List of Nepenthes natural hybrids

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Nepenthes × kinabaluensis (centre) dwarfs its smaller parent species, N. villosa (left). A 2002 study found 1180 individual N. villosa growing in 11 plots, each measuring 0.01 hectares, at elevations of between 2610 m and 2970 m on Mount Kinabalu. This number constituted 94% of the pitcher plants recorded from the plots, the rest being N. × kinabaluensis.[1]

This list of Nepenthes natural hybrids is a comprehensive listing of all recorded natural hybrids involving species of the carnivorous plant genus Nepenthes. Hybrids that are not endemic to a given region are marked with an asterisk.

Named natural hybrids[edit]

Name Parent species Authority Year Image Distribution Altitudinal distribution
N. × alisaputrana N. burbidgeae × N. rajah J.H.Adam & Wilcock 1992 N.alisaputrana huge LP.jpg Borneo
N. × bauensis N. gracilis × N. northiana Chi.C.Lee 2004 Bauensis1.jpg Borneo
N. × cantleyi N. bicalcarata × N. gracilis Hort.Westphal nom.nud. 1991 Nepenthes x cantleyi.jpg Borneo
N. × cincta N. albomarginata × N. northiana Mast. 1884 Nepenthes cincta.jpg Borneo
N. × ferrugineomarginata N. albomarginata × N. reinwardtiana Sh.Kurata 1982 Borneo, Sumatra
N. × harryana N. edwardsiana × N. villosa Burb. 1882 Nepenthesxharryana.jpg Borneo
N. × hookeriana N. ampullaria × N. rafflesiana Hort.Veitch ex Mast. 1881 Nepenthes hookeriana upper.jpg Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra 0–450 m[2]
N. × kinabaluensis N. rajah × N. villosa Sh.Kurata ex Sh.Kurata 1984 Kinabalu N. × kinabaluensis 6.JPG Borneo 2420–3030 m[3]
N. × kuchingensis N. ampullaria × N. mirabilis Sh.Kurata 1982 Nepenthes ampullaria x mirabilis.jpg Borneo, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Thailand
N. × merrilliata N. alata × N. merrilliana Hort. ex Fleming nom.nud. 1979 Philippines (Mindanao, Samar[4])
N. × mirabilata N. alata × N. mirabilis Hort. ex Lauffenburger nom.nud. 1995 Philippines (Mindanao)
N. × pangulubauensis N. gymnamphora × N. mikei Hort.B.R.Salmon & Maulder ex P.Mann in sched. nom.nud. 1996 Sumatra
N. × pyriformis N. inermis × N. talangensis Sh.Kurata 2001 Nepenthes x pyriformis.jpg Sumatra
N. × sarawakiensis N. muluensis × N. tentaculata J.H.Adam, Wilcock & Swaine 1993 Borneo
N. × sharifah-hapsahii N. gracilis × N. mirabilis J.H.Adam & Hafiza 2007 N. gracilis x N. mirabilis.jpg Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Thailand
N. × trichocarpa N. ampullaria × N. gracilis Miq. 1858 Ntrichocarpa1.jpg Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand 0–800 m[5]
N. × truncalata N. alata × N. truncata Hort.Bednar nom.nud. 1994 Philippines (Mindanao)
N. × trusmadiensis N. lowii × N. macrophylla Marabini 1983 N.trusmadiensis-a.jpg Borneo
N. × tsangoya (N. alata × N. merrilliana) × N. mirabilis Tsang ex Lauffenburger nom.nud. 1995 Philippines (Mindanao)
N. × ventrata N. alata × N. ventricosa Hort. ex Fleming nom.nud. 1979 Philippines

By distribution[edit]

Borneo[edit]

Nepenthes natural hybrids recorded from Borneo.

