Islam by country

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Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group. According to a 2010 study that was released in January 2011,[1][2] Islam has 1.6 billion adherents, making up over 23% of the world population.[3][4][5] According to another study in 2015 Islam has 1.7 billion adherents.[6] Most Muslims are either of two denominations: Sunni (80-90%, roughly 1.5 billion people)[7] or Shia (10–13%, roughly 170 million people).[8] Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Sahel,[1][9][10][11] Central Asia and some other parts of Asia.[12] Large communities of Muslims are also found in China, the Balkans, India, and Russia.[1] Other parts of the world host large Muslim immigrant communities; in Western Europe, for instance, Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity, where it represents 6% of the total population or 24 million people.[13]

World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).

Denominations[edit]

Historically, Islam was divided into three major religious denominations well known as Sunni, Khawarij and Shī‘ah. In the modern era, Sunnis constitute more than 70% of the overall Muslim population while the Shi'as are slightly more than 20%.[14]

Today, many of the Shia sects are extinct. The major surviving Imamah-Muslim Sects are Usulism (with nearly more than 10%), Nizari Ismailism (with nearly more than 1%) and Alevism (with slightly more than 0.5%[15] but less than 1%[16]). The other existing groups include Zaydi Shi'a of Yemen whose population is nearly more than 0.5% of the world's Muslim population, Musta’li Ismaili (with nearly 0.1%[17] whose Taiyabi adherents reside in Gujarat state in India and Karachi city in Pakistan. There are also significant diaspora populations in Europe, North America, the Far East and East Africa[18]), and Ibadis from the Kharijites whose population has diminished to a level below 0.15%. On the other hand, new Muslim sects like African American Muslims, Ahmadi Muslims[19] (with nearly around 1%[20]), non-denominational Muslims, Quranist Muslims and Wahhabis (with nearly around 1-2%[21] of the world's total Muslim population) were later independently developed.

According to the Pew Research Center in 2010, there were 50 Muslim-majority countries.[22][23] Around 62% of the world's Muslims live in the Asia-Pacific region (from Turkey to Indonesia), with over 1 billion adherents.[24] The largest Muslim population in a country is in Indonesia, a nation home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan (11.0%), India (10.9%), and Bangladesh (9.2%).[1][25] About 20% of Muslims live in Arab countries.[26] In the Middle East, the non-Arab countries of Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Egypt and Nigeria have the most populous Muslim communities.[1][25] The study found more Muslims in the United Kingdom than in Lebanon and more in China than in Syria.[1]

Countries[edit]

Most of the percentages of Muslim populations of each country, if not stated otherwise, were taken from the study by the Pew Research Center report of The Future of the Global Muslim Population, as of 27 January 2011.[1][2] Other studies show variance with Pew figures. The percentage of Muslims in Egypt is given as 93.7%. However, the figure for Christians in Egypt is usually estimated at 12-15%, but in truth nobody knows since there has been no religious census. Likewise the percentage of Christians in Jordan is usually estimated to be 6-7%.

Table[edit]

