Rajmata Durgabai of Kolhapur|Rajmata Durgabai, regent (1773–79), junior widow of Sambhaji II
  • Shahu Shivaji II of Kolhapur (r. 1762–1813); adopted by Jijibai, his predecessor's senior widow
  • Sambhaji III of Kolhapur (b. 1801, r. 1813–21)
  • Shivaji III of Kolhapur (b. 1816, r. 1821–22) (council of regency)
  • Shahaji I of Kolhapur (b. 1802, r. 1822–38)
  • Shivaji IV of Kolhapur (b. 1830, r. 1838–66)
  • Rajaram I of Kolhapur (r. 1866–70)
  • Council of regency (1870–94)
  • Shivaji V of Kolhapur (b. 1863, r. 1871–83); adopted by his predecessor's widow
  • Rajarshi Shahu IV of Kolhapur (b. 1874, r. 1884–1922); adopted by his predecessor's widow
  • Rajaram II of Kolhapur (b. 1897 r. 1922–40)
  • Indumati Tarabai of Kolhapur, regent (1940–47), widow of Rajaram II
  • Shivaji VI of Kolhapur (b. 1941, r. 1941–46); adopted by his predecessor's widow
  • Shahaji II of Kolhapur (b. 1910, r. 1947, d. 1983); formerly Maharaja of Dewas Senior; adopted by Indumati Tarabai, widow of Rajaram II

The state acceded unto the Dominion of India following the independence of India in 1947.[20]

Bhosale Chhatrapatis at Satara (1707–1839)[edit]

  • Shahu I (1708–1749). Son of Sambhaji I.
  • Ramaraja (1749–1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Shahu I.
  • Shahu II of Satara (1777–1808). Son of Ramaraja.
  • Pratapsinh (1808–1839)
  • Shahaji III (1839–1848)
  • Pratapsinh I (adopted)
  • Rajaram III
  • Pratapsinh II
  • Raja Shahu III (1918–1950)

The Peshwas (1713–1858)[edit]

Technically they were not monarchs, but hereditary prime ministers, though in fact they ruled instead of the Maharaja, and were hegemon of the Maratha confederation.

Bhosale Maharajas of Thanjavur (?–1799)[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Thanjavur Maratha kingdom.

Descended from a brother of Shivaji; ruled independently and had no formal relationship with the Maratha Empire.

The state was annexed by the British in 1799.[21]

Bhosale Maharajas of Nagpur (1799–1881)[edit]

Holkar rulers of Indore (1731–1948)[edit]

  • Malharrao Holkar (I) (r. 2 November 1731 – 19 May 1766)
  • Malerao Khanderao Holkar (r. 23 August 1766 – 5 April 1767)
  • Punyaslok Rajmata Ahilyadevi Holkar (r. 5 April 1767 – 13 August 1795)
  • Tukojirao Holkar (I) (r. 13 August 1795 – 29 January 1797)
  • Kashirao Tukojirao Holkar (r. 29 January 1797 – 1798)
  • Yashwantrao Holkar (I) (r. 1798 – 27 November 1811)
  • Malharrao Yashwantrao Holkar (III) (r. November 1811 – 27 October 1833)
  • Martandrao Malharrao Holkar (r. 17 January 1834 – 2 February 1834)
  • Harirao Vitthojirao Holkar (r. 17 April 1834 – 24 October 1843)
  • Khanderao Harirao Holkar (r. 13 November 1843 – 17 February 1844)
  • Tukojirao Gandharebhau Holkar (II) (r. 27 June 1844 – 17 June 1886)
  • Shivajirao Tukojirao Holkar (r. 17 June 1886 – 31 January 1903)
  • Tukojirao Shivajirao Holkar (III) (r. 31 January 1903 – 26 February 1926)
  • Yashwantrao Holkar (II) (r. 26 February 1926 – 1961)

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India. The monarchy was ended in 1948, but the title is still held by Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur, Maharani of Indore since 1961.

Scindia rulers of Gwalior (?–1947)[edit]

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India.

