List of military operations on the Eastern Front of World War II

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of military operations in Europe on the "Eastern Front". These were operations by Germany and its allies on one side and the Soviet Union and its allies on the other and were a consequence of the German invasion in 1941. The geographic boundaries have blurred edges. Finland, classed elsewhere as a "Nordic" country, participated in Barbarossa but later fought against German troops (see Military operations in Scandinavia and Iceland during World War II). Yugoslavia, for much of the war, was part of operations in southern Europe but it was liberated by the Red Army. In the cases of Finland and Yugoslavia, therefore, operations are likely to be entered in different lists, depending on the protagonists - not geography. Soviet operations in Iran will be listed in the List of World War II military operations.

Eastern Front[edit]

Axis[edit]

In alphabetic order

  • Aktion 24 (1945) Germany — largely unsuccessful attempts to use Mistels and explosive-laden Do 24s to destroy strategic river bridges
  • Aster (1944) Germany — withdrawal from Estonia.
  • Barbarossa ("Red Beard" was the nickname for Emperor Frederick I) (1941) Germany Italy Romania Hungary Slovakia Finland — invasion of the Soviet Union.
    • Haifisch ("Shark") (1941) Germany — deception operation for Barbarossa, feint on Scotland and north-east England from Norway.
    • Harpune ("Harpoon") (1941) Germany — deception operation for Barbarossa, feint on southern England from France.
    • Taifun ("Typhoon") (1941) Germany — offensive to capture Moscow before winter.
  • Beowulf I & II (Heroic figure) (1941) Germany — two separate plans to assault the Estonian islands of Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Muhu
    • Nordwind ("Northern wind") (1941) Germany — Diversionary plan for Beowulf II
      • Lel (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Nordwind
      • Nau (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Nordwind
      • Stimmung ("Tendency") (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Nordwind
    • Siegfried (Heroic figure)(1941) Germany — German assault on Hiiumaa
      • Ost ("East") (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Siegfried
      • Mitte ("Middle") (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Siegfried
      • West (1941) Germany — sub-plan of Siegfried
    • Südwind ("Southern wind") (1941) Germany — Diversionary plan for Beowulf II
    • Weststurm ("Western Storm") (1941) Germany — naval bombardment in support of Beowulf II
    • Westwind (1941) Germany — Diversionary plan for Beowulf II
    • Edelweiss (1942) Germany — advance through the Caucasus to the Baku oil fields and Black Sea coast
    • Kreml ("Kremlin") (1942) Germany — deception operation to conceal southern offensive
  • BLAU ("BLUE") (1942) Germany — Umbrella name for drive towards southern Soviet Union.
  • Constanța Romania — minelaying of the area around the port of Constanța, the Romanian minelayers Amiral Murgescu, Regele Carol I and Aurora laid 1,000 mines between 16 and 19 June 1941,[1] which sank up to 4 Soviet submarines (M-58, M-34, Shch-206 and Shch-208),[2] 1 Soviet destroyer leader[3][4][5] and 1 German minesweeper[6]
  • Delphin ("Dolphin") (1943) Germany — German withdrawal from Saaremaa, Estonia.
  • Eisenhammer ("Iron Hammer") (1943) Germany — abandoned plan to attack Soviet power plants power generators near Moscow and Gorky, using Mistel composite aircraft, abandoned in 1945.
  • Eisstoss ("Ice Push") (1941) GermanyLuftwaffe raids on Soviet warships near Leningrad including;
    • Froschlaich ("FrogSpawn") (1941) - air raids against Soviet Navy yards at Leningrad, USSR; part of Operation Eisstoss
    • Götz v. Berlichingen (a knight in the Swabian war) (1941) - air raids against Soviet Navy at Leningrad, USSR; part of Operation Eisstoss
  • Feuerzauber ("Fire Magic") (1942) Germany — planned capture of Leningrad
  • Flamingo (1942) Germany — planting of Mishinskii as German agent in Soviet military hierarchy
  • Frühlingserwachen ("Spring Awakening") (1945) Germany Hungary — counterattack against Soviets in Hungary. Last major offensive on Eastern Front.
  • Hannibal (1945) Germany — evacuation of East Prussia
  • Joseph (1944) Germany — proposal to destroy electricity supplies to Moscow
  • Konrad (1945) Germany Hungary — German-Hungarian efforts to relieve the encircled garrison in Budapest
  • Laura (1944) Germany — proposed evacuation of Courland
  • Margarethe (1944) Germany — military operation to keep Hungary from defecting
  • Narwa I II III (1942/43) Germany — sabotage operations behind Soviet lines
  • Nordlicht ("Northern Lights") (1942) Germany — planned assault on Leningrad
  • Odessa (1942) Kingdom of Romania Germany — minelaying of the area around the then-Romanian port of Odessa by the Romanian minelayers Amiral Murgescu and Dacia, escorted by Romanian destroyers Regele Ferdinand, Regina Maria and Mărășești, Romanian gunboats Ghiculescu, Stihi and Dumitrescu, Romanian torpedo boat Smeul and also motor minesweepers of the Donau Flotilla;[7] successful operation, ultimately resulting in the sinking of the Soviet submarines M-33 and M-60[8]
  • Polikov (1942/43) Germany — sabotage operations behind Soviet lines
  • Rennstrecke (1944) Germany — planned air supply of German troops isolated behind Soviet lines (later found out as a Soviet deception)
  • Salzsee (1944) Germany — sabotage operations in Kalmutskaya, USSR
  • Schamil (1942) Germany
  • Sonnenwende ("Winter Solstice") (1945) Germany — offensive in Pomerania to stall the advance on Berlin
  • TrappenJagd ("Bastard Hunt") (1942) Germany Romania — offensive in the Kerch Peninsula
  • Varna (1941) Kingdom of Romania Kingdom of Bulgaria — minelaying of the Bulgarian coast by the Romanian minelayers Amiral Murgescu, Regele Carol I and Dacia, escorted by Romanian 250t-class torpedo boats Năluca, Sborul and Smeul, Romanian gunboats Sublocotenent Ghiculescu and Căpitan Dumitrescu and Bulgarian torpedo boats Drazki, Smeli and Hrabri;[9] largely successful operation, as despite the loss of the Romanian minelayer Regele Carol I to a Soviet mine,[10] the five minefields laid by the Romanian minelayers sank up to 4 Soviet submarines (S-34, L-24, Shch-210 and Shch-211)[11]
  • Wilddieb (1944) GermanyRSHA operation to monitor radio traffic from isolated German troops
  • Wolf (1942/43) Germany — sabotage operations behind Soviet lines
  • Wunderland ("Wonderland") (1942) Germany
  • Zitadelle ("Citadel") (1943) Germany — German offensive at Kursk

