List of Members of the United States House of Representatives in the 13th Congress by seniority

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This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 13th United States Congress listed by seniority. For the most part, representatives are ranked by the beginning of their terms in office.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 13th Congress (March 4, 1813 – March 3, 1815). Seats and party affiliations on similar lists for other Congresses will be different for certain members.

This article describes the criteria for seniority in the House of Representatives and sets out the list of members by seniority. It is prepared on the basis of the interpretation of seniority applied to the House of Representatives in the current congress. In the absence of information to the contrary, it is presumed that the twenty-first-century practice is identical to the seniority customs used during the 13th Congress.[1]

House seniority[edit]

Seniority in the House, for Congressmen with unbroken service, depends on the date on which the members first term began. That date is either the start of the Congress (4th March in odd numbered years, for the era up to and including the 73rd Congress starting in 1933) or the date of a special election during the Congress. Since many members start serving on the same day as others, ranking between them is based on alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Congressmen, in early Congresses, were often elected after the legal start of the Congress. Such representatives are attributed with unbroken seniority, from the legal start of the congressional term, if they were the first person elected to a seat in a Congress. The date of the election is indicated in a note.

The seniority date is normally taken from the members entry in the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, except where the date given is the legal start of the Congress and the actual election (for someone who was not the first person elected to the seat in that Congress) was later. The date of election is taken from United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997. In a few instances the latter work provides dates, for the start and end of terms, which correct those in the Biographical Directory.

The Biographical Directory normally uses the date of a special election, as the seniority date. However, mostly in early Congresses, the date of the member taking his seat can be the one given. The date of the special election is mentioned in a note to the list below, when that date is not used as the seniority date by the Biographical Directory.

Representatives who returned to the House, after having previously served, are credited with service equal to one less than the total number of terms they served. When a representative has served a prior term of less than two terms (i.e. prior term minus one equals less than one), he is ranked above all others whose service begins on the same day.

Leadership[edit]

In this Congress the only formal leader was the Speaker of the House. A Speakership ballot was held on May 24, 1813 and Henry Clay (DR-KY) was re-elected for a second consecutive term.

Candidate Ballot
Henry Clay (DR-KY) 89
Timothy Pitkin (F-CT) 54
scattering 5

Speaker Clay resigned on January 19, 1814. On the same day the House held a ballot, which resulted in the election of Langdon Cheves (DR-SC) as the new Speaker.

Candidate Ballot
Langdon Cheves (DR-SC) 94
Felix Grundy (DR-TN) 59
scattering 12

The title Dean of the House (sometimes known, in the nineteenth century, as Father of the House) was held by the member with the longest continuous service. It was not a leadership position.

Standing Committees[edit]

The House created its first standing committee, on April 13, 1789. There were nine standing committees, listed in the rules initially used by the 13th Congress. Three additional committees were added during the Congress.

Committees, in this period, were appointed for a session at a time by the Speaker.

This list refers to the standing committees of the House in the 13th Congress, the year of establishment as a standing committee, the number of members assigned to the committee and the dates of appointment in each session, the end of the session and its chairman. Chairmen, who were re-appointed after serving in the previous Congress, are indicated by an *. [2]

The first session was May 24, 1813-August 2, 1813 (71 days), the second session was December 6, 1813-April 8, 1814 (134 days) and the third session was September 19, 1814-March 3, 1815 (166 days).