Country/Region[1] Muslims Muslim percentage (%) of total population Percentage (%) of World Muslim population
Afghanistan Afghanistan 29,047,100 99.8 1.8
Albania Albania 1,879,172 58.79[27] 0.2
Algeria Algeria 40,400,000 98.2 [1] - >99[28] 2.7
American Samoa American Samoa < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Andorra Andorra < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Angola Angola 90,000 1.0 < 0.1
Anguilla Anguilla < 1,000 0.3 < 0.1
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda < 1,000 0.6 < 0.1
Argentina Argentina 784,000 2.5 0.1
Armenia Armenia < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Aruba Aruba < 1,000 0.4 < 0.1
Australia Australia 476,291[29] 2.2[29] < 0.1
Austria Austria 573,876[30] 6.8[30] < 0.1
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 8,795,000 98.4 0.5
The Bahamas Bahamas < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
Bahrain Bahrain 866,888[31] 70.2[31] < 0.1
Bangladesh Bangladesh 145,607,000 86.3[32] 9.2
Barbados Barbados 2,000 0.9 < 0.1
Belarus Belarus 19,000 0.2 < 0.1
Belgium Belgium 658,463 5.9[33] < 0.1
Belize Belize < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
Benin Benin 2,710,000 24.5 0.1
Bermuda Bermuda < 1,000 0.8 < 0.1
Bhutan Bhutan < 7,000 0.2 < 0.1
Bolivia Bolivia 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia-Herzegovina 1,790,454 50.7[34] 0.1
Botswana Botswana 8,000 0.4 < 0.1
Brazil Brazil 35,167 < 0.1 < 0.1
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands < 1,000 1.2 < 0.1
Brunei Brunei 295,000 67[35] < 0.1
Bulgaria Bulgaria 577,000[36] 7.8% < 0.1
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 11,270,000 60.5[37] 0.6
Myanmar Burma (Myanmar) 2,237,495 2.3[38] 0.1
Burundi Burundi 250,000 2.2 < 0.1
Cambodia Cambodia 255,000 1.6 < 0.1
Cameroon Cameroon 4,940,000 20.9[39] 0.2
Canada Canada 1,053,945 [40] 1.9[41]-3.2[40] 0.1
Cape Verde Cape Verde 10,000 2[28] < 0.1
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
Central African Republic Central African Republic 403,000 15[42][43] < 0.1
Chad Chad 7,827,653 58[28] 0.4
Chile Chile 2,894 [44] 0.03 (over 15+ pop.)[44] < 0.1
China China 22,000,000[45]-50,000,000[46] 1.8 1.4
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos (Keeling) Islands < 1,000[47] 80[47] < 0.1
Colombia Colombia 40,000 to 80,000[48] < 0.1 < 0.1
Comoros Comoros 785,000 98.3 < 0.1
Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo 3,648,267 5[28] 0.1
Cook Islands Cook Islands < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Costa Rica Costa Rica < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Croatia Croatia 60,000 1.4[33] < 0.1
Cuba Cuba 10,000 0.1 < 0.1
Cyprus Cyprus 273,000 22.7 < 0.1
Czech Republic Czech Republic 10,500 < 0.1 < 0.1
Denmark Denmark 230,000 4.1[33] < 0.1
Djibouti Djibouti 853,000 97.0 0.1
Dominica Dominica < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Ecuador Ecuador 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Egypt Egypt 73,800,000 90[49] 4.9
El Salvador El Salvador 2,000 <0.1 <0.1
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 28,000 4.1 < 0.1
Eritrea Eritrea 1,909,000 36.6[50]-48[51]/50 0.1
Estonia Estonia 2,623 0.2[33] < 0.1
Ethiopia Ethiopia 25,037,646[52] 34 1.8
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Fiji Fiji 54,000 6.3 <0.1
Finland Finland 42,000 0.8 <0.1
France France 5,020,000 7.5[33] 0.3
French Guiana French Guiana 2,000 0.9 <0.1
French Polynesia French Polynesia < 1,000 <0.1
Gabon Gabon 145,000 9.7 <0.1
The Gambia Gambia 1,669,000 95.3 0.1
Georgia (country) Georgia 442,000 10.5 <0.1
Germany Germany 1,600,000[53]-4,500,000[54] 2.0[53] - 5.5[54] 0.3
Ghana Ghana 4,914,000 18[28] 0.2