  1. N. albomarginata × N. ampullaria[6] *
  2. ? N. albomarginata × N. chaniana[7]
  3. N. albomarginata × N. clipeata[6]
  4. N. albomarginata × N. hirsuta[6]
  5. N. albomarginata × N. macrovulgaris[7]
  6. N. albomarginata × N. northiana [=N. × cincta][6]
  7. N. albomarginata × N. rafflesiana[7][8]
  8. N. albomarginata × N. reinwardtiana [=N. × ferrugineomarginata][6] *
  9. N. albomarginata × N. veitchii[6]
  10. N. ampullaria × N. bicalcarata[6]
  11. N. ampullaria × N. gracilis [=N. × trichocarpa][6] *
  12. (N. ampullaria × N. gracilis) × N. bicalcarata [=N. × trichocarpa × N. bicalcarata]
  13. N. ampullaria × N. hemsleyana[9]
  14. N. ampullaria × N. hirsuta[6]
  15. N. ampullaria × N. mirabilis [=N. × kuchingensis, Nepenthes cutinensis][6] *
  16. N. ampullaria × N. rafflesiana [=N. × hookeriana][6] *
  17. ? (N. ampullaria × N. rafflesiana) × N. mirabilis [=N. × hookeriana × N. mirabilis][8]
  18. N. bicalcarata × N. gracilis [=N. × cantleyi][6]
  19. N. bicalcarata × N. mirabilis[7] (including N. bicalcarata × N. mirabilis var. echinostoma)[6]
  20. N. bicalcarata × N. rafflesiana[6]
  21.  ? (N. bicalcarata × N. rafflesiana) × N. mirabilis var. echinostoma[6]
  22. N. burbidgeae × N. edwardsiana[6]
  23. N. burbidgeae × N. fusca[6]
  24. N. burbidgeae × N. rajah [=N. × alisaputrana][6]
  25. N. burbidgeae × N. tentaculata[6]
  26. N. chaniana × N. veitchii[3][note a]
  27. N. clipeata × N. rafflesiana[3]
  28. N. clipeata × N. reinwardtiana[6]
  29. N. edwardsiana × N. rajah[6]
  30. N. edwardsiana × N. villosa [=N. × harryana][6]
  31.  ? N. faizaliana × N. veitchii[3]
  32. N. fusca × N. lowii[3][note b]
  33. N. fusca × N. platychila[10]
  34. N. fusca × N. rajah[6]
  35. N. fusca × N. reinwardtiana[7] [=?N. naquiyuddinii][3]
  36. N. fusca × N. stenophylla[3]
  37. N. fusca × N. tentaculata[3]
  38. N. fusca × N. veitchii[7]
  39. N. gracilis × N. mirabilis [=N. × sharifah-hapsahii, N. × ghazallyana, N. × grabilis, N. neglecta?][6][7] * (including N. gracilis × N. mirabilis var. echinostoma)[6]
  40. N. gracilis × N. northiana [=N. × bauensis][11]
  41. N. gracilis × N. rafflesiana[6] *
  42. N. gracilis × N. reinwardtiana[3] *
  43. N. hemsleyana × N. rafflesiana[9]
  44.  ? N. hirsuta × N. lowii[3]
  45. N. hispida × N. reinwardtiana[6]
  46. N. hurrelliana × N. lowii[3][12]
  47. N. hurrelliana × N. veitchii[7]
  48. N. lowii × N. macrophylla [=N. × trusmadiensis][6]
  49. N. lowii × N. muluensis[7]
  50. N. lowii × N. rajah[13]
  51. N. lowii × N. stenophylla[6]
  52.  ? N. lowii × N. tentaculata[14]
  53. N. lowii × N. veitchii[6]
  54. N. macrovulgaris × N. rajah[6]
  55. N. macrovulgaris × N. reinwartdiana[6]
  56. N. macrovulgaris × N. tentaculata[6]
  57. N. mirabilis × N. northiana[3]
  58. N. mirabilis × N. rafflesiana[6] * (including N. mirabilis var. echinostoma × N. rafflesiana)[3]
  59. N. mirabilis × N. reinwardtiana[3]
  60.  ? N. muluensis × N. tentaculata [=N. × sarawakiensis,[6] ?N. muluensis][3]
  61. N. rajah × N. stenophylla[6]
  62. N. rajah × N. tentaculata[6]
  63. N. rajah × N. villosa [=N × kinabaluensis][6]
  64. N. reinwardtiana × N. stenophylla[6]
  65. N. reinwardtiana × N. tentaculata[7]
  66. N. stenophylla × N. tentaculata[6]
  67. N. stenophylla × N. veitchii[6]

