List of most-wanted Nazi war criminals

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Since 2001, Efraim Zuroff of the Simon Wiesenthal Center has produced an Annual Status Report on the Worldwide Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi war criminals which, since at least 2005, has included a list of "most-wanted" criminals who had never been convicted. The list was last updated in 2017.[1]

Nazi war criminals facing possible prosecution[edit]

The following Nazi war criminals were facing possible prosecution as of 2016, according to the Simon Wiesenthal Center.[2] Current country of residence is listed first, with country where crime was committed enclosed in brackets.

Still alive
  1. Helma Kissner [pl] (born 23 December 1923 (age 94))[3][4] – Germany (Poland) – served as a radio operator in the Auschwitz death camp from April to July 1944 – charged with accessory to murder in 260,000 cases.[5] Ruled unfit to stand trial on 9 September 2016 by a court in Kiel.[6]
  2. Helmut Oberlander (born 15 February 1924 (age 94)) – Canada (Ukraine) – served in Einsatzkommando 10A (part of Einsatzgruppe D), which murdered an estimated 23,000 mostly Jewish civilians. In July 2016, the Supreme Court of Canada refused to hear an appeal of a lower court decision that ordered the Canadian government to reconsider its decision to revoke Oberlander's Canadian citizenship. This means that to deport him so that he can be tried for war crimes, the government first has to prove that Oberlander was a willing participant in Nazi death squad activities.[7] In July 2017 the Government of Canada used an Order in Council to strip Oberlander of his Canadian citizenship for the fourth time.[8][9] This step was declared lawful by the Federal Court in September 2018.[10]
  3. Hubert Zafke (born 1920/1921 (age 97–98))[11] – Germany (Poland) – served as a medic in the Auschwitz death camp during the years 1943 and 1944. Zafke was arrested in 2014 and was charged and found guilty of the mass murder of 3,681 people.[5] Zafke's trial began in February 2016 but in September 2017 the case against Zafke was dropped as he is in the advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease and was declared unfit to stand trial.[12][13]
  4. Alfred Stork (soldier) [it] (born 1922/1923 (age 95–96))[14] – Germany (Greece) – Last-known news: former corporal convicted in absentia in 2013 by Rome Military Court for participated in the September 1943 mass murder of 120 Italian officers on the Greek island of Cephalonia.[15]
  5. Helmut Rasbol [pl] (born Helmuth Leif Rasmussen; 1924/1925 (age 93–94))[14] – Denmark (Belarus) – (Last known location: Copenhagen, Denmark)[14] during the years 1942–1943 served as a guard in the Judenlager established by the Nazis in Bobruisk, Belarus, during which almost all the Jewish inmates of the camp were executed or died of the horrible physical conditions. In November 2016, the Danish chief prosecutor announced that Rasmussen would not face charges because of lack of evidence.[16] Now living under the surname Rasboel.[14]
  6. Aksel Andersen (soldier) [pl] (born (1924-06-18) June 18, 1924 (age 94)) – Denmark (Belarus) – Last known location: Sweden – during the years 1942–1943, he served as a guard in the Judenlager established by the Nazis in Bobruisk, Belarus, during which almost all the Jewish inmates of the camp were executed or died of the horrible physical conditions.[17][18]
  7. Johann Robert Riss [pl] (born 1922/1923 (age 95–96))[14] – Germany (Italy) – Last known news: on May 25, 2011, the former sergeant found guilty in absentia for the murder of 184 civilians in the Padule di Fucecchio massacre in Italy on August 23, 1944. He was sentenced to life in prison. Germany has declined to extradite Riss.[14][19]
  8. Algimantas Dailidė (age 97) – Germany (Lithuania) – served in the Saugumas (Lithuanian Security Police) in Vilnius – arrested Jews and Poles who were subsequently executed by the Nazis and Lithuanian collaborators. He was deported from U.S. to Germany in 2004. Sentenced to five years' imprisonment by a court in Vilnius but in 2008 the Lithuanian high court ruled that he was in too poor health to be punished.[14]
  9. Jakiw "Jakob" Palij [pl] (born 1923/1924 (age 94–95) in P'yadyky [uk], Soviet Ukraine) – Germany (Poland/Ukraine) – served as a guard in the Trawniki concentration camp. He was deported from Queens area of New York City in August 2018 to Germany, even though he has been stateless since 2003.[20]

