List of Nazi concentration camps

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The main gate into Auschwitz concentration camp, where an estimated 1.1 million people were killed.[1]

This article presents a partial list of the most prominent German Nazi concentration camps set up across Europe during World War II and during the Holocaust. A more complete list drawn up in 1967 by the German Ministry of Justice names about 1,200 camps and subcamps in countries occupied by Nazi Germany,[2] while the Jewish Virtual Library writes: "It is estimated that the Nazis established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries."[3] The concentration camps are not to be confused with the extermination camps designed and built exclusively to kill prisoners on a massive scale immediately upon arrival.[4] The extermination camps of Operation Reinhard including Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka served as "death factories" in which German SS and police murdered nearly 2,700,000 Jews either by asphyxiation with poison gas or by shooting.[4] Meanwhile, the concentration camps listed herein served primarily as detention and slave labor exploitation centers. Most of them were destroyed by the Nazis in an attempt to hide the evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity; nevertheless tens of thousands of prisoners sent on death marches were liberated by the Allies afterward.[5]

The concentration camps held large groups of prisoners without trial or judicial process. In modern historiography, the term refers to a place of systemic mistreatment, starvation, forced labour and murder. In 1933-1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Roma, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of 'asocial' or socially 'deviant' behavior by the Nazis.[6] They have not been utilized to sustain the German war effort, unlike the prisoners of 42,500 camps and ghettos in which an estimated 15 to 20 million people were imprisoned and often pressed into slavery during the subsequent years,[7] according to research by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum conducted more recently.[7] Though the term 'concentration camp' is often used as a general term for all Nazi camps, there were in fact several types of concentration camps in the Nazi camp system during World War II. Holocaust scholars make a clear distinction between death camps and concentration camps which served a number of war related purposes including prison facilities, labor camps, prisoner of war camps, and transit camps among others.[8]

The system of about 20,000 camps in Germany and Nazi-Occupied Europe played a pivotal role in sustaining the Nazi reign of terror economically.[6] Some of the data presented in this table originates from the monograph titled The War Against the Jews by Lucy Dawidowicz among similar others.[9]

Selected examples[edit]

Extermination camps are marked with pink, concentration camps are marked with purple, labour camps are marked with grey, while transit camps and collective points remain unmarked. Camp types are in the third column. Nazi ghettos are generally not included. According to data presented in the table below, an estimated 4,251,500 people lost their lives in the camps.

