List of Neo-Hittite kings

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Yariri (r.) and Kamani (l.), successive rulers of the Neo-Hittite state Carchemish on a Hieroglyphic Luwian relief

The Neo-Hittite states are sorted according to their geographical position.

All annual details are BC.

The contemporary sources name the language they are written in. Those can be:

Also post-Neo-Hittite rulers and the Hittite viceroys of Carchemish are listed for completeness. Post-Neo-Hittite rulers are named as such.

Euphrates region[edit]

Carchemish (Hittite Karkamissa, Luwian Karkamis)[1][2][3][edit]

For complete dynastic history also the Viceroys of Carchemish from the Hittite empire period are listed here.

Viceregal dynasty[4] (dynasty of Tudḫaliya I)
Name Reign Notes Sources
Piyassili/Šarri-Kušuḫ ca. 1321 - 1309 first viceroy of Carchemish, son of Suppiluliuma I Hittite
Sahurunuwa since 1309 son of Piyassili/Šarri-Kušuḫ Hittite
Ini-Teššub I at the time of Hattusili III and Tudhaliya IV, about 60 years son of Sahurunuwa Hittite
Talmi-Teššub at the time of Suppiluliuma II son of Ini-Teššub I Hittite
Dynasty of Great Kings (dynasty of Tudhaliya I continued)
Name Reign Notes Sources
Kuzi-Teššub ca. 1200/ early - mid 12th century/ 1180 - 1150[5] son of Talmi-Teššub; assumed the title of Great King of Carchemish Luwian
Mazakarhuha[3] early - mid 12th century reign unclear Luwian
Ir-Teššub mid/later 12th century reign unclear, synonym Iri-Teššub Luwian
Ini-Teššub II ca. 1100/ later 12th - early 11th century reign unclear Assyrian
Tudhaliya possibly 11th or 10th century Reign unclear, possibly succeeded Uratarhunza instead, possibly preceded Ir-Teššub instead Luwian
x-paziti possibly later 11th or 10th century/ possibly early 10th century possibly Sipaziti or Sapaziti[3] Luwian
Uratarhunza possibly later 11th or 10th century son of x-paziti Luwian
Dynasty of Suhi
Name Reign Notes Sources
Suhi I possibly early[6] 10th century Luwian
Astuwalamanza possibly mid[7] 10th century son of Suhi I, previously read Astuwatamanza[8] Luwian
Suhi II possibly late[9] 10th century son of Astuwatamanza Luwian
Katuwa possibly 10th or early 9th century/ ca. 880?[10] son of Suhi II Luwian
Sangara ca. 870 - 848 Assyrian
Dynasty of Astiruwa
Name Reign Notes Sources
Astiruwa end 9th - beginning 8th century/ ca.848 - 790[11] synonym Astiru[12] or Astiru I[13] Luwian
Yariri early - mid 8th century/ ca. 790[14] "subject of Astiruwa", regent, possibly eunuch Luwian
Kamani early - mid 8th century/ ca. 760[15]/ca. 738[16] son of Astiruwa Luwian
Sastura mid 8th century reign unclear, vizier of Kamani Luwian
son of Sastura 2nd half 8th century possibly identical with Pisiri, possibly also known as Astiru II[13] Luwian
Pisiri ca. 738 - 717 Assyrian

Melid (Luwian Malizi)[17][18][edit]