Endemic species with no known natural hybrids:[15]

Nepenthes hurrelliana and N. murudensis are of putative hybrid origin, but are considered species by most taxonomists, as they form stable, fertile populations independent of their original parent species. The same could be said for stable hybrids such as N × kinabaluensis. Indeed, species status has been proposed for this taxon in the past.[16]

Sumatra[edit]

Nepenthes natural hybrids recorded from Sumatra.

  1. N. albomarginata × N. ampullaria[17] *
  2. N. albomarginata × N. eustachya[17]
  3. N. albomarginata × N. reinwardtiana [=N. × ferrugineomarginata][17] *
  4. N. ampullaria × N. eustachya[7]
  5. N. ampullaria × N. gracilis [=N. × trichocarpa][17] *
  6. N. ampullaria × N. mirabilis [=N. × kuchingensis, Nepenthes cutinensis][17] *
  7. N. ampullaria × N. rafflesiana [=N. × hookeriana][17] *
  8. N. ampullaria × N. reinwardtiana[17]
  9. N. ampullaria × N. spathulata[18]
  10. N. ampullaria × N. tobaica[17]
  11. N. angasanensis × N. densiflora[17]
  12. N. aristolochioides × N. singalana[17]
  13.  ? N. beccariana × N. sumatrana
  14. N. bongso × N. gymnamphora[17]
  15. N. bongso × N. singalana[17]
  16. N. bongso × N. talangensis[17]
  17. N. diatas × N. mikei[17]
  18. N. dubia × N. izumiae[17][note c]
  19. ? N. dubia × N. jacquelineae[7][19]
  20. ? N. dubia × N. jamban[20]
  21. ? N. eustachya × N. gracilis[7]
  22. N. eustachya × N. longifolia[17]
  23. N. eustachya × N. sumatrana[17]
  24. N. flava × N. ovata[21]
  25. N. flava × N. rhombicaulis[21]
  26. N. gracilis × N. mirabilis [=N. × sharifah-hapsahii, N. × ghazallyana, N. × grabilis, N. neglecta?][7][17] *
  27. N. gracilis × N. rafflesiana[17] *
  28. N. gracilis × N. reinwardtiana[17] *
  29. N. gracilis × N. sumatrana[7]
  30. N. gymnamphora × N. mikei[17] [=N. × pangulubauensis]
  31. N. gymnamphora × N. ovata[17]
  32. N. gymnamphora × N. reinwardtiana[17]
  33.  ? N. gymnamphora × N. rhombicaulis[7]
  34. N. gymnamphora × N. singalana[17]
  35. N. gymnamphora × N. spathulata[17]
  36. N. gymnamphora × N. spectabilis[17]
  37. N. gymnamphora × N. talangensis[17]
  38. N. inermis × N. singalana[7]
  39. N. inermis × N. spathulata[17]
  40. N. inermis × N. talangensis [=N. × pyriformis][17]
  41. N. izumiae × N. jacquelineae[7]
  42. N. jamban × N. lingulata[22]
  43.  ? N. longifolia × N. sumatrana[7]
  44. N. mikei × N. ovata[17]
  45. N. mikei × N. spectabilis[17]
  46. N. mirabilis × N. rafflesiana[17] *
  47. N. mirabilis × N. spathulata[17]
  48. N. mirabilis × N. sumatrana[7]
  49. N. ovata × N. rhombicaulis[17]
  50. N. ovata × N. spectabilis[17]
  51. N. reinwardtiana × N. spathulata[17]
  52. N. reinwardtiana × N. tobaica[17]
  53. N. rhombicaulis × N. spectabilis[17]
  54. N. rhombicaulis × N. tobaica[17]
  55. N. rigidifolia × N. spectabilis[17][note d]
  56.  ? N. singalana × N. spathulata[17]
  57. N. spathulata × N. tobaica[17]
  58. N. spectabilis × N. tobaica[17]

