List of Neanderthal fossils

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This is a list of Neanderthal fossils.

Some important European Neanderthals[edit]

Remains of more than 300 European Neanderthals have been found. This is a list of the most notable.

Name Age Cranial capacity (cm3) Year
Country Discovered by Now located at
Ehringsdorf skull 150k–120k 1450 [1] 1908–1925 Germany
Engis 2 Schaedel 1.jpg Engis 2 Undated ? (child) 1829 Belgium Philippe-Charles Schmerling University of Liège
Neanderthal skull from Forbes' Quarry.jpg Gibraltar 1 40k 1200 [1] 1848 Gibraltar Edmund Flint Natural History Museum
Homo neanderthalensis face (University of Zurich).JPG Gibraltar 2 Undated ? (child) 1926 Gibraltar Dorothy Garrod Natural History Museum
Krijn 100-40 ka (Not a full skull) 2001 Netherlands Luc Anthonis Rijksmuseum van Oudheden
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.jpg La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 60k 1600[1] 1908 France L. Bardon, A. Bouyssonie and J. Bouyssonie
Ferrassie skull.jpg La Ferrassie 1 70k–50k 1641 [1] 1909 France Louis Capitan and Denis Peyrony Musée de l'Homme
Neander1.jpg Neanderthal 1 40k 1452 [1] 1856 Germany Kleine Feldhofer Grotte Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn
National Museum of Natural History (8587341141).jpg Saccopastore 1 250k 1200 [2] 1929 Italy
Saccopastore 2 250k 1300 [3] 1935 Italy Alberto Blanc and Henri Breuil

Southwest Asian Neanderthals[edit]

As of 2017, this list of Southwest Asian Neanderthals may be considered essentially complete.

List of Southwest Asian Neanderthals

Present-day country (country of discovery) Site Principal Neanderthal finds MNI Geological age (ka) Descriptions Notes
Turkey Karain Four teeth 1 Senyürek (1949)[4][5]

Yalçınkaya (1988)[6][5]

Lebanon Ksâr 'Akil K2: Teeth and partial maxilla 1 Ewing (1963)[7] Ewing lost this specimen while transferring Ksar Akil material from Boston College to Fordham University.[8]
Lebanon El Masloukh Upper second molar[9] (1) ? Neanderthal attribution is stratigraphic, not morphological.[10]
Israel Kebara KMH1: 7-9 mo. old partial skel.

KMH2: Post-cranial adult ♂

Various fragments

KMH3: Milk tooth (m1-r)[11]
KMH4: 9 milk teeth, germ of 1 permanent tooth [12][11]
KMH5: Child mandibular symphysis fragment, no teeth[11]
KMH6: Right maxillary fragment with M1 and M2[11]
KMH7: Milk tooth (m?-r)[11]
KMH8: Milk tooth (m2-l)[11]
KMH9: Foot bone (4th right metatarsal)[11]
KMH10: Foot bone (1st toe distal phalanx)[11]
KMH11: Right clavicle fragment[11]
KMH12: Milk tooth (m?-r)[11]
KMH13: Milk tooth germ (m1-l)[11]
KMH14: Tooth (M2-l)[11]
KMH15: Milk tooth (m1-r)[11]
KMH16: Milk tooth (left i1)[11]
KMH17: Clavicle fragment[11]
(KMH18: Mandibular fragment with tooth [M2-r])[11]
(KMH19: Fragmentary tooth crown [M?-r])[11]
(KMH20: Parietal bone fragment)[11]
(KMH21: Germ of tooth [M1-l])[11]
(KMH22: Milk tooth [upper c-l])[11]
(KMH23: Milk tooth [i2-r])[11]
KMH24: Tooth (M3-l)[11]
(KMH25: 3 milk teeth germs [upper c-l, m1, m2])[11]
(KMH26: Tooth germ [i2-r])[11]
KMH27: Tooth (I2)[13][13]
KMH28: Tooth (I2)[13][13]
(KMH29: Milk tooth [i2-l])[11]
KMH30: Milk tooth (m1)[11][13]
(KMH31: Tooth [lower c])[13]

21 + (10) 64-59[14][15] KMH1: Smith et al. (1977)[16]

KMH2: Arensburg et al. (1985)[17]
KMH5-17, 24-31 : Tillier et al. (2003) [11]

Neanderthal attribution uncertain in KMH18-23, 25, 29, and 31[11][13]
West Bank (Mandatory Palestine) Shuqba S-D1: Tooth and cranial frags.[9] 1 Keith (1931)[18]
Israel (Mandatory Palestine) Tabun T C1: Nearly complete adult ♀

T C2: Toothed mandible missing I1 (♂)

Various fragments

T E1: Right femur shaft (♂?)
T E2: Tooth (M1 or M2, ♀?)
T C3: Right femur shaft (♀)
T C4: Distal right radius frag. (♀)
T C5: Right hamate bone
T C6: Right pisiform bone
T C7: Distal thumb phalanx
T B1: 10-11 year-old maxilla (♂?) with I2-r, M2-r
T BC2: Four teeth
(I2-l, M1-l, P3-r, M1-r)
T B3: One tooth (I2-r)
T B4: Four teeth
(I1-l, I2-l, M1-l, M3-r)
T B5: Two teeth (M2-l, M2-r)
T BC6: Two teeth (I1-l, M2-l)

15 ≈170-90


McCown (1936)
McCown and Keith (1939)
T C1: Neanderthal attribution is not universally accepted.[22]

As of 1975, the whereabouts of T BC2, B3, and BC6 are unknown.[9]:146

Israel Ein Qashish (EQH-2: Third molar)

EQH-3: Adult lower limbs

1 + (1)[23] 70-60[23] Been et al. (2017)[23] Discovered in 2013, these were the first diagnostically Neanderthal remains in Southwest Asia not found in a cave.[23]

EQH-2: 70% posterior probability that Neanderthal attribution is correct.[23]

Israel Shovakh (Tooth, M(3)-l[24][Note 1]) (1) S. Binford (1966)[25]

Trinkaus (1987)[24]

"[A]lthough within archaic and modern human ranges of variation, this complex occlusal morphology may suggest that it is more likely to have derived from a Neandertal than an early modern human". (Trinkaus 1987)[24]
Israel Amud A1: Adult full skeleton ♂

A2: Maxillary fragment

A7: 10-mo.-old partial skel.