# Camp name Country (today) Camp type Dates of use Est. prisoners Est. deaths Sub-camps Webpage
1 Alderney Channel Islands Labour camps Jan 1942 – Jun 1944 6,000 700 Lager Borkum, Lager Helgoland, Lager Norderney, Lager Sylt [1]
2 Amersfoort Netherlands Transit camp and prison Aug 1941 – Apr 1945 35,000 1,000 [2]
3 Arbeitsdorf Germany Labour camp 8 Apr 1942 – 11 Oct 1942 600 min. none
4 Auschwitz-Birkenau Poland Extermination and labour camp Apr 1940 – Jan 1945 135,000 min.[10] in August 1944 1,100,000 min.[11] out of 6,000,000 rec. arrivals [12] list of 48 sub-camps with description at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum [13] [10] [11] [13] [12]
5 Banjica Serbia Concentration camp Jun 1941 – Sep 1944 23,637 3,849[14]
6 Bardufoss Norway Concentration camp Mar 1944 – ???? 800 250 [citation needed]
7 Bełżec Poland Extermination camp Oct 1941 – Jun 1943   434,508 min. [3]
8 Berga an der Elster (Berga, Thuringia) Germany Labour camp; Buchenwald subcamp
9 Bergen-Belsen Germany Collection point Apr 1943 – Apr 1945   70,000 2 [4]
10 Berlin-Marzahn Germany Early a "rest place" then labour camp for Roma July 1936 –     none [5]
11 Bernburg Germany Collection point Apr 1942 – Apr 1945   100,000 2  
12 Bogdanovka Ukraine Concentration camp 1941 54,000 40,000
13 Bolzano Italy Transit Jul 1944 – Apr 1945 11,116  
14 Bor Serbia Labour camp July 1943 – September 1944 6,000 1,800–2,800 [6]
15 Bredtvet Norway Concentration camp Fall, 1941 – May, 1944 1,000 min.  ???? none
16 Breendonk Belgium Prison and labour camp 20 Sep 1940 – Sep 1944 3532 min. 391 min. none [7]
17 Breitenau Germany "Early wild camp", then labour camp Jun 1933 – Mar 1934,
1940–1945
470 – 8500   [8]
18 Buchenwald Germany Labour camp Jul 1937 – Apr 1945 250,000 56,000 list [9]
19 Chelmno
(Kulmhof)
Poland Extermination camp Dec 1941 – Apr 1943,
Apr 1944 – Jan 1945
  152,000 min. [10]
20 Crveni krst Serbia Concentration camp 1941–1944 30,000 10,000
21 Dachau Germany Labour camp Mar 1933 – Apr 1945 200,000  31,591 list [11]
22 Drancy France Internment camp, transit 20 Aug 1941 – 17 Aug 1944 70,000 Three of five Paris annexes: Austerlitz, Lévitan and Bassano camps [12]
23 Falstad Norway Prison camp Dec 1941 – May 1945 200 min. none [13]
24 Flößberg (Frohburg) Germany Labour camp; Buchenwald subcamp November 1944 – Apr 1945 1904 235 min. [14]
25 Flossenbürg Germany Labour camp May 1938 – Apr 1945 100,000 min. 30,000 list [15]
26 Fort de Romainville France Prison and transit camp 1940 – Aug 1945 8,100 min. 200 min. none [16]
27 Fort VII (Posen) Poland Concentration, detention, transit Oct 1939 – Apr 1944 18,000 min. 4,500 min. [17]
28 Fossoli Italy Prison and transit camp 5 Dec 1943 – Nov 1944 2,800
29 Grini Norway Prison camp 2 May 1941 – May 1945 19,788 8 Fannrem
Bardufoss
Kvænangen
30 Gross-Rosen Poland Labour camp; Nacht und Nebel camp Aug 1940 – Feb 1945 125,000 40,000 list [18]
31 Herzogenbusch
(Vught)
Netherlands Concentration camp 1943 – Summer 1944 31,000 750 list [19]
32 Hinzert Germany Collection point and subcamp Jul 1940 – Mar 1945 14,000 302 min. [20]
33 Jägala Estonia Labour camp Aug 1942 – Aug 1943 200 3,000 none [21]
34 Janowska
(Lwów)
Ukraine Ghetto; transit, labour, & extermination camp Sep 1941 – Nov 1943   40,000 min. none [22]
(see "A-Z")
35 Jasenovac concentration camp Croatia Extermination camp for Jews, Serbs, Croats and Roma[15] 1941–1945 99,000 [16] Stara Gradiška concentration camp, Sisak children's concentration camp, Donja Gradina, Jasenovac main [23]
36 Kaiserwald
(Mežaparks)
Latvia Labour camp 1942 – 6 Aug 1944 20,000? 16,
incl. Eleja-Meitenes
[24]
37 Kaufering/Landsberg Germany Labour camp Jun 1943 – Apr 1945 30,000 14,500 min. [25]
38 Kauen
(Kaunas)
Lithuania Ghetto and internment camp  ???? Prawienischken [26]
39 Kemna Germany Early concentration camp Jun 1933 – Jan 1944 4,500 none [27]
40 Klooga Estonia Labour camp Summer 1943 – 28 Sep 1944 2,400
41 Koldichevo Belarus Labour camp Summer 1942 – Jun 1944 22,000
42 Langenstein-Zwieberge Germany Buchenwald subcamp Apr 1944 – Apr 1945 5,000 2,000
43 Le Vernet France Internment camp 1939–1944    
44 Majdanek
(KZ Lublin)
Poland Extermination camp Jul 1941 – Jul 1944   78,000 [28]
45 Malchow Germany Labour and Transit camp Winter 1943 – 8 May 1945 5,000  
46 Maly Trostenets Belarus Extermination camp Jul 1941 – Jun 1944   206,500 (official)
65,000
[29]
[30]
47 Mauthausen-Gusen Austria Labour camp Aug 1938 – May 1945 195,000 95,000 min. list [31]
48 Mechelen Belgium Transit camp July 1942 – Sep 1944 25267 min.[17] 300 min.[18] none [32]
49 Mittelbau-Dora Germany Labour camp Sep 1943 – Apr 1945 60,000 20,000 min. list [33]
50 Mittelsteine Poland Labour camp; Gross-Rosen subcamp Aug 1944 – April 1945 300–1,000 10–20 none [34]
51 Natzweiler-Struthof (Struthof) France Labour camp; Nacht und Nebel camp; extermination camp May 1941 – Sep 1944 40,000 25,000 list L'historique du camp de Natzweiler-Struthof par Roger Boulanger, 2006.
52 Neuengamme Germany Labour camp 13 Dec 1938 – 4 May 1945 106,000 42,900+ list [35]
53 Niederhagen Germany Prison and labour camp Sep 1941 – early 1943 3,900 1,285 none [36]
54 Oberer Kuhberg concentration camp (de) Germany Concentration camp Nov 1933 – 1935 0 Former infantry base Gleißelstetten (Fortress of Ulm) [37]
55 Ohrdruf Germany Labour and concentration camp; Buchenwald subcamp Nov 1944 – Apr 1945 11,700 [38]
56 Oranienburg Germany Early concentration camp Mar 1933 – Jul 1934 3,000 16 min.
57 Osthofen Germany Collective point Mar 1933 – Jul 1934    
58 Płaszów Poland Labour camp Dec 1942 – Jan 1945 150,000 min. 9,000 min. list
59 Ravensbruck Germany Labour camp for women May 1939 – Apr 1945 150,000 90,000 min. list [39][40]
60 Risiera di San Sabba
(Trieste)
Italy Police detainment camp Sep 1943 – 29 Apr 1945 25,000 5,000 [41]
61 Sachsenhausen Germany Labour camp Jul 1936 – Apr 1945 200,000 min. 100,000 list [42]
62 Sajmište Serbia Extermination camp Oct 1941 – Jul 1944 92,000 23,000–47,000
63 Salaspils (Kirchholm ) Latvia Labour camp Oct 1941 – Summer 1944 2,000 [43]
64 Skrochowitz
(Skrochovice)
Czech Republic Transit (1939) and labour camp Sept 1939 - Dec 1939, 1940–1943 1939:700 1939:13 [44]
65 Sobibor Poland Extermination camp May 1942 – Oct 1943   200,000 max. [45]
66 Soldau Poland Labour; Transit camp Winter 1939/40 – Jan 1945 30,000 13,000
67 Stutthof Poland Labour camp Sep 1939 – May 1945 110,000 65,000 list [46]
68 Theresienstadt
(Terezín)
Czech Republic Transit camp and Ghetto Nov 1941 – May 1945 140,000 35,000 min. [47]
69 Treblinka Poland Extermination camp Jul 1942 – Nov 1943   870,000 [48]
70 Vaivara Estonia Concentration and transit camp 15 Sep 1943 – 29 Feb 1944 20,000 950 22 [49] [50]
71 Warsaw Poland Labour and extermination camp 1942–1944 400,000 max. 200,000 max.
72 Westerbork Netherlands Transit camp May 1940 – Apr 1945 102,000  