Gibraltar Gibraltar 1,000 4.0 <0.1
Greece Greece 610,000 5.3[33] <0.1
Greenland Greenland < 1,000 <0.1
Grenada Grenada < 1,000 0.3 <0.1
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe 2,000 0.4 <0.1
Guam Guam < 1,000 <0.1
Guatemala Guatemala 1,000 <0.1
Guinea Guinea 8,693,000 84.2 0.5
Guinea-Bissau Guinea Bissau 705,000 50[55] <0.1
Guyana Guyana 55,000 7.2 <0.1
Haiti Haiti 2,000 <0.1 <0.1
Honduras Honduras 11,000 0.1 <0.1
Hong Kong Hong Kong 220,000[56] 3.1 <0.1
Hungary Hungary 5,579[57] 0.3 <0.1
Iceland Iceland 770[58] 0.24[58] <0.1
India India 172,000,000 14.2 10.9
Indonesia Indonesia 204,847,000 87.2[59] 12.7
Iran Iran 74,819,000 99.7 4.6
Iraq Iraq 31,108,000 98.9 1.9
Republic of Ireland Ireland 70,158 1.1[33] <0.1
Isle of Man Isle of Man < 1,000 0.2 <0.1
Israel Israel 1,287,000 17.7 0.1
Italy Italy 2,220,000 3.7[33] 0.1
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 7,960,000 40[60][61][62] 0.5
Jamaica Jamaica 1,000 <0.1
Japan Japan 185,000 0.1 <0.1
Jordan Jordan 6,397,000 93.8 0.4
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 8,887,000 70.2 (official census)[63] 0.5
Kenya Kenya 2,868,000 10[64] 0.2
Kiribati Kiribati < 1,000 <0.1
Kosovo Kosovo 1,584,000[65] 95.6 0.1
Kuwait Kuwait 2,636,000 74.1[66] 0.2
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 4,927,000 88.8 0.3
Laos Laos 1,000 <0.1
Latvia Latvia 2,000 0.1 <0.1
Lebanon Lebanon 2,542,000 59.7 0.2
Lesotho Lesotho 1,000 <0.1
Liberia Liberia 523,000 12.8 <0.1
Libya Libya 6,325,000 96.6 0.4
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 2,000 4.8 <0.1
Lithuania Lithuania 3,000 0.1 <0.1
Luxembourg Luxembourg 11,000 2.3 <0.1
Macau Macau < 1,000 <0.1
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 500,000 33.3[67] <0.1
Madagascar Madagascar 220,000 7[68] <0.1
Malawi Malawi 2,011,000 12.8 0.1
Malaysia Malaysia 17,139,000 61.4 1.1
Maldives Maldives 309,000 100 <0.1
Mali Mali 15,667,704 95[28] 0.8
Malta Malta 1,000 0.2 <0.1
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Martinique Martinique < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
Mauritania Mauritania 4,171,633 100[69] 0.2
Mauritius Mauritius 230,118 17.3[70] < 0.1
Mayotte Mayotte 197,000 98.8 < 0.1
Mexico Mexico 3,700 [71] - 980,000[1] 0.1 < 0.1
Moldova Moldova 15,000 0.4 < 0.1
Monaco Monaco < 1,000 0.5 < 0.1
Mongolia Mongolia 200,000 6 < 0.1
Montenegro Montenegro 118,477[72] 19.11%[72] < 0.1
Montserrat Montserrat < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
Morocco Morocco 32,381,000 99[73] 2.0
Mozambique Mozambique 5,340,000 22.8 0.3
Namibia Namibia 9,000 0.4 < 0.1
Nauru Nauru < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Nepal Nepal 1,253,000 4.2 0.1
Netherlands Netherlands 825,000/1,000,000 5[74] - 6[33] 0.1
Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
New Caledonia New Caledonia 7,000 2.8 < 0.1
New Zealand New Zealand 41,000 0.9 < 0.1
Nicaragua Nicaragua 1,000 <0.1 < 0.1
Niger Niger 19,502,214 98.3[75] 1.0
Nigeria Nigeria 93,839,000 41[76]-50[77] 4.7
Niue Niue < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
North Korea North Korea 3,000 0.1 < 0.1
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands < 1,000 0.7 < 0.1
Norway Norway 163,180 [78] 3.0 < 0.1
Oman Oman 2,547,000 87.7 0.2
Pakistan Pakistan 178,000,000 96.4 11.0
Palau Palau < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
State of Palestine Palestine 4,298,000 97.5 0.3
Panama Panama 25,000 0.7 < 0.1
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Paraguay Paraguay 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Peru Peru < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Philippines Philippines 5,896,000[79][80] or 11,000,000 [79] 5[79][80] or 11[79] 0.3