Dynasty of Kuzi-Teššub (dynasty of Tudḫaliya I)
Name Reign Notes Sources
Kuzi-Teššub ca. 1200/ early - mid 12th century/ 1180 - 1150[19] king of Carchemish Luwian
PUGNUS-mili I later 12th century son of Kuzi-Teššub Luwian
Runtiya later 12th century son of PUGNUS-mili I Luwian
Arnuwanti I later 12th century brother of Runtiya Luwian
PUGNUS-mili II late 12th - early 11th century/ ca. 1112[20] son of Arnuwanti I, Assyrian possibly Allumari Luwian, Assyrian?
Arnuwanti II late 12th - early 11th century son of PUGNUS-mili II Luwian
PUGNUS-mili III possibly 11th or early 10th century reign unclear Luwian
Dynasty of CRUS + RA/I-sa
Name Reign Notes Sources
CRUS + RA/I-sa possibly 11th - 10th century name possibly Taras Luwian
Wasu(?)runtiya possibly 11th - 10th century son of CRUS + RA/I-sa Luwian
Halpasulupi possibly 11th - 10th century son of Wasu(?)runtiya Luwian
Later rulers
Name Reign Notes Sources
Suwarimi possibly 11th or 10th century reign unclear Luwian
Mariti possibly 11th or 10th century son of Suwarimi Luwian
Sahwi identical with Sahu? Then later Luwian
Sa(?)tiruntiya identical with Hilaruada? Then later Luwian
Lalli min. 853 - 835 Assyrian
opponent of Zakur of Hamath early 8th century identical with Sahu/Sahwi? Aramaic
Sahu early 8th century identical with Sahwi? Urartian
unknown king early 8th century Urartian tributary, identical with Sahu? Urartian
Hilaruada ca. 784/780 - 760/750[21] Synonym Helaruada,[21] identical with Sa(?)tiruntiya? Urartian
Sulumal 743 - 732 Assyrian
Gunzinanu ca. 720/719 deposed by Assyrians, synonym Gunzianu Assyrian
Tarhunazi ca. 719-712 installed by Assyrians instead of Gunzinanu Assyrian
Muwatalli 713[22] - 708 Assyrian Mutallu, king of Kummuh, installed by Assyrians Assyrian
Assyrian rule since 708 Assyrian
Mugallu 675 - 651 independent king, post-Neo-Hittite ruler Babylonian, Assyrian
x-ussi ca. 640 son of Mugallu, post-Neo-Hittite ruler Assyrian

Kummuh (Luwian Kummaḫa, Classical Commagene)[23][2][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Hattusili I ca. 866 - ca. 857 Assyrian Qatazilu or Qatazili Assyrian
Kundašpu ca. 856/853 synonym Kundašpi Assyrian
Suppiluliuma 805 - 773 Assyrian Ušpilulume, Assyrian tributary Luwian, Assyrian
Hattusili II mid 8th century son of Suppiluliuma Luwian
Kuštašpi ca. 750/ ca. 755 - 730[24] Urartian and Assyrian tributary Urartian, Assyrian
Muwatalli 712 - 708 Assyrian Mutallu, installed by Assyrians Assyrian

Masuwari/Til Barsip/Bit-Adini[25][edit]

The two dynasties
Name Reign Notes Sources
Hapatila late 10th - early 9th century dynasty A Luwian
Ariyahina late 10th - early 9th century grandson of Hapatila, dynasty A Luwian
father of Hamiyata late 10th - early 9th century usurper, dynasty B Luwian
Hamiyata late 10th - early 9th century dynasty B Luwian
son of Hamiyata early - mid 9th century dynasty B Luwian
son of Ariyahina mid 9th century dynasty A Luwian
Bit-Adini regime
Name Reign Notes Sources
Ahuni 856/ 875 - 855[26] Assyrian

Antitaurus region, Western Syrian region[edit]

Gurgum (Luwian Kurkuma)[27][28][2][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Astuwaramanza late 11th century Luwian
Muwatalli I early 10th century son of Astuwaramanza Luwian
Larama I ca. 950 son of Muwatalli I Luwian
Muwizi later 10th century son of Larama I Luwian
Halparuntiya I earlier 9th century son of Muwizi Luwian
Muwatalli II 858 son of Halparuntiya I, Assyrian Mutallu Luwian, Assyrian
Halparuntiya II ca. 853/ 855 - 830[29] son of Muwatalli II, Assyrian Qalparunda Luwian, Assyrian
Larama II later 9th century son of Halparuntiya II, Assyrian Palalam Luwian, Assyrian
Halparuntiya III 805 - ca. 800/780[29] son of Larama II, Assyrian Qalparunda Luwian, Assyrian
Tarhulara 743 - ca. 711 Assyrian
Muwatalli III ca. 711 son of Tarhulara, Assyrian Mutallu Assyrian

Pattin/Unqi[30][31]/Palistin[32][edit]

Early rulers[32][33]
Name Reign Notes Sources
Taita 11th or 10th century possibly Philistine, king of Tell Tayinat; also interpretable as two kings of the same name: Taita I in 11th century and Taita II in 10th century Luwian
Manana 10th century Luwian
Suppiluliuma I 10th century Luwian
Halparuntiya I 10th century reign unclear Luwian
"Dynasty of Lubarna"
Name Reign Notes Sources
Labarna I ca. 875/870 - 858? Assyrian Lubarna Assyrian
Suppiluliuma II 858/857 Assyrian Sapalulme Assyrian
Halparuntiya II 858/857 - 853 Assyrian Qalparunda Luwian, Assyrian
Labarna II 831/829 Assyrian Lubarna Assyrian
Later rulers
Name Reign Notes Sources
Surri 831 usurper Assyrian
Sasi 831 Assyrian tributary Assyrian
Tutammu 738 Assyrian