No. Committee From Mbrs Appointed Chairman
1 Accounts 1805 3 May 26, 1813-August 2, 1813 Israel Pickens (DR-NC)
December 7, 1813-April 8, 1814 Nicholas R. Moore (DR-MD)
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815 John Kershaw (DR-SC)
2 Claims 1794 7 May 26, 1813-August 2, 1813 Stevenson Archer (DR-MD)
December 7, 1813-April 8, 1814
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815 Bartlett Yancey (DR-NC)
3 Commerce and Manufactures 1795 7 May 26, 1813-August 2, 1813 *Thomas Newton, Jr. (DR-VA)
December 7, 1813-April 8, 1814
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815
4 District of Columbia 1808 7 May 26, 1813-August 2, 1813 John Dawson (DR-VA)
December 7, 1813-April 8, 1814 Joseph Kent (DR-MD)
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815
5 Elections 1789 7 May 26, 1813-August 2, 1813 James Fisk (DR-VT)
December 9, 1813-April 8, 1814
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815
6 Judiciary 1813 7 December 7, 1813-April 8, 1814 Charles J. Ingersoll (DR-PA)
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815
7 Pensions and Revolutionary Claims 1813 7 23 December, 1813-April 8, 1814 Samuel D. Ingham (DR-PA)
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815 John J. Chappell (DR-SC)
8 Post Office and Post Roads 1808 7 May 26, 1813-August 2, 1813 *John Rhea (DR-TN)
December 7, 1813-April 8, 1814
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815
9 Public Expenditures 1814 7 26 February, 1814-April 8, 1814 James Pleasants (DR-VA)
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815 Nathaniel Macon (DR-NC)
10 Public Lands 1805 7 May 26, 1813-August 2, 1813 Samuel McKee (DR-KY)
December 7, 1813-April 8, 1814
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815
11 Revisal and Unfinished Business 1795 3 May 26, 1813-August 2, 1813 Willis Alston (DR-NC)
December 7, 1813-April 8, 1814 Lewis Condict (DR-NJ)
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815 Richard Stanford (DR-NC)
12 Ways and Means 1802 7 May 26, 1813-August 2, 1813 John W. Eppes (DR-VA)
December 7, 1813-April 8, 1814
September 21, 1814-March 3, 1815

List of Representatives by seniority[edit]

A numerical rank is assigned to each of the 182 members initially elected to the 13th Congress. Other members, who were not the first person elected to a seat but who joined the House during the Congress, are not assigned a number.

Seven Representatives-elect were not sworn in, as five died and two resigned. The list below includes the Representatives-elect (with name in italics), with the seniority they would have held if sworn in.

Party designations used in this article are DR for Democratic-Republican members and F for Federalist representatives. Designations used for service in the first three congresses are (A) for Anti-Administration members and (P) for Pro-Administration representatives.