Poland Poland 20,000 0.1 < 0.1
Portugal Portugal 65,000 0.6 < 0.1
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Qatar Qatar 1,168,000 77.5 0.1
Republic of the Congo Republic of Congo 77,736 1.6 < 0.1
Réunion Reunion 35,000 4.2 < 0.1
Romania Romania 73,000 0.3 < 0.1
Russia Russia 9,400,000[81] -16,379,000 6.5[81]-11.7 1.0
Rwanda Rwanda 589,429 4.8[82] < 0.1
Saint Helena St. Helena < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Saint Kitts and Nevis St. Kitts and Nevis < 1,000 0.3 < 0.1
Saint Lucia St. Lucia < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
Saint Pierre and Miquelon St. Pierre and Miquelon < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines St. Vincent and the Grenadines 2,000 1.7 < 0.1
Samoa Samoa < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
San Marino San Marino < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 25,493,000 97.1 1.6
Senegal Senegal 14,584,931 95.9 0.8
Serbia Serbia 227,000 2.8 < 0.1
Seychelles Seychelles < 1,000 1.1 < 0.1
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 4,171,000 71.5 0.3
Singapore Singapore 721,000 14.7[83] < 0.1
Slovakia Slovakia 10,866 0.2[33] < 0.1
Slovenia Slovenia 73,568 3.6[33] < 0.1
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Somalia Somalia 9,231,000 98.9[84][85][86][87] 0.6
South Africa South Africa 654,064 [88] 1.5 < 0.1
South Korea South Korea 35,000 0.1 < 0.1
South Sudan South Sudan 610,000 6.2% <0.1
Spain Spain 1,887,906 4.1[89] 0.1
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 1,967,227[90] 9.71[90] 0.1
Sudan Sudan 39,027,950 97.0[91] 1.9
Suriname Suriname 84,000 19.6[92] < 0.1
Swaziland Swaziland 129,230 10[93] < 0.1
Sweden Sweden 450,000-500,000[94] 5[94] < 0.1
Switzerland Switzerland 400,000[95] 5[95] < 0.1
Syria Syria 20,895,000 90 1.3
Taiwan Taiwan 60,000[96] 0.3[97] < 0.1
Tajikistan Tajikistan 7,006,000 99.0 0.4
Tanzania Tanzania 19,426,814 35[98] 0.8
Thailand Thailand 3,952,000 5.8 0.2
East Timor Timor-Leste 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
Togo Togo 827,000 20[99] 0.1
Tokelau Tokelau < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tonga Tonga < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 78,000 5.8 < 0.1
Tunisia Tunisia 11,190,000 99.8 0.6
Turkey Turkey 74,660,000 98.6 4.6
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 4,830,000 93.3 0.3
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tuvalu Tuvalu < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
Uganda Uganda 5,030,000 12.0 0.3
Ukraine Ukraine 393,000,[100] - 2,000,000[101] 0.8 - 2.2 < 0.1
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 3,577,000 76.0 0.2
United Kingdom United Kingdom 3,106,368 4.8[33] 0.2
United States United States 2,595,000 0.8 0.2
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
Uruguay Uruguay < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 26,833,000 96.5 1.7
Vanuatu Vanuatu < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Vatican City Vatican City 0 0 0
Venezuela Venezuela 95,000 0.3 < 0.1
Vietnam Vietnam 71,200[102] 0.2 < 0.1
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
Western Sahara Western Sahara 528,000 99.6 < 0.1
Yemen Yemen 24,023,000 99.0 1.5
Zambia Zambia 140,000 1[28] < 0.1
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 488,656 3[28] < 0.1
Central Asia 54,000,000[103] 80.0 3.0
South Asia 507,000,000[104] 31.0 32.0
Southeast-East Asia 257,000,000[105][106] 13.0 15.0
Middle East-North Africa 321,869,000 91.2 19.9
Sub-Saharan Africa 242,544,000 29.6 15.0
Europe 44,138,000 6.0 2.7
Americas 5,256,000 0.6 0.3
World Total 1,703,146,000[6] 23.4 100.0