Gaekwad rulers of Baroda (Vadodara) (1721–1947)[edit]

The major Muslim vassals of the Mughal/British Paramountcy (1707–1856)[edit]

Nawabs of Bengal (1707–1770)[edit]

Nawabs of Oudh (1719–1858)[edit]

Nizams of Hyderabad (1720–1948)[edit]

Kingdom of Travancore (1729–1947)[edit]

Sikh Empire (1801–1849)[edit]

The British Empire annexed the Punjab c. 1845–49; after the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars

Emperors of India (1857–1947)[edit]

Dominion of India (1947–1950)[edit]

Dominion of Pakistan (1947–1956)[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ However the title "Emperor of India" did not disappear with Indian independence from Britain in 1947, but in 1948, as when India became the Dominion of India (1947–1950) after independence in 1947, George VI retained the title "Emperor of India" until 22 June 1948, and thereafter he remained monarch of India until it became the Republic of India in 1950.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India. Pearson Education India. pp. 381–384. ISBN 9788131711200. 
  2. ^ Charles Higham (2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 9781438109961. 
  3. ^ Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, pp.594–6
  4. ^ a b c d e f Asiatic Society of Bengal, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 33, Page xxi
  5. ^ a b Asiatic Society of Bengal, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 33
  6. ^ M. L. Bhargava, Hemu and his time, page 3
  7. ^ Alexander Cunnigham, Four reports made during the years, 1862-63-64-65, Volume 1
  8. ^ Hickey, William (1874). The Tanjore Mahratta Principality in Southern India. Pg.xix. Google books. ISBN 81-206-0302-8. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  9. ^ Sir Alexander Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India, Four reports made during the years, 1862-63-64-65, Volume 2, page v
  10. ^ a b Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 33, Asiatic Society of Bengal
  11. ^ a b Dilip Kumar Ganguly (1994). Ancient India, History and Archaeology. Abhinav. pp. 33–41. ISBN 978-81-7017-304-5. 
  12. ^ a b Susan L. Huntington (1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. pp. 32–39. ISBN 90-04-06856-2. 
  13. ^ R. C. Majumdar (1971). History of Ancient Bengal. G. Bharadwaj. p. 161–162. 
  14. ^ Abdul Momin Chowdhury (1967). Dynastic history of Bengal, c. 750-1200 CE. Asiatic Society of Pakistan. pp. 272–273. 
  15. ^ Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha (1977). Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450–1200 A.D. Abhinav Publications. pp. 253–. ISBN 978-81-7017-059-4. 
  16. ^ Dineshchandra Sircar (1975–76). "Indological Notes - R.C. Majumdar's Chronology of the Pala Kings". Journal of Indian History. IX: 209–10. 
  17. ^ Jain, Kailash Chand (1972). Malwa Through the Ages, from the Earliest Times to 1305 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0824-9. 
  18. ^ a b Michell, George & Mark Zebrowski. Architecture and Art of the Deccan Sultanates (The New Cambridge History of India Vol. I:7), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56321-6, p.274
  19. ^ Michell, George & Mark Zebrowski. Architecture and Art of the Deccan Sultanates (The New Cambridge History of India Vol. I:7), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56321-6, p.275
  20. ^ "kolhap2". Royalark.net. Retrieved 2015-11-03. 
  21. ^ "tanjore2". Royalark.net. Retrieved 2015-11-03. 
  22. ^ Prabhakar Gadre (1994). Bhosle of Nagpur and East India Company. Publication Scheme. Retrieved 2015-11-03. 
  23. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 38330. p. 3647. 22 June 1948. Retrieved 25 August 2014. Royal Proclamation of 22 June 1948, made in accordance with the Indian Independence Act 1947, 10 & 11 GEO. 6. CH. 30.('Section 7: ...(2)The assent of the Parliament of the United Kingdom is hereby given to the omission from the Royal Style and Titles of the words " Indiae Imperator " and the words " Emperor of India " and to the issue by His Majesty for that purpose of His Royal Proclamation under the Great Seal of the Realm.'). According to this Royal Proclamation, the King retained the Style and Titles 'George VI by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith', and he thus remained King of the various Dominions, including India and Pakistan, though these two (and others) eventually chose to abandon their monarchies and became republics.

Sources and External links[edit]