Endemic species with no known natural hybrids:[7][22]

Philippines[edit]

Lower (left) and upper pitchers of putative N. justinae × N. peltata from Mount Hamiguitan, Mindanao
Putative natural hybrids from Mount Hamiguitan
Putative natural hybrids from Mount Hamiguitan

Nepenthes natural hybrids recorded from the Philippines. The N. alata hybrids listed below involve N. alata in the broad sense (sensu lato); this polymorphic taxon has recently been split into a large number of daughter species that now form the so-called "N. alata group".[23][24]

  1. N. alata × N. burkei[7]
  2. N. alata × N. merrilliana [=N. × merrilliata][25]
  3.  ? (N. alata × N. merrilliana) × N. mirabilis [=N. × tsangoya][26]
  4. N. alata × N. mindanaoensis[7]
  5. N. alata × N. mirabilis [=N. × mirabilata][5]
  6.  ? N. alata × N. petiolata[5]
  7. N. alata × N. pulchra[27]
  8. N. alata × N. truncata [=N. × truncalata][28]
  9. N. alata × N. ventricosa [=N. × ventrata][25]
  10.  ? N. pantaronensis × N. sumagaya[29][30]
  11. N. bellii × N. merrilliana[7]
  12. N. bellii × N. mindanaoensis[7]
  13. N. ceciliae × N. pulchra[27]
  14. N. merrilliana× N. mindanaoensis[7]
  15. N. merrilliana × N. mirabilis[7]
  16. N. mindanaoensis × N. truncata[7]
  17. N. palawanensis × N. aff. philippinensis[27]
  18.  ? N. petiolata × N. truncata[5]

In addition, certain plants from Mount Hamiguitan are likely to represent crosses involving N. hamiguitanensis, N. justinae[31] (previously identified as N. mindanaoensis), N. micramphora, and N. peltata.[27]

Endemic species with no known natural hybrids:[7]

Nepenthes petiolata may itself have evolved from a cross between N. alata and N. truncata.[7] It has been suggested that N. extincta might represent a natural hybrid between N. merrilliana and N. mindanaoensis, as both of these species grow near the type locality of N. extincta and share many morphological features with it.[31]

Plants from Mount Hamiguitan that were originally thought to represent the natural hybrid N. micramphora × N. peltata[7] are now recognised as belonging to a distinct species of possible hybridogenic origin, N. hamiguitanensis.[46]

Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore[edit]

Nepenthes natural hybrids recorded from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.

  1. N. albomarginata × N. ampullaria[17] *
  2. N. albomarginata × N. gracilis
  3. ? N. albomarginata × N. sanguinea[7][47]
  4. N. ampullaria × N. gracilis [=N. × trichocarpa][17] *
  5. N. ampullaria × N. mirabilis [=N. × kuchingensis, Nepenthes cutinensis][17] *
  6. N. ampullaria × N. rafflesiana [=N. × hookeriana][17] *
  7. N. benstonei × N. mirabilis[17]
  8. N. gracilis × N. mirabilis [=N. × sharifah-hapsahii, N. × ghazallyana, N. × grabilis, N. neglecta?][7][17] *
  9. N. macfarlanei × N. ramispina[17]
  10. N. macfarlanei × N. sanguinea[17]
  11. N. mirabilis × N. rafflesiana[17] *
  12. N. ramispina × N. sanguinea[17]

Two natural hybrids have been recorded from Singapore: N. × hookeriana and N. × trichocarpa.[6] As such, all three species from Singapore are known to hybridise.