See also[edit]

Islam:

Other religions by country:

General

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Muslim Population by Country". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Preface", The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center 
  3. ^ "Executive Summary". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  4. ^ "Christian Population as Percentages of Total Population by Country". Global Christianity. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  5. ^ "Turmoil in the world of Islam". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ See
    • "Shīʿite". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-08-25. Shīʿites have come to account for roughly one-tenth of the Muslim population worldwide. 
    • "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2013-09-24. The Pew Forum's estimate of the Shia population (10-13%) is in keeping with previous estimates, which generally have been in the range of 10-15%. Some previous estimates, however, have placed the number of Shias at nearly 20% of the world's Muslim population. 
    • "Shia". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 5 December 2011. Shi'a Islam is the second largest branch of the tradition, with up to 200 million followers who comprise around 15% of all Muslims worldwide... 
    • "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-08-25. Shia Islam represents 10-20% of Muslims worldwide... 
    • Iran, Israel and the United States "The majority of the world's Islamic population, which is Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population; the other 10-20 percent is Shia." (reference: CIA)
    • Sue Hellett; U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran "Let me review, while Shia Islam makes up only 10-20 percent of the world's Muslim population, Iraq has a Shia majority (between 60-80 percent), but had a Sunni controlled government under Saddam Hussein and cronies from 1958-2003... (If you like government figures, see the CIA World Factbook.)"
  9. ^ "Region: Middle East-North Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  10. ^ "Region: Sub-Saharan Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  11. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 978-0-85229-956-2 p.306
    According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham, (A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid-1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total population. These numbers are estimates, and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007.
  12. ^ Britannica, Think Quest, Wadsworth.com Archived 14 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ See:
  14. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population". Retrieved 10 December 2014. 
  15. ^ According to David Shankland, 15% of Turkey's population. in Structure and Function in Turkish Society. Isis Press, 2006, p. 81.
  16. ^ According to Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi, Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East edited by her, B. Kellner-Heinkele, & A. Otter-Beaujean. Leiden: Brill, 1997.
  17. ^ "Tehelka - India's Independent Weekly News Magazine". 
  18. ^ Paul, Eva (2006). Die Dawoodi Bohras – eine indische Gemeinschaft in Ostafrika (PDF). Beiträge zur 1. Kölner Afrikawissenschaftlichen Nachwuchstagung. 
  19. ^ Simon Ross Valentine (2008-10-06). Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jamaʻat: History, Belief, Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8. 
  20. ^ Larry DeVries; Don Baker; Dan Overmyer. Asian Religions in British Columbia. University of Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-1662-5. Retrieved 29 March 2014. The community currently numbers around 15 million spread around the world 
  21. ^ Destined Encounters - Page 203, Sury Pullat - 2014
  22. ^ "What is each country's second-largest religious group?". 
  23. ^ "Muslim-Majority Countries". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  24. ^ "Region: Asia-Pacific". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  25. ^ a b "Number of Muslim by country". nationmaster.com. Retrieved 2007-05-30. 
  26. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2002b), p.21
    • Esposito (2004), pp.2,43
  27. ^ Albanian census 2011
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h "Numbers and Percentage of Muslims in African Countries". Research on Islam and Muslims in Africa. Retrieved 2016-01-25. 
  29. ^ a b "Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics.
  30. ^ a b Hans Rauscher (12 September 2014). "Muslime in Österreich". derStandard.at. Retrieved 26 February 2016. 
  31. ^ a b General Tables Census of Bahrain
  32. ^ বাংলাদেশকে জানুন [Discover Bangladesh] (in Bengali). National Web Portal of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2016-01-24. 
  34. ^ Sarajevo, juni 2016. CENSUS OF POPULATION, HOUSEHOLDS AND DWELLINGS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, 2013 FINAL RESULTS (PDF). BHAS. Retrieved 30 June 2016. 
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  44. ^ a b Chile 2002 census database
  45. ^ Chinese Family Panel Studies's survey of 2012. Published in The World Religious Cultures issue 2014: 卢云峰:当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据. p. 13, reporting the results of the Renmin University's Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) for the years 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011, and their average. Note: according to the researchers of CFPS, only 6.3% of the Chinese are not religious in the sense of atheism; the others are not religious in the sense that they do not belong to an organised religion, while they pray to or worship gods and ancestors in the manner of the traditional popular religion.
  46. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - 2010 Report on International Religious Freedom - China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau)". Refworld. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]