3[Note 2][26] 61-53[26] A1: Suzuki et al. (1970)[27]

A7: Rak et al. (1994)[28]

Syria Dederiyeh D1: 19-30-month-old full skel.

D2: 21-30-month-old full skel.

17 D1: Akazawa et al. (1993)[29]

D2: Akazawa et al. (1999) [30]

Iraq Shanidar S1: Adult partial skel. ♂

S2: Adult crushed skel. ♂
S3: Post-cranial adult ♂
S4: Adult partial skel. (♂)
S5: Adult partial skel. (♂)
S6: Adult partial skel. (♀)
S7: 6-9-mo.-old crushed skel.
S8: Adult skeletal fragments (♀)
S9: 6-12-month-old vertebrae
S10: 17-25-month-old skel.

10 S2, S4: > 100

Others: 60

S1: Stewart (1959)[31]

S2: Stewart (1961)[32]
S3: Solecki (1960)[33]
S4: Stewart (1963)[34]
S5: Trinkaus (1977)[35]
Pomeroy et al. (2017)[36] S6: Same as S4
S7: Senyürek (1957)[37][38]
S8: Same as S4
S9: ?
S10: Cowgill et al. (2007)[39]

Shanidar 2 and 4 are sometimes not treated as Neanderthals.

All but Shanidar 3 and 10 (and fragments of 5 excavated in 2015-2016)[36] may have been destroyed in the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[40]

Iran Bisitun Adult radius shaft 1 Trinkaus (2006)[41]
Total 70 + (13)
  1. ^ M?-r according to S. Binford (1966)[25].
  2. ^ Valladas, Mercier, and Froget (1999) write that "[o]f the remains of 18 individuals recovered at the Amud Cave, 15 were derived from unambiguous Middle Palaeolithic contexts, all of them located in the northern area of the excavation (Hovers et al., 1995). The stratigraphic distribution of these remains encompasses the layers B1 and B2, with only a single specimen derived from layer B4 (Sakura, 1970). Three individuals bear diagnostic characteristics which define them as Neanderthals. Amud I, the skeleton of an adult male was found at the top of layer B1, while the partial skeleton of the baby Amud 7 (Rak, Kimbet & Hovers, 1994) was recovered from the top of layer B2, just under the contact with the base of layer B1. Amud II, represented by a fragment of the right maxilla, was excavated from layer B2."

Central and North Asian Neanderthals[edit]

Central Asian Neanderthals were found in Uzbekistan and North Asian Neanderthals in Asian Russia.

List of Central and North Asian Neanderthals

Country Site Principal Neanderthal finds MNI Geological age (ka) Initial descriptions Notes
Uzbekistan Teshik-Tash 8-11-yr-old skeleton 1 Okladnikov (1949)
Uzbekistan Obi-Rakhmat Subadult skull frag. and teeth 1 74[42] Glantz et al. (2008)[43]
Asian Russia Chagyrskaya Partial mandible 1 (Announced in Viola 2012)
Asian Russia Okladnikov Sub-adult humerus and femur 1 (Announced in Krause et al. 2007)[44] mtDNA sampled
Asian Russia Denisova Altai 1: Toe phalanx♀ D11: Bone fragment 2 Mednikova (2011)

Brown, et al. (2016)[45]

Altai 1: Full genome sequenced[46]

D11: mtDNA sampled

Total 6

See also[edit]



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  6. ^ I. Yalçınkaya (1988). "9. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı". 1986 Yılı Karain Kazıları (in Turkish). pp. 15–37.  Cited in Aytek and Harvati (2016)
  7. ^ J.F. Ewing. "A probable Neanderthaloid from Ksâr 'Akil, Lebanon". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21. pp. 101–104. 
  8. ^ J.K. Williams; C.A. Bergman (2010). "Upper Paleolithic Levels XIII-VI (A and B) from the 1937-1938 and 1947-1948 Boston College Excavations and the Levantine Aurignacian at Ksar Akil, Lebanon". Paléorient. 36 (2): 117–161. 
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  12. ^ i1-r, i1-l, m1-r, i2-r, lower c-r and c-l, m1-r, m1-l, m2-r, M1
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Further reading[edit]

  • Arsuaga, Juan Luis (2009). The Neanderthal's Necklace: In Search of the First Thinkers. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows. ISBN 0786740736. 
  • Gooch, Stan (2008). The Neanderthal Legacy: Reawakening Our Genetic and Cultural Origins. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions. ISBN 159477742X. 
  • Muller, Stephanie Muller; Shrenk, Friedemann (2008). The Neanderthals. New York: Routledge. ISBN 1134095163. 
  • Silberman, Neil Asher, ed. (2012). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199735786. 
  • Stringer, Chris (2012). Lone Survivors: How We Came to Be the Only Humans on Earth. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 1429973447. 

External links[edit]