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "AUSCHWITZ". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2016. 
  2. ^ Bundesministerium der Justiz (2011), List of concentration camps and their outposts in alphabetical order. Internet Archive. (German)
  3. ^ Concentration Camp Listing Sourced from Van Eck, Ludo Le livre des Camps. Belgium: Editions Kritak; and Gilbert, Martin Atlas of the Holocaust. New York: William Morrow 1993 ISBN 0-688-12364-3. In this on-line site are the names of 149 camps and 814 subcamps, organized by country.
  4. ^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia, Killing Centers: An Overview. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  5. ^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (2015). "Liberation of Nazi Camps". Source: Abzug, Bridgman, Chamberlin, Goodell. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  6. ^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia, Nazi Camps. Introduction. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  7. ^ a b Anat Helman (2015). "The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos by Geoffrey P. Megargee". Exploring the Universe of Camps and Ghettos. Jews and Their Foodways (Oxford University Press). pp. 251–252. ISBN 0190265426. 
  8. ^ Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen (2002), The difference between concentration camps and extermination camps. The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
  9. ^ Search Results: Mapping the SS Concentration Camp System. Alphabetical listing. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Further Reading. Bergen, Dawidowicz, Gilbert, Gutman, Hilberg, Yahil.
  10. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Construction and Expansion of KL Auschwitz ("Budowa i rozbudowa KL Auschwitz"). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (Polish)
  11. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Dead victims of KL Auschwitz per nationality and/or profile of deportees ("Liczba uśmierconych w KL Auschwitz ogółem wg Narodowości lub kategorii deportowanych"). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland, 1999–2010 (Polish)
  12. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Victims of KL Auschwitz ("Liczba ofiar KL Auschwitz"). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland, 1999–2010 (Polish)
  13. ^ a b List of Subcamps of KL Auschwitz (Podobozy KL Auschwitz). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (Polish)
  14. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P., The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation: 1918–2005. Indiana University Press, 2006. (p. 131)
  15. ^ Jasenovac. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  16. ^ Genocide in Satellite Croatia 1941- 1945", Professor Edmond Paris,
  17. ^ Schram, Laurence (2006). "De cijfers van de deportatie uit Mechelen naar Auschwitz. Perspectieven en denkpistes". De Belgische tentoonstelling in Auschwitz. Het boek - L'exposition belge / Auschwitz. Le Livre (in Dutch). Het Joods Museum voor Deportatie en Verzet. ISBN 978-90-76109-03-9. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  18. ^ Mikhman, Dan; Gutman, Israel, eds. (2005). The encyclopedia of the righteous among the nations: rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. Belgium. Yad Vashem Publications. ISBN 978-9653083769. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Megargee, Geoffrey P., ed. (2012). Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945. in association with United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35599-7. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Nazi concentration camps at Wikimedia Commons