The 2015 Annual Nazi war criminals report lists ten men:[21]

  1. Gerhard Sommer (age 97; Last known location: Germany) Declared "unfit for trial" by a court in May 2015 due to severe dementia.[22]
  2. Alfred Stork (mentioned earlier)
  3. Johann Robert Riss [pl] (mentioned earlier)
  4. X – Helmut Rasbol [pl] (mentioned earlier)
  5. Y – unnamed person (Last known location: Germany) wanted for being accessory to the murder of Hungarian Jews in Auschwitz
  6. Z – unnamed person (Last known location: Norway) wanted for murder of Jews in various locations in Poland and Ukraine
  7. Algimantas Dailidė (mentioned earlier)
  8. Helmut Oberlander (mentioned earlier)
Deceased
2016 list
  1. Reinhold Hanning (28 December 1921 – 30 May 2017) – Germany (Poland) – served in the Auschwitz death camp from January 1943 until June 1944 – charged with accessory to murder in 170,000 cases.[5] Hanning was convicted and sentenced to 5 years' imprisonment on June 17, 2016.[23] Never served his sentence as he died on 30 May 2017, aged 95, while awaiting appeal.[24]
2015 list
  1. Vladimir Katriuk (1 October 1921 – 22 May 2015. Last known location: Canada) Reported to have died in May 2015, aged 93.[25]
  2. Oskar Groening (10 June 1921 – 9 March 2018. Last known location: Germany). Trial in Hannover, Germany, July 2015. Found guilty of being accessory to murder of 300,000 people and sentenced to four years' imprisonment.[26]

Named on previous lists[edit]