Sulawesi[edit]

Nepenthes natural hybrids recorded from Sulawesi.

  1.  ? N. eymae × N. maxima[7]
  2. N. glabrata × N. hamata[7][48]
  3. N. glabrata × N. maxima[7]
  4. N. glabrata × N. nigra[49]
  5. N. glabrata × N. tentaculata[7]
  6. N. hamata × N. tentaculata[7]
  7. N. maxima × N. tentaculata[49]
  8. N. mirabilis × N. tomoriana[7]
  9. N. nigra × N. tentaculata[50]
  10. N. pitopangii × N. tentaculata[51]

Endemic species with no known natural hybrids:

Indochina[edit]

Nepenthes natural hybrids recorded from Indochina. For the purpose of this list, the area encompasses Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  1. N. ampullaria × N. gracilis [=N. × trichocarpa][54] *
  2. N. ampullaria × N. mirabilis [=N. × kuchingensis, Nepenthes cutinensis][54] *
  3. N. andamana × N. mirabilis[54] (including N. andamana × N. mirabilis var. globosa)[54]
  4. N. bokorensis × N. kampotiana[55]
  5. N. gracilis × N. mirabilis [=N. × sharifah-hapsahii, N. × ghazallyana, N. × grabilis, N. neglecta?][54] *
  6. N. kampotiana × N. mirabilis[54]
  7. N. kongkandana × N. mirabilis[54]
  8. N. mirabilis × N. smilesii[56]
  9. N. mirabilis × N. thorelii[56][57][58]

In addition, infraspecific hybrids between N. mirabilis var. globosa and N. mirabilis var. mirabilis are known to occur.[59]

Endemic species with no known natural hybrids:[7][54]

New Guinea and the Maluku Islands[edit]

A lower pitcher (left) and an upper pitcher (right) of
N. maxima × N. neoguineensis

Nepenthes natural hybrids recorded from New Guinea and the Maluku Islands.

  1. N. ampullaria × N. mirabilis [=N. × kuchingensis, Nepenthes cutinensis] *
  2. N. ampullaria × N. neoguineensis[7]
  3. N. insignis × N. mirabilis[62]
  4. N. klossii × N. maxima[63]
  5. N. maxima × N. neoguineensis[7]

Endemic species with no known natural hybrids:[64]

Australia[edit]

Nepenthes natural hybrids recorded from Australia.

  1. N. mirabilis × N. rowaniae[65]
  2. N. mirabilis × N. tenax[7]
  3. N. rowaniae × N. tenax[7]

Complex hybrids involving all three species are also common.[7]

All three species from Australia are known to hybridise.

Outlying areas[edit]

There are six additional species endemic to areas other than those listed above. These are:

