List of Naga tribes

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Naga is an umbrella term for several indigenous communities in North-East India and Upper Burma. The word Naga originated as an exonym. Today, it covers a number of tribes that reside in Nagaland, Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh states of India, and also in Myanmar.

Before the arrival of the British, the term "Naga" was used in Assam to refer to certain isolated tribes. The British adopted this term for a number of tribes in the surrounding area, based on loose linguistic and cultural associations.

S. R. Tohring (2010) lists 66 Naga tribes.[1] The 1991 Census of India listed 35 Naga groups as Scheduled Tribes: 17 in Nagaland, 15 in Manipur and 3 in Arunachal Pradesh.[2]


Naga tribes[edit]

Tribe Traditional territory Recognized as Scheduled Tribe in Reference for classification as Naga Population[3] Comments
Anāl India/Myanmar Manipur/Myanmar S.R. Tohring, 2010 24,000
Angami India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 132,000
Ao India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 261,000
Chang India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 62,4000
Chirr India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 ?
Chiru India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010 ?
Htangan Burma S. R. Tohring, 2010 ? Also known as Leinong
Kharam (also Purum) India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010 1,400
Khiamniungan (or Khiamnungam) Burma, India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 37,800 Nokaw (Noko) founded in Burma is also a Khiamniungan tribe.
Konyak Burma, India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 248,000
Leinong (also Lainong or Lainung) Burma S. R. Tohring, 2010 7,000 Also known as Htang ngan
Liangmai India {Assam, Nagaland, Manipur} 62,000 (Comes under Community Zeliangrong)
Lotha India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 170,000
Makury (sometimes spelt Makuri) Burma Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 2,500
Mao (also Ememei) Senapati district, Manipur and Kohima and Dimapur districts, Nagaland (India) Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010 2,50000 Khrasi ][4]
Maram Senapati district (India) Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010 37,300
Moyon Burma And Chandel(India) Manipur R.B Pemberton, 1835 7000 Moyon Naga.[5][6][7]
Mzieme Nagaland William Frawley, 2003[8] 29,000 considered as a dialect of Zeme
Nokaw (or Noko) Burma S. R. Tohring, 2010 ? Now they are known as Khiamniungan tribe.
Nocte (or Nokte) India Patkai hills of Tirap district, Arunachal Pradesh. S. R. Tohring, 2010 33,000 It is a sub-tribe of Tangshang Naga.
Para Burma S. R. Tohring, 2010 ?
Pochury India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 16,700
Phom India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 123,000
Poumai Senapati District, Manipur and Phek district, Nagaland (India) S. R. Tohring, 2010 1,50,000
Puimei (Inpui or kabui) India (Manipur and Assam) William Frawley, 2003[8] 3,000 Not to be confused with Poumai
Rengma India Assam, Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 61,000
Rongmei India Assam, Manipur and Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 Rongmei are part of Major Community called as Zeliangrong
Sangtam India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 84,300
Sumi (or Sema) India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 300,000
Tangkhul Ukhrul district (India), Burma Manipur India-190,000

Myanmar-4,000

Tangshang (or Tase in language coding name) India, Burma Arunachal Pradesh, Burma S. R. Tohring, 2010 ? Formerly known as Pangmi and Heimi (Haimi in Burma; and Rangpang, Tangsa, Wancho, Nocte, Tutsa in India.
Tarao India S. R. Tohring, 2010 870
Thangal India (Mao and Sadar Hills, Manipur) S. R. Tohring, 2010 23,600
Tikhir India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 42,000 It is a sub tribe of Yimchunger Naga.
Tutsa India Robin Tribhuwan, 2005[9] 25,5000 It is a sub-tribe of Tangshang Naga.
Wancho India Arunachal Pradesh S. R. Tohring, 2010 49,100 It is a sub-tribe of Tangshang Naga.
Yimchunger Burma, India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 92,100
Zeme India: Tamenglong, Senapati districts (Manipur); Peren district (Nagaland); NC Hills district (Assam) Zeliang in Nagaland, Zeme in Assam & Manipur S.R.Tohring 34,100 Zeme is a part of Zeliangrong Community