Hamath (Luwian Imat)[34][35][36][edit]

Early rulers
Name Reign Notes Sources
Toi early 10th century synonym Tou Old Testament (2 Samuel 8:9)
Dynasty of Parita
Name Reign Notes Sources
Parita 1st half 9th century Luwian
Urahilina 853 - 845 son of Parita, previously read Urhilina,[36] Assyrian Irhuleni Luwian, Assyrian
Uratami ca. 830/840 - 820[35] son of Urahilina, Assyrian possibly Rudamu Luwian, Assyrian?
Later rulers
Name Reign Notes Sources
Zakur ca. 800 synonym Zakkur Aramaic
Eni-Ilu 738 Assyrian
Yau-bidi 720 synonym Ilu-bidi Assyrian

Central and South-Eastern Anatolian region[edit]

Tabal[edit]

Divides into Tabal "Proper" and other localities.[37][31]

Tabal/Bit-Burutaš (Classical Cappadocia)[38][31][39][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Tuwati I 837 Assyrian Tuatti Assyrian
Kikki 837 son of Tuwati I Assyrian
Tuwati II mid 8th century Luwian
Wasusarma ca. 740/38[40] - 730 son of Tuwati II, Assyrian Wassurme Luwian, Assyrian
Hulli 730 - 726 Assyrian tributary Assyrian
Ambaris ca. 721 - 713 son of Hulli, deposed by Assyrians Assyrian
Iškallu ca. 679 synonym Iskallu Assyrian
Mugallu 663, 651 post-Neo-Hittite ruler, identical with Mugallu, king of Malatya? Assyrian
x-ussi ca. 640 son of Mugallu, post-Neo-Hittite ruler, idental with x-ussi from Malatya? Assyrian

Atuna (Luwian Tunna)[41][31][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Ušḫitti ca. 740 - 732 Assyrian
Ashwis(i) 3rd quarter of 8th century reign unclear, identical with Ušḫitti? Luwian
Kurti ca. 732[24]/ 718 - 713 son of Ashwis(i), previously read Matti[42] Luwian, Assyrian

Ištunda/Ištuanda[43][31][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Tuhamme 738 - 732 Assyrian

Šinuḫtu[44][31][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Kiyakiya 718 Assyrian Kiakki oder Kiakku Luwian, Assyrian

Tuwana (Classical Tyanitis)[45][31][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Warpalawa I early 8th century reign unclear Luwian
Saruwani 1st half 8th century Luwian
Muwaharani I ca. 740 Luwian
Warpalawa II ca. 740 - 705/ ca. 738 - 710[40] son of Muwaharani I, Assyrian Urballa, Urballu[40] Luwian, Assyrian
Muwaharani II end 8th century son of Warpalawa II Luwian

Ḫupišna (Classical Cybistra) [46][31][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Puhamme 837 Assyrian
Urimme ca. 740 synonym Uirimme Assyrian

Kulummu/Til-garimmu[47][48][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Gurdi 705 Gurdī, unusual synonym Qurdī, previously read Ešpai or Hidi Assyrian

Kaška[49][31][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Dadi-Ilu 738 - 732 synonym Dadi-Il or Dad-Ilu, Kaška probably identical with the Kaska of Hittite Sources Assyrian

Cilicia[edit]

Que (Luwian Adanawa/Hiyawa, Classical Cilicia of the Plain)[50][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Kate 858 - 831 deposed by Assyrians Assyrian
Kirri 831 brother of Kate, installed by Assyrians instead of Kate Assyrian
Awariku ca. 738 - 709/ ca. 730[51] synonym Warika, Assyrian Urikki Luwian, Phoenician, Assyrian
Azatiwata ca. 705 possibly regent, reign unclear Luwian, Phoenician
son of Awariku late 8th - early 7th century reign unclear Luwian, Phoenician