Soviet Union[edit]

Operations listed here are some of the better known strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II, and exclude operations by partisans or "Home Armies". These are included under List of World War II military operations. Names of other operations have not been recorded and these have become known by their regional objective.[12]

In alphabetic order

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Anthony Preston, Warship 2001-2002, p. 70
  2. ^ Mikhail Monakov, Jurgen Rohwer, Stalin's Ocean-going Fleet: Soviet Naval Strategy and Shipbuilding Programs 1935-1953, pp. 265-266
  3. ^ Robert Forczyk, Where the Iron Crosses Grow: The Crimea 1941–44, p. 39
  4. ^ David T. Zabecki, World War Two in Europe, p. 1468
  5. ^ R. L. DiNardo, Germany and the Axis Powers from Coalition to Collapse, p. 109
  6. ^ Gordon Smith,Don Kindell,Donald A. Bertke, World War II Sea War, Vol 9: Wolfpacks Muzzled, p. 203
  7. ^ Donald A. Bertke, Gordon Smith, Don Kindell World War II Sea War, Volume 6: The Allies Halt the Axis Advance, p. 268
  8. ^ Mikhail Monakov, Jurgen Rohwer, Stalin's Ocean-going Fleet: Soviet Naval Strategy and Shipbuilding Programs 1935-1953, p. 266
  9. ^ John Smillie, World War II Sea War, Volume 4: Germany Sends Russia to the Allies, p. 323
  10. ^ John Smillie, World War II Sea War, Volume 4: Germany Sends Russia to the Allies, p. 324
  11. ^ Mikhail Monakov, Jurgen Rohwer, Stalin's Ocean-going Fleet: Soviet Naval Strategy and Shipbuilding Programs 1935-1953, pp. 265-266
  12. ^ See Glantz paper titled: "The Soviet-German War 1941-1945: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay" presented as the 20th anniversary distinguished lecture at the Strom Thurmond Institute of Government and Public Affairs Clemson University October 11, 2001