Tribes classified as Naga by some sources[edit]

Tribe Traditional territory Recognized as Scheduled Tribe in Reference for classification as Naga Population Comments
Anal Chandel district (India), Burma Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010 Also classified as Kuki[10]
Chothe India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010 Also classified as Kuki-Chin[10]
Khoibu and Maring India Manipur Romesh Singh, 2006[11] Recognized as a tribe of Manipur, so called Khoibu group, Mongmi group by themselves belongs to Maring Tribe. Maring; however, they have a same origin and slight difference in local dialect; but all can understand each other.[citation needed]
Lamkang (also Lamgang or Langang) Tengnoupal district, Chandel district (India) Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Monsang Chandel district (India) Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010 Not to confused with the sub-tribe of Tangshang Naga called, 'Moshang or Mossang'

Composite tribes or communities[edit]

  • Shepfomei or Shepoumai (Mao-Poumai): Ememei, Lepaona, Chiliivai and Paomata together[4]
  • Zeliangrong: Zeme, Liangmai and Rongmei together[10]
  • Zeliang: Zeme and Liangmei together are called Zeliang in Nagaland[2]
  • Tangshang: A combination term, Tang from Tangnyu Vang (Wang) and Shang from Shangnyu Vang (Wang) chieftains, which were formerly known as and includes Heimi (Haimi), Pangmi, Rangpang, Tangsa, Wancho, Nocte, and Tutsa now.

List of Naga tribes based on linguistic grouping[edit]

The following grouping is based on Glottolog classification of List of Naga languages and may not necessarily be correct as cultural and political grouping of Naga tribes are concerned, some tribes can also be group differently by other linguist.

Angami-Pochuri Central Naga (Ao) Northern Naga (Konyakian) Southern Naga Tangkhul-Maring Western Naga (Zemeic)
Angami Ao Konyak Anal Tangkhul Zeme
Chakhesang (Chokri, Kheza) Lotha Chang Lamkang Maring Liangmai
Mao Sangtam Phom Monsang Khoibu Rongmei
Poumai (Poula) Yimchunger Wancho Moyon Inpui (Puiron)
Sumi Makury Khiamniungan Chiru Maram
Rengma Para (Jejara) Leinong (Htang Ngan) Kharam Khoirao (Thangal)
Pochury Tikhir Tangsa (Tangshang) Tarao
Chirr (?) Nocte Aimol (?)
Tutsa Chothe
Ollo (Lazu) Purum (?)
Koireng (?)

References[edit]

  1. ^ S. R. Tohring (2010). Violence and identity in North-east India: Naga-Kuki conflict. Mittal Publications. pp. xv–xvii. ISBN 978-81-8324-344-5.
  2. ^ a b U. A. Shimray (2007). Naga population and integration movement. Mittal Publications. pp. 25–33. ISBN 978-81-8324-181-6.
  3. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/
  4. ^ a b c William Nepuni (2010). Socio-cultural history of Shüpfomei Naga tribe. Mittal Publications. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-81-8324-307-0.
  5. ^ Sipra Sen (1992). Tribes and Castes of Manipur: Description and Select Bibliography. Mittal Publications. p. 58. ISBN 978-81-7099-310-0.
  6. ^ Folk tales of Moyon-Monsang. Directorate for Development of Tribals and Backward Classes, Manipur. 1982. p. 1.
  7. ^ G. K. Ghosh; Shukla Ghosh (1997). Women of Manipur. APH. p. 54. ISBN 9788170248972.
  8. ^ a b William Frawley (1 May 2003). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-19-513977-8. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  9. ^ Robin D. Tribhuwan (1 January 2005). Tribal Housing Issues. Discovery Publishing House. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-81-7141-917-3. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  10. ^ a b c G. K. Ghosh; Shukla Ghosh (1997). Women of Manipur (illustrated ed.). APH Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-7024-897-2.
  11. ^ M. Romesh Singh (1 January 2006). Tribal Development in 21st Century: An Experience from Manipur. Mittal Publications. p. 60. ISBN 978-81-8324-150-2. Retrieved 8 September 2013.