Hilakku (Classical Rough Cilicia)[52][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Pihirim mid 9th century Assyrian
Ambaris ca. 718 - 713 king of Tabal Assyrian
Sandasarme ca.665[53] post-Neo-Hittite ruler Assyrian

Tanakun[54][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Tulli 833 "Prince" of Tanakun Assyrian

Illubru[54][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Kirua 696 "Prince" of Illubru, post-Neo-Hittite ruler Assyrian

Kundu and Sizzu[54][55][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Sanduarri 678/676 "Prince" of Kundu and Sizzu, post-Neo-Hittite ruler, possibly identical with Azatiwata Assyrian

Pirindu/Piriddu[56][57][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Appuašu 557 synonym Appuwašu, post-Neo-Hittite ruler Babylonian

Aramaean region[edit]

Bit-Agusi/Arpad[58][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Gusi ca. 870 Dynasty founder Assyrian
Hadram ca. 860 - 830 son of Gusi, Assyrian Adramu or Arame Assyrian
Attar-šumki I ca. 830 - 800/ 805 - 796[59] son of Hadram, synonym Bar-Guš[59] Assyrian, Aramaic
Bar-Hadad ca. 800 son of Attar-šumki I, reign unclear Aramaic
Attar-šumki II 1st half 8th century son of Bar-Hadad Aramaic
Mati-Ilu mid 8th century son of Attar-šumki II Aramaic

Y'adiya/Bit-Gabbari[edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Gabbar ca 920[60]/ca. 900 - 880 Dynasty founder Phoenician
Bamah ca. 880 - 865 son of Gabbar Phoenician
Hayya ca. 865-840[21] son of Bamah Phoenician, Assyrian
Ša-il ca. 840 - 830 son of Hayya Phoenician
Kilamuwa ca. 830 - 820[21] brother of Ša-il Phoenician

Sam'al/Siri'laya (Zincirli)[edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Hayyanu ca. 859 - 854 Dynasty founder Assyrian
Ahabbu ca. 854 - 825 son of Hayyanu?, confused with the biblical king Ahab Assyrian
Qarli ca. 825 - 790 son of Ahabbu?, he unified Sam'al and Y'DY Aramaic
Panamuwa I ca. 790 - 750 son of Qarli, synonym Panammu[61] Aramaic
Bar-Sur ca. 750 - 745 son of Panamuwa I Aramaic
usurper ca. 745 - 740 Aramaic
Panamuwa II ca. 743[62] - 727 son of Bar-Sur, synonym Panammu[61] Aramaic, Assyrian
Bar-Rakib 727[63] - 713/711[64] son of Panamuwa II Aramaic, Luwian

Kasku/Kaska/Ktk[65][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Bar-Ga'ya mid 8th century Possibly an Assyrian high official, or Tiglath-Pileser III

Zobah[66][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Hadad-ezer at the time of Saul and David of Israel Old Testament ( 1 Samuel 14:47, 2 Samuel 8:3-12)

Aram-Damascus[67][edit]

Name Reign Notes Sources
Ben-Hadad I ca. 960 son of Tob-Rimmon Old Testament (1 Kings 15:16-22)
Ben-Hadad II ca. 930 son of Ben-Hadad I Old Testament (1 Kings 20-22)
Hazael I 895 - 854 usurper Old Testament (2 Kings 8:7-15; 13:3)
Ben-Hadad III 854 - 842 son of Hazael I, Aramaic Bir-Hadad, Assyrian Adad-idri Aramaic, Assyrian, Old Testament (2 Kings 13:3, 24-25)
Hazael II 842 - 824 son of a nobody, but not a usurper Assyrian
Mari 824 - 790 son of Hazael II? Assyrian
Hadyan II ca. 775? - mid 8th century Assyrian Hadiiani Assyrian
Azriau 750 - 740 Hebrew Azar-Yao/Rezin Assyrian, Old Testament (2 Kings 16:5-9)
Raqianu 740 - 727 Assyrian Rahianu Assyrian