U.S. House Seniority
Rank Representative Party District Seniority date Notes
Twelve consecutive terms
1 Nathaniel Macon DR NC-6 March 4, 1791 (A) 1791-95. Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813. Dean of the House. Chairman: Public Expenditures (1814–15).
Ten non-consecutive terms
2 William Findley DR PA-11 March 4, 1803 Previously served (A) 1791-95 and (DR) 1795-99 while as a member of the House.
Nine consecutive terms
3 John Dawson DR VA-11 March 4, 1797 Elected to this Congress: April 1813. Chairman: District of Columbia (1813). Died on March 31, 1814 while still serving as a member of the House.
4 Richard Stanford DR NC-8 Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813. Chairman: Revisal and Unfinished Business (1814–15).
5 Robert Brown DR PA-6 December 4, 1798 Last term while serving as a member of the House.
Nine non-consecutive terms
6 John Clopton DR VA-23 March 4, 1801 Previously served (DR) 1795-99 while as a member of the House. Elected to this Congress: April 1813.
7 John Smilie DR PA-13 March 4, 1799 Previously served (A) 1793-95 while as a member of the House. Died as Representative-elect: December 30, 1812. [3]
Eight consecutive terms
8 Willis Alston DR NC-2 March 4, 1799 Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813. Chairman: Revisal and Unfinished Business (1813). Last term while as a member of the House until 19th Congress.
9 John Davenport F CT-al
Eight non-consecutive terms
10 David Bard DR PA-9 March 4, 1803 Previously served (DR) 1795-99 while as a member of the House.
Seven consecutive terms
11 Thomas Newton, Jr. DR VA-21 March 4, 1801 Elected to this Congress: April 1813. Chairman: Commerce and Manufactures.
12 John Smith DR VA-3 Elected to this Congress: April 1813. Last term while serving as a member of the House.
13 Benjamin Tallmadge F CT-al September 21, 1801
Six consecutive terms
14 Peterson Goodwyn DR VA-19 March 4, 1803 Elected to this Congress: April 1813
15 Joseph Lewis, Jr. F VA-8
16 John Rhea DR TN-1 Elected to this Congress: April 1-2, 1813. Chairman: Post Office and Post Roads. Last term while serving as a member of the House until 15th Congress.
17 Samuel Taggart F MA-6
Five consecutive terms
18 William Ely F MA-5 March 4, 1805 Last term while serving as a member of the House until 15th Congress.
19 Charles Goldsborough F MD-8
20 Jonathan O. Moseley F CT-al
21 Timothy Pitkin F CT-al September 16, 1805
22 Lewis B. Sturges F CT-al
23 Robert Whitehill DR PA-5 November 7, 1805 Died as Representative-elect: April 8, 1813 [4]
24 William A. Burwell DR VA-14 December 1, 1806 Elected to this Congress: April 1813
25 William W. Bibb DR GA-al January 26, 1807 Resigned, to become US Senator: November 6, 1813
Five non-consecutive terms
26 John W. Eppes DR VA-16 March 4, 1813 Previously served (DR) 1803-11 while as a member of the House. Elected to this Congress: April 1813. Chairman: Ways and Means. Last term while serving as a member of the House.
27 Nicholas R. Moore DR MD-5 Previously served (DR) 1803-11. Chairman: Accounts (1813–14). Last term while serving as a member of the House (elected to 14th Congress but did not serve).
28 John G. Jackson DR VA-1 Previously served (DR) 1803-September 28, 1810 while as a member of the House. Elected to this Congress: April 1813.
Four consecutive terms
29 Epaphroditus Champion F CT-al March 4, 1807
30 Joseph Desha DR KY-4
31 Meshack Franklin DR NC-13 Last term while serving as a member of the House
32 Richard M. Johnson DR KY-3
33 George M. Troup DR GA-al Last term while still serving in the House.
34 Thomas Gholson, Jr. DR VA-18 November 7, 1808 Elected to this Congress: April 1813
35 Richard Jackson, Jr. F RI-al November 11, 1808 Last term while serving as a member of the House.
Four non-consecutive terms
36 James Fisk DR VT-al March 4, 1811 Previously served (DR) 1805-09 while as a member of the House. Chairman: Elections. Last term while serving as a member of the House.
37 Elisha R. Potter F RI-al March 4, 1809 Previously served (F) November 15, 1796-97. Last term while serving as a member of the House.
Three consecutive terms
38 William Anderson DR PA-1 March 4, 1809 Last term while serving as a member of the House until 15th Congress
39 James Breckinridge F VA-5 Elected to this Congress: April 1813
40 William Crawford DR PA-5
41 Jacob Hufty F NJ-3 (DR) 1809-13. Died on May 20, 1814 while still serving as a member of the House.
42 Aaron Lyle DR PA-12
43 Samuel McKee DR KY-7 Chairman: Public Lands
44 Alexander McKim DR MD-5 Last term while serving as a member of the House.
45 Joseph Pearson F NC-10 Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813. Last term while serving as a member of the House.