Of these, the only species that could conceivably hybridise in the wild are N. madagascariensis and N. masoalensis. Although the ranges of the two species used to meet near Cape Masoala, no natural hybrids have ever been recorded.[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Adam, J.H. 2002. "Demographic study of Nepenthes species (Nepenthaceae) recorded along the trail to the summit of Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia.".  (302 KiB) Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 5(4): 419–426. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2002.419.426
  2. ^ Adam, J.H., C.C. Wilcock & M.D. Swaine 1992. "The ecology and distribution of Bornean Nepenthes." (PDF).  Journal of Tropical Forest Science 5(1): 13–25.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Phillipps, A., A. Lamb & C.C. Lee 2008. Pitcher Plants of Borneo. Second Edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  4. ^ Robinson, A. 2012. Nepenthes merrilliana on Samar. Carnivorous Plants in the tropics, June 29, 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d Cheek, M.R. & M.H.P. Jebb 2001. Nepenthaceae. Flora Malesiana 15: 1–157.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar Clarke, C.M. 1997. Nepenthes of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu. xi + 207 pp. ISBN 983-812-057-X
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at McPherson, S.R. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World. 2 volumes. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  8. ^ a b Lowrie, A. 1983. "Sabah Nepenthes Expeditions 1982 & 1983." (PDF).  (1.25 MiB) Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 12(4): 88–95.
  9. ^ a b Scharmann, M. & T.U. Grafe 2013. Reinstatement of Nepenthes hemsleyana (Nepenthaceae), an endemic pitcher plant from Borneo, with a discussion of associated Nepenthes taxa. Blumea 58(1): 8–12. doi:10.3767/000651913X668465
  10. ^ Lee, C.C. 2002. Nepenthes platychila (Nepenthaceae), a new species of pitcher plant from Sarawak, Borneo. The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 54: 257-261.
  11. ^ Lee, C.C. 2004. Nepenthes. In: Sarawak Bau Limestone Biodiversity. H.S. Yong, F.S.P. Ng and E.E.L. Yen (eds). The Sarawak Museum Journal Vol. LIX, No. 80; Special Issue No. 6: 71-77.
  12. ^ Lee, C.C. 2007. Re: lowii and hurrelliana of Mt. Murud. Carnivorous Plants in the tropics.
  13. ^ A rare find: N. rajah nat. hybrid. Flora Nepenthaceae.
  14. ^ Steiner, H. 2002. Borneo: Its Mountains and Lowlands with their Pitcher Plants. Toihaan Publishing Company, Kota Kinabalu. viii + 136 pp. ISBN 983-40421-1-6
  15. ^ McPherson, S.R. & A. Robinson 2012. Field Guide to the Pitcher Plants of Borneo. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  16. ^ Adam, J.H. & C.C. Wilcock 1998 ['1996']. Pitcher plants of Mt. Kinabalu in Sabah. The Sarawak Museum Journal 50(71): 145–171.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc Clarke, C. M. 2001. Nepenthes of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu. ix + 325 pp. ISBN 983-812-050-2
  18. ^ (Indonesian) Akhriadi, P. 2007. Kajian taksonomi hibrid alami Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) di Kerinci. Working paper, Andalas University, Padang. Abstract
  19. ^ Wistuba, A. Strange hybrid with Nepenthes jacquelineae? Wistuba.com.
  20. ^ Wartono, A.Y. 2011. Re: dubia hybrid ? ID opinions. Carnivorous Plants in the tropics, March 2, 2011.
  21. ^ a b Wistuba, A., J. Nerz & A. Fleischmann 2007. Nepenthes flava, a new species of Nepenthaceae from the northern part of Sumatra. Blumea 52(1): 159–163.
  22. ^ a b McPherson, S.R. & A. Robinson 2012. Field Guide to the Pitcher Plants of Sumatra and Java. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  23. ^ a b c Cheek, M. & M. Jebb 2013. Typification and redelimitation of Nepenthes alata with notes on the N. alata group, and N. negros sp. nov. from the Philippines. Nordic Journal of Botany 31(5): 616–622. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.2012.00099.x
  24. ^ a b c d Cheek, M. & M. Jebb 2013. Recircumscription of the Nepenthes alata group (Caryophyllales: Nepenthaceae), in the Philippines, with four new species. European Journal of Taxonomy 69: 1–23. doi:10.5852/ejt.2013.69
  25. ^ a b Fleming, R. 1979. "Hybrid Nepenthes." (PDF).  (626 KiB) Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 8(1): 10–12.
  26. ^ Lauffenburger, A. 1995. Guide to Nepenthes Hybrids. OmnisTerra.
  27. ^ a b c d McPherson, S.R. & V.B. Amoroso 2011. Field Guide to the Pitcher Plants of the Philippines. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  28. ^ Mann, P. 1998. A trip to the Philippines. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 27(1): 6–11.
  29. ^ a b c Gronemeyer, T., F. Coritico, A. Wistuba, D. Marwinski, T. Gieray, M. Micheler, F.S. Mey & V. Amoroso 2014. Four new species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae) from the central mountains of Mindanao, Philippines. Plants 3(2): 284–303. doi:10.3390/plants3020284
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