  • Hans (Antanus) Lipschis (Arrested in Germany, 2013,[27] found unfit for trial due to dementia. Died in Aalen in 2016, aged 96.[28])
  • Theodor Szehinskyj (age 93–94. Last known location: United States), died in US 2014.
  • Søren Kam – listed until 2014, died March 23, 2015
  • Ivan (John) Kalymon – listed until 2014, found in United States, lost US citizenship, died in 2014 while awaiting extradition to Germany[29][30]
  • Aribert Heim – listed until 2013, death uncovered a year earlier[29]
  • Alois Brunner – listed until 2013, presumed dead.[29] In 2014, it was reported that he had died in Syria in 2010.[31]
  • Mikhail Gorshkow – fled to Estonia and stripped of his U.S. citizenship; listed until death in 2013.[29] Cleared of charges in 2011 due to inconclusive evidence.[32]
  • László Csatáry – listed until 2013,[29] died 10 August 2013
  • Charles Zentai – listed until 2012,[33] the Australian High Court ruled that Zentai could not be sent for trial to Hungary, alleging that the category of "War Crimes" did not exist at that time in Hungarian law, died 13 December 2017
  • Klaas Carel Faber – listed until 2012,[33] died in the process of extradition from Germany to Netherlands on 24 May 2012, aged 90.[34]
  • Sándor Képíró – listed until 2011,[35] tried and found not guilty that year; died 3 September 2011.
  • Adam Nagorny – listed until 2011,[35] died 2011.[36]
  • Milivoj Ašner – listed until 2011,[35] died 14 June 2011.
  • Samuel Kunz [de] – listed until 2010,[37] died 18 November 2010.[38]
  • Adolf Storms – listed until 2010,[37] died 28 June 2010 while awaiting trial.
  • Peter Egner – listed until 2010,[37] died January 2011 while awaiting trial.[39]
  • Ivan Demjanjuk – listed until 2009,[40] deported to Germany for trial in 2009, and was convicted in 2011 pending appeal, died 17 March 2012. He died before his appeal could be tried by the German Appellate Court, and as a result, his previous conviction was not upheld. A few days after his death, the German court clarified that, according to German law, Demjanjuk was "presumed innocent", that he did not have a criminal record, and that his previous interim conviction was invalidated.[41]
  • Heinrich Boere – listed until 2009,[40] convicted 2010 and sentenced to life in prison. Died December 1, 2013.
  • Harry Männil – listed until 2009,[40] cleared of charges in 2005 after four-year investigation,[42] died 11 January 2010.
  • Erna Wallisch – listed until 2007,[43] died 21 February 2008 while under investigation.
  • Lajos Polgár – listed until 2006,[44] died 12 July 2006.[45]
  • Ladislav Nižňanský [de] – listed until 2005,[46] tried in 2005 and acquitted by German court due to lack of reliable evidence.[47] Died 23 December 2011.[48]
  • Jack Reimer – listed until 2005,[46] extradition granted but died before he could be deported.[49]
  • Nada Šakić – listed until 2004. Died 2008.[50]
  • Rosemarie Albrecht [de] – listed until 2004,[50] died 7 January 2008.
  • Petras Bernatavicius – listed until 2004,[50] found to have died in 1992.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zuroff, Dr. Efraim (December 2017). "Worldwide Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals: An Annual Status Report (April 1, 2016– March 31, 2017)" (PDF). operationlastchance.org. Simon Wiesenthal Center – Israel Office: Snider Social Action Institute. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  2. ^ "Wiesenthal Center 2016 Annual Report Praises Renewed Efforts by German Prosecutors - Simon Wiesenthal Center".
  3. ^ "Geschichte einer Frau, die unbedingt zur SS wollte". Welt (in German). 15 June 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  4. ^ Mandel, Michele (20 June 2016). "Last Nazi Trial: Mixed success with prosecutions". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Trial dates set in Germany in 2016.
  6. ^ Reuters (9 September 2016). "Auschwitz radio operator ruled unfit to stand trial". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  7. ^ "Jewish groups upset by Supreme Court's decision on Oberlander - The Canadian Jewish News". 15 July 2016.
  8. ^ Outhit, Jeff (25 July 2017). "Former Nazi Helmut Oberlander stripped of citizenship again" – via Toronto Star.
  9. ^ "Ex-Nazi interpreter Helmut Oberlander faces 'extraordinary' fourth fight over citizenship".
  10. ^ Government acted lawfully in revoking Helmut Oberlander’s citizenship, court rules 27 September 2018 Waterloo Region Record
  11. ^ Press, Associated (12 September 2016). "Auschwitz medic Hubert Zafke goes on trial at fourth attempt" – via www.theguardian.com.
  12. ^ "Auschwitz Nazi, 96, unfit to stand trial". 31 August 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  13. ^ "Mass murder case against Auschwitz medic Hubert Zafke dropped due to Alzheimer's".
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "Here Are the 5 Most Wanted Nazi War Criminals". Time. July 15, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  15. ^ "Alfred Stork, Ex-Nazi War Criminal, Convicted In Absentia By Italian Court". World Post. Associated Press. October 15, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  16. ^ "Prosecutor drops probe into Danish Nazi camp guard". 5 November 2016.