46 John Roane DR VA-12 Elected to this Congress: April 1813. Last term while serving as a member of the House until 20th Congress.
47 Ebenezer Sage DR NY-1 Last term while serving as a member of the House (as did not qualify in 16th Congress)
48 Daniel Sheffey F VA-6 Elected to this Congress: April 1813
49 Laban Wheaton F MA-9
50 Adam Seybert DR PA-1 October 10, 1809 Last term while serving as a member of the House until 15th Congress
51 Abijah Bigelow F MA-11 October 8, 1810 Last term while serving as a member of the House.
52 Samuel Ringgold DR MD-4 October 15, 1810 Last term while serving as a member of the House until 15th Congress
53 Robert Wright DR MD-7 November 29, 1810
54 Langdon Cheves DR SC-1 December 31, 1810 Speaker of the House (1814–15). Last term while serving as a member of the House.
Three non-consecutive terms
55 Egbert Benson F NY-2 March 4, 1813 Previously served (P) 1789-93 while serving as a member of the House. Resigned while still serving as a member of the House: August 2, 1813.
56 James Schureman F NJ-2 Previously served (P) 1789-91 and (F) 1797-99 while as a member of the House. Last term while still serving as a member of the House.
57 John Sevier DR TN-2 March 4, 1811 Previously served (NC-P) June 16, 1790-91 while as a member of the House. Elected to this Congress: April 1-2, 1813.
58 Elias Earle DR SC-7 Previously served September 27, 1806-07. Last term while serving as a member of the House until 15th Congress.
59 John Culpepper F NC-7 March 4, 1813 Previously served (F) 1807-January 2, 1808 and February 23, 1808-09 while as a member of the House. Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813.
Two consecutive terms
60 Daniel Avery DR NY-20 March 4, 1811 Last term while serving as a member of the House until seated in 14th Congress
61 Elijah Brigham F MA-10
62 John C. Calhoun DR SC-6
63 Henry Clay DR KY-2 Speaker of the House (1813–14). Resigned while still serving as a member of the House: January 19, 1814. Last term while serving as a member of the House until 14th Congress.
64 Lewis Condict DR NJ-1 Chairman: Revisal and Unfinished Business (1813–14)
65 Roger Davis DR PA-2 Last term while serving as a member of the House.
66 Felix Grundy DR TN-5 Elected to this Congress: April 1-2, 1813. Resigned while serving as a member of the House: July 1814.
67 Bolling Hall DR GA-al
68 Aylett Hawes DR VA-10 Elected to this Congress: April 1813
69 John M. Hyneman DR PA-7 Resigned while serving as a member of the House: August 2, 1813
70 Joseph Kent DR MD-2 Chairman: District of Columbia (1813–15). Last term while serving as a member of the House until 16th Congress.
71 William R. King DR NC-5
72 Abner Lacock DR PA-15 Resigned, as Representative-elect: February 24, 1813 [5]
73 Lyman Law F CT-al
74 William Lowndes DR SC-2
75 William McCoy DR VA-4 Elected to this Congress: April 1813
76 Hugh Nelson DR VA-22
77 Israel Pickens DR NC-12 Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813. Chairman: Accounts (1813).
78 William Piper DR PA-8
79 James Pleasants DR VA-17 Elected to this Congress: April 1813. Chairman: Public Expenditures (1814).
80 William Reed F MA-2 Last term while serving as a member of the House.
81 Henry M. Ridgely F DE-al
82 Jonathan Roberts DR PA-2 Resigned to become US Senator: February 24, 1814
83 William Strong DR VT-al Last term while serving as a member of the House until 16th Congress
84 Philip Stuart F MD-1
85 Stevenson Archer DR MD-6 October 26, 1811 Chairman: Claims (1813–14)
86 William M. Richardson DR MA-4 November 4, 1811 Resigned while serving as a member of the House: April 18, 1814
87 Thomas B. Robertson DR LA-al April 30, 1812
88 John P. Hungerford DR VA-9 March 4, 1813 Previously served (DR) March 4-November 29, 1811 while as a member of the House. Elected to this Congress: April 1813.
89 William Barnett DR GA-al October 5, 1812 Last term while serving as a member of the House.
90 Thomas P. Grosvenor F NY-5 January 29, 1813
91 William Kennedy DR NC-3 January 30, 1813 Previously served (DR) 1803-05 while as a member of the House. Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813. Last term while serving as a member of the House.
Two non-consecutive terms
92 Jonathan Fisk DR NY-6 March 4, 1813 Previously served (DR) 1809-11 while as a member of the House.
93 William Hale F NH-al Previously served (F) 1809-11 while as a member of the House.
94 William Baylies F MA-7 Previously served (F) March 4-June 28, 1809 while as a member of the House.
One term
95 John Alexander DR OH-2 March 4, 1813
96 Thomas M. Bayly F VA-13 Elected to this Congress: April 1813. Only term while serving as a member of the House.