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 83–98, 302.
  2. ^ a b c Marek & Frei (2010), p. 803.
  3. ^ a b c Weeden (2012), p. 9.
  4. ^ Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (2002), p. 315.
  5. ^ Alessandra Gilibert: Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin 2011, p. 115.
  6. ^ Alessandra Gilibert: Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin 2011, p. 135.
  7. ^ Alessandra Gilibert: Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin 2011, p. 135.
  8. ^ Payne (2012), p. 6.
  9. ^ Alessandra Gilibert: Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin 2011, p. 135.
  10. ^ Leick (2002), p. 91.
  11. ^ Alessandra Gilibert: Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin 2011, p. 135.
  12. ^ Bryce (2012), p. 94.
  13. ^ a b Bryce (2012), p. 98.
  14. ^ Alessandra Gilibert: Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin 2011, p. 135.
  15. ^ Alessandra Gilibert: Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin 2011, p. 135.
  16. ^ Leick (2002), p. 90.
  17. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 98–110, 293, 303–304.
  18. ^ Marek & Frei (2010), p. 804.
  19. ^ Alessandra Gilibert: Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin 2011, p. 115.
  20. ^ Leick (2002), p. 10.
  21. ^ a b c d Leick (2002), p. 92.
  22. ^ Leick (2002), p. 110.
  23. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 110–114, 304.
  24. ^ a b Leick (2002), p. 95.
  25. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 115–121, 168–169, 304.
  26. ^ Leick (2002), p. 8.
  27. ^ Payne (2012), pp. 7, 52.
  28. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 122–128, 305.
  29. ^ a b Leick (2002), p. 65.
  30. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 128–133, 305–306.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i Marek & Frei (2010), p. 802.
  32. ^ a b Weeden (2012), p. 15.
  33. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 128f.
  34. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 133–138, 306.
  35. ^ a b Payne (2012), p. 8.
  36. ^ a b Payne (2012), p. 59.
  37. ^ Bryce (2012), p. 141.
  38. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 141–145, 293, 306–307.
  39. ^ Payne (2012), p. 9.
  40. ^ a b c Leick (2002), p. 175.
  41. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 145–147, 307.
  42. ^ Leick (2002), p. 94.
  43. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 147, 307.
  44. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 148, 307.
  45. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 148–152, 307.
  46. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 153, 307.
  47. ^ Glassner (2004), pp. 174-175.
  48. ^ Dalley (1999), pp. 74.
  49. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 265, 267.
  50. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 38, 153–161, 308.
  51. ^ Leick (2002), p. 172.
  52. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 38, 161–162, 308.
  53. ^ Berndt-Ersöz (2008), p. 23.
  54. ^ a b c Jasnik & Marino (2005), p. 6.
  55. ^ Payne (2012), p. 5.
  56. ^ Glassner (2004), pp. 230, 232-233.
  57. ^ Leick (2002), p. 19.
  58. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 165–168, 308.
  59. ^ a b Leick (2002), p. 33.
  60. ^ Leick (2002), p. 60.
  61. ^ a b Leick (2002), p. 128.
  62. ^ Alessandra Gilibert: Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin 2011, p. 135.
  63. ^ Alessandra Gilibert: Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin 2011, p. 135.
  64. ^ Leick (2002), p. 38.
  65. ^ Bryce (2012), p. 179.
  66. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 179–180.
  67. ^ Bryce (2012), pp. 175–178, 309.

References[edit]

  • Berndt-Ersöz, Susanne (2008). "The Chronology and Historical Context of Midas". Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. 57 (1): 1–37.
  • Bryce, Trevor (2012). The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms; A Political and Military History. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-921872-1.
  • Dalley, Stephanie (1999). "Sennacherib and Tarsus". Anatolian Studies, Anatolian Iron Ages. 49 (4): 73–80.
  • Gilibert, Alessandra (2011). Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance. Berlin: De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-022225-8.
  • Glassner, Jean-Jaques (2004). Mesopotamian Chronicles. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 1-58983-090-3.
  • Jasnik, Anna Margherita; Marino, Mauro (2005). "The West-Anatolian origins of the Que kingdom Dynasty". VI Congresso Internazionale di Ittitologia. Rome.
  • Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (2002). Die Hethiter und ihr Reich. Das Volk der 1000 Götter. Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss Verlag. ISBN 3-8062-1676-2.
  • Leick, Gwendolyn (2002) [1999]. Who's Who in the Ancient Near East. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-13231-2.
  • Marek, Christian; Frei, Peter (2010). Geschichte Kleinasiens in der Antike. Munich: Verlag C.H.Beck. ISBN 978-3-406-59853-1.
  • Payne, Annick (2012). Iron Age Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 978-1-58983-269-5.
  • Weeden, Mark (2013). "After the Hittites: The Kingdoms of Karkamish and Palistin in Northern Syria". Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. 56 (2): 1–20.

See also[edit]