  17. ^ "Wiesenthal Center Rejects as Scandalous the Decision by Danish Prosecution to Permanently Close Investigation of Holocaust Crimes By Danish SS Volunteers in Belarus". Simon Wiesenthal Center. 22 March 2017.
  18. ^ "91-årig dansker blandt de mest jagede nazister fra Anden Verdenskrig". BT (in Danish). 11 May 2016.
  19. ^ Horsley, William (25 April 2015). "Justice for historical crimes" – via www.bbc.com.
  20. ^ "Nazi guard Palij deported by US to Germany". BBC. 21 August 2018.
  21. ^ "Wiesenthal Center 2015 Annual Report on the Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals". Simon Wiesenthal Center. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  22. ^ "Alfred Stork, Ex-Nazi War Criminal, Convicted In Absentia By Italian Court". The Independent. 29 May 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  23. ^ "Former Auschwitz guard Reinhold Hanning convicted". BBC. 17 June 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  24. ^ The Associated Press (1 June 2017). "Reinhold Hanning, convicted former Auschwitz guard, dies in Germany at 95". National Post.
  25. ^ "Alleged Nazi war criminal sought by Russia dies in Quebe". Globe and Mail. May 28, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  26. ^ Connolly, Kate; Reuters (15 July 2015). "Former Auschwitz guard Oskar Gröning jailed over mass murder" – via www.theguardian.com.
  27. ^ "Germany arrests 'former Auschwitz guard' Hans Lipschis". BBC. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  28. ^ Gemeinschaftsblättle
  29. ^ a b c d e Simon Wiesenthal Center 2013 Annual Report on the Status of Nazi War Criminals (PDF). Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  30. ^ Matt Pearce, Holocaust suspect dies in Michigan after avoiding deportation, Los Angeles Times (July 9, 2014).
  31. ^ "Alois Brunner, most-wanted Nazi, died 'unrepentant' in Syria".
  32. ^ Simon Wiesenthal Center 2014 Annual Report on the Status of Nazi War Criminals (PDF). Los Angeles: Simon Wiesenthal Center. 2014. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
  33. ^ a b SWC Annual Status Report on the Worldwide Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals (PDF). Simon Wiesenthal Centre. 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  34. ^ "Klaas Faber: de laatste Nedernazi is dood". De Nieuwe Pers. 26 May 2012. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  35. ^ a b c "Simon Wiesenthal Center's Tenth Annual Report on the Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals". Simon Wiesenthal Centre. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  36. ^ http://www.operationlastchance.org/PDF/26.1-12.doc
  37. ^ a b c Zuroff, Ephraim (31 March 2010). "Worldwide Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals" (PDF). Simon Wiesenthal Center. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  38. ^ Topping, Alexandra (22 November 2010). "Suspected Nazi death camp guard Samuel Kunz dies before trial". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  39. ^ Myers, Laura (31 January 2011). "Accused Nazi dies just before US citizenship trial". Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  40. ^ a b c "Wiesenthal Center Annual Report on the Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals". Simon Wiesenthal Centre. April 20, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
  41. ^ Aderet, Ofer (23 March 2012). "Convicted Nazi criminal Demjanjuk deemed innocent in Germany over technicality". Haaretz. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  42. ^ "Kaitsepolitsei ei leidnud Harry Männilil veresüüd". Postimees (in Estonian). 20 December 2005. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2009.
  43. ^ "Wiesenthal Center Annual Report Notes Rise in Number of Convictions of Nazi War Criminals During Past Year; Slams Austria, Germany and Twelve Others for Failure to Bring Holocaust Perpetrators to Justice; Praises US and Italy for Continued Successes". Simon Wiesenthal Center News Release. Simon Wiesenthal Center. 15 April 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
  44. ^ "Wiesenthal Center Annual Report on Worldwide Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals". 23 April 2006. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  45. ^ Johnston, Chris (13 July 2006). "War crimes suspect dies amid controversy". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
  46. ^ a b "SWC Annual Report on Nazi War Criminals Reveals Dramatic Rise in New Investigations; Slams Ukraine and Others; & Praises US for Outstanding Success". Simon Wiesenthal Center. 4 May 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  47. ^ "Ex-Nazi officer acquitted of three massacres". Associated Press. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2005.
  48. ^ Ladislav Niznansky profile Archived 2012-03-17 at the Wayback Machine., tvnoviny.sk; accessed 13 November 2014.
  49. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
  50. ^ a b c "Worldwide Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals (1 April 2003 – 31 March 2004). An Annual Status Report" (PDF). August 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2013.