97 John H. Bowen DR TN-4 Elected to this Congress: April 1-2, 1813. Only term while serving as a member of the House.
98 Alexander Boyd F NY-13 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
99 George Bradbury F MA-15
100 William C. Bradley DR VT-al Only term while serving as a member of the House until 18th Congress
101 Ezra Butler DR VT-al Only term while serving as a member of the House.
102 James Caldwell DR OH-4
103 Hugh Caperton F VA-7 Elected to this Congress: April 1813. Only term while serving as a member of the House.
104 John J. Chappell DR SC-4 Chairman: Pensions and Revolutionary Claims (1814–15)
105 Bradbury Cilley F NH-al
106 James Clark DR KY-1
107 Oliver C. Comstock DR NY-20
108 John Conard DR PA-1 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
109 Thomas Cooper F DE-al
110 William Coxe, Jr. F NJ-3 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
111 Samuel Davis F MA-16
112 Peter Denoyelles DR NY-3
113 Daniel Dewey F MA-12 Resigned while still serving as a member of the House: February 24, 1814
114 William Dowse F NY-15 Died, as Representative-elect: February 18, 1813 [6]
115 William P. Duval DR KY-10 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
116 John S. Edwards F OH-6 Died, as Representative-elect: February 22, 1813 [7]
117 David R. Evans DR SC-5 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
118 Samuel Farrow DR SC-8
119 Peter Forney DR NC-11 Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813. Only term.
120 John Forsyth DR GA-al
121 William Gaston F NC-4 Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813
122 James Geddes F NY-19 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
123 Hugh Glasgow DR PA-4
124 John Gloninger F PA-3 Resigned while still serving as a member of the House: August 2, 1813
125 Theodore Gourdin DR SC-3 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
126 Alexander C. Hanson F MD-3
127 Thomas K. Harris DR TN-3 Elected to this Congress: April 1-2, 1813. Only term while serving as a member of the House.
128 Abraham J. Hasbrouck DR NY-7 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
129 Samuel Hopkins DR KY-5
130 Samuel M. Hopkins F NY-21
131 Nathaniel W. Howell F NY-22
132 Levi Hubbard DR MA-20
133 Parry W. Humphreys DR TN-6 Elected to this Congress: April 1-2, 1813. Only term while serving as a member of the House.
134 Charles J. Ingersoll DR PA-1 Chairman: Judiciary. Only term while serving as a member of the House until 27th Congress.
135 Samuel D. Ingham DR PA-6 Chairman: Pensions and Revolutionary Claims (1813–14)
136 Jared Irwin DR PA-10
137 James Johnson DR VA-20 Elected to this Congress: April 1813
138 Moss Kent F NY-18
139 John Kerr DR VA-15 Elected to this Congress: April 1813. Only term while serving as a member of the House until 14th Congress.
140 John Kershaw DR SC-9 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
141 James Kilbourne DR OH-5
142 Cyrus King F MA-14
143 John Lefferts DR NY-1 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
144 John Lovett F NY-9
145 Jacob Markell F NY-14 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
146 Duncan McArthur DR OH-3 Resigned, as Representative-elect: April 5, 1813. Only term until 18th Congress. [8]
147 John McLean DR OH-1
148 Morris S. Miller F NY-16 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
149 Hosea Moffitt F NY-10
150 Thomas Montgomery DR KY-9 Only term while serving as a member of the House until 16th Congress
151 William H. Murfree DR NC-1 Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813
152 Thomas J. Oakley F NY-4 Only term while serving as a member of the House until 20th Congress
153 James Parker DR MA-19 Only term while serving as a member of the House until 16th Congress
154 Timothy Pickering F MA-3
155 Jotham Post, Jr. F NY-2 Only term while serving as a member of the House
156 John Reed, Jr. F MA-8
157 Charles Rich DR VT-al Only term while serving as a member of the House until 15th Congress
158 Nathaniel Ruggles F MA-13
159 Solomon P. Sharp DR KY-6
160 Samuel Sherwood F NY-8 Only term while serving as a member of the House
161 Zebulon R. Shipherd F NY-12
162 John Simpson DR KY-8 Died, as Representative-elect: January 22, 1813 [9]
163 Richard Skinner DR VT-al Only term while still serving in the House.
164 Isaac Smith DR PA-10
165 Samuel Smith F NH-al
166 William S. Smith F NY-17 Only term while serving as a member of the House (elected to 14th Congress but did not qualify)
167 Richard Stockton F NJ-2 Only term while serving as a member of the House.
168 Adamson Tannehill DR PA-14
169 John W. Taylor DR NY-11
170 Thomas Telfair DR GA-al
171 Joel Thompson F NY-15 Only term while serving as a member of the House
172 Roger Vose F NH-al
173 Artemas Ward, Jr. F MA-1
174 Thomas Ward DR NJ-1
175 Daniel Webster F NH-al
176 Francis White F VA-2 Elected to this Congress: April 1813. Only term.
177 James Whitehill DR PA-3 Resigned while still serving as a member of the House: September 1, 1814
178 Jeduthun Wilcox F NH-al
179 John Wilson F MA-18 Only term while serving as a member of the House until 15th Congress
180 Elisha I. Winter F NY-12 Only term while serving as a member of the House
181 Abiel Wood DR MA-17
182 Bartlett Yancey DR NC-9 Elected to this Congress: May 1, 1813. Chairman: Claims (1814–15).
Members joining the House, after the start of the Congress [10]
... Reasin Beall DR OH-6 April 20, 1813 Special election. Resigned: June 7, 1814.
... Stephen Ormsby DR KY-8 Previously served (DR) 1811-13. Special election: April 29, 1813.
... William Creighton, Jr. DR OH-3 May 4, 1813 Special election: May 10, 1813
... Thomas Wilson DR PA-15 Special election
... John Rea DR PA-5 May 11, 1813 Previously served (DR) 1803-11 while as a member of the House. Special election. Last term while serving as a member of the House.
... Isaac Griffin DR PA-13 May 24, 1813 Special election: February 16, 1813
... John M. Bowers F NY-15 May 26, 1813 Special election: April 27-29, 1813. Unseated after election contest: December 20, 1813.
... Edward Crouch DR PA-3 October 12, 1813 Special election. Only term.
... Daniel Udree DR PA-7 Special election. Only term until 16th Congress.
... Alfred Cuthbert DR GA-al December 13, 1813 Special election
... Isaac Williams, Jr. DR NY-15 December 20, 1813 Seated after election contest. Only term while as a member of the House until 15th Congress.
... William Irving DR NY-2 January 22, 1814 Special election: December 28-30, 1813
... Joseph H. Hawkins DR KY-2 March 29, 1814 Special election: February 28, 1814. Only term while serving as a member of the House.
... Newton Cannon DR TN-5 September 16, 1814 Special election: September 15-16, 1814
... Samuel Dana DR MA-4 September 22, 1814 Special election: May 23, 1814. Only term while serving as a member of the House.
... Philip P. Barbour DR VA-11 September 19, 1814 Special election: June 1814
... John W. Hulbert F MA-12 September 26, 1814 Special election: August 4, 1814
... David Clendenin DR OH-6 October 11, 1814 Special election
... Samuel Henderson F PA-2 Special election. Only term while serving as a member of the House.
... Amos Slaymaker F PA-3
... Thomas Bines DR NJ-al November 2, 1814 Special election: October 10-11, 1814. Only term while serving in the House. [11]
Non voting members
a Jonathan Jennings - IN-al November 27, 1809 Delegate from Indiana Territory
b Edward Hempstead - MO-al November 9, 1812 Delegate from Missouri Territory until September 17, 1814
c Shadrack Bond - IL-al December 3, 1812 Delegate from Illinois Territory until August 2, 1813
d William Lattimore - MS-al March 4, 1813 Delegate from Mississippi Territory. Formerly served 1803-07.
e Rufus Easton - MO-al September 17, 1814 Delegate from Missouri Territory
f Benjamin Stephenson - IL-al November 4, 1814 Delegate from Illinois Territory

References[edit]

  1. ^ 112th Congress official House seniority list
  2. ^ Based on Rule X Organisation of Committees, in the House Rules and Manual for the 112th Congress. For membership and chairmen, see the Journal of the House of Representatives for the 13th Congress for the dates of appointment specified.
  3. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 49) and death (note 17 on page 52)
  4. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 49) and death (note 15 on page 52)
  5. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 49) and death (note 18 on page 52)
  6. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 49) and death (note 9 on page 52)
  7. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 49) and death (note 11 on page 52)
  8. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 49) and resignation (note 10 on page 52)
  9. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 48) and death (note 3 on page 51)
  10. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for special elections to the 13th Congress (page 46)
  11. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, change to at-large election in mid Congress (note 32 on page 52)

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.

  • United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, by Michael J. Dubin (McFarland and Company 1998) ISBN 0-7864-0283-0

See also[edit]

External links[edit]