List of New Zealand ministries

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This article lists New Zealand ministries, which are ruling groups of Ministers in New Zealand. There are three distinctly different periods; firstly the period during the 1st New Zealand Government without responsible government, then from 1856 to 1890 the period of responsible Government, and the third period started with the formation of political parties in 1891.

Ministries are in modern usage cabinets or governments; although this definition excludes Ministers outside Cabinet (up to the introduction of MMP in 1996, most ministers were in the Cabinet).

Period without responsible Government 1854–1856[edit]

The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and was the second enactment to grant the colony of New Zealand self-government. The first elections for a New Zealand House of Representatives were held during 1853, and this lower house met for the first time in 1854 in Auckland. In practice, the country was initially governed by the Governor, George Grey, with the advice of the Civil Secretary and some officials that were appointed back in 1840/41, namely Andrew Sinclair (Colonial Secretary), William Swainson (Attorney-General), and Alexander Shepherd (Colonial Treasurer).[1]

In the first session of the 1st New Zealand Parliament, three elected member took office under the leadership of James FitzGerald, to be later joined by two members of the Legislative Council. Whilst they were the first official Executive Government under the Constitution, the practical administration remained with the Government officials. The second Ministry led by Thomas Forsaith, which briefly formed during the second session of the 1st Parliament, also had no real power.[1]

Cabinet Government 1856–1890[edit]

Responsible government commenced with the third ministry, led by Henry Sewell during the term of the 2nd New Zealand Parliament:[1]

  • Sewell Ministry, 1856: 18 April 1856 to 20 May 1856
  • Fox Ministry, 1856: 20 May 1856 to 2 June 1856
  • Stafford Ministry, 1856–61: 2 June 1856 to 12 July 1861
  • Fox Ministry, 1861–62: 12 July 1861 to 6 August 1862
  • Domett Ministry, 1862–63: 6 August 1862 to 30 October 1863
  • Whitaker-Fox Ministry, 1863–64: 30 October 1863 to 24 November 1864
  • Weld Ministry, 1864–65: 24 November 1864 to 16 October 1865
  • Stafford Ministry, 1865–69: 16 October 1865 to 28 June 1869
Note that Wilson says: "Ministry was defeated on 15 August 1866 and resigned, but carried on in a caretaker capacity. However 3 Ministers resigned and were replaced. Though this was regarded as a new ministry, it was in fact a reconstruction, and is so regarded here."
  • Fox Ministry, 1869–72: 28 June 1869 to 10 September 1872
  • Stafford Ministry, 1872: 10 September 1872 to 11 October 1872
  • Waterhouse Ministry, 1872–73: 11 October 1872 to 3 March 1873
  • Fox Ministry, 1873: 3 March 1873 to 8 April 1873
  • Vogel Ministry, 1873–75: 8 April 1873 to 6 July 1875
  • Pollen Ministry, 1875–76: 6 July 1875 to 15 February 1876
  • Vogel Ministry, 1876: 15 February 1876 to 1 September 1876
  • Atkinson Ministry, 1876: 1 September 1876 to 13 September 1876 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Atkinson Ministry, 1876–77 (Reconstituted): 13 September 1876 to 13 October 1877 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Grey Ministry, 1877–79: 13 October 1877 to 8 October 1879
  • Hall Ministry, 1879–82: 8 October 1879 to 21 April 1882 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Whitaker Ministry, 1882–83: 21 April 1882 to 25 September 1883 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Atkinson Ministry, 1883–84: 25 September 1883 to 16 August 1884 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Stout-Vogel Ministry, 1884: 16 August 1884 to 28 August 1884
  • Atkinson Ministry, 1884: 28 August 1884 to 3 September 1884 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Stout-Vogel Ministry, 1884–87: 3 September 1884 to 8 October 1887
  • Atkinson Ministry, 1887–91: 8 October 1887 to 24 January 1891 (known as the Scarecrow Ministry)
Note that the Continuous Ministry is a term for the government of New Zealand from 1876 to 1890 (or 1887), except for 1877–79 and 1884–87. Sir Harry Atkinson was Premier, also Sir John Hall and Sir Frederick Whitaker. The Scarecrow Ministry of 1889–90 is sometimes included in the term.

Liberal Government of New Zealand (1891–1912)[edit]

  • Ballance Ministry, 1891-93: 24 January 1891 to 1 May 1893
  • Seddon Ministry, 1893-1906: 1 May 1893 to 21 June 1906
  • Hall-Jones Ministry, 1906: 21 June 1906 to 6 August 1906
  • Ward Ministry, 1906-1912: 6 August 1906 to 28 March 1912
  • MacKenzie Ministry, 1912: 28 March 1912 to 10 July 1912

Reform Government of New Zealand (1912–28)[edit]

  • Massey Ministry, 1912-1915: 10 July 1912 to 12 August 1915
  • National Ministry, 1915-1919: 12 August 1915 to 3 September 1919 (?)
  • Massey Ministry, 1919-1925: 4 September 1919 to 14 May 1925
  • Bell Ministry, 1925: 14 May 1925 to 30 May 1925
  • Coates Ministry, 1925-1928: 30 May 1925 to 10 December 1928

United Government of New Zealand (1928–31)[edit]

  • Ward Ministry, 1928-1930: 10 December 1928 to 28 May 1930
  • Forbes Ministry, 1930-1931: 28 May 1930 to 22 September 1931

United–Reform coalition Government of New Zealand (1931–35)[edit]

  • Forbes (Coalition) Ministry, 1931-1935: 22 September 1931 to 6 December 1935

First Labour Government of New Zealand (1935–49)[edit]

  • Savage Ministry, 1935-1940: 6 December 1935 to 1 April 1940
  • Fraser Ministry, 1940-1949: 1 April 1940 to 13 December 1949
  • "War Cabinet": 16 July 1940 to 21 August 1945
  • "War Administration": 30 June 1942 to 2 October 1945
Note: The War Cabinet was responsible for all decisions related to war matters. The War Administration was charged with the responsibility for all matters connected with the war and with New Zealand's war effort. The War Cabinet acted as its executive body. Both included opposition members.
Note: Wood has three Fraser Ministries: 1 April 1940 to 29 October 1943; 29 October 1943 to 19 December 1946; 19 December 1946 to 13 December 1949.

First National Government of New Zealand (1949–57)[edit]

  • Holland (First) Ministry: 1949-1954: 13 December 1949 to 26 November 1954
  • Holland (Second) Ministry: 1954-1957: 26 November 1954 to 20 September 1957
  • Holyoake (First) Ministry: 1957: 20 September 1957 to 12 December 1957

Second Labour Government of New Zealand (1957–60)[edit]

  • Nash Ministry: 1957-1960: 12 December 1957 to 12 December 1960

Second National Government of New Zealand (1960–72)[edit]

  • Holyoake (Second) Ministry: 1960-1972: 12 December 1960 to 7 February 1972
  • Marshall Ministry: 1972: 7 February 1972 to 8 December 1972

Third Labour Government of New Zealand (1972–75)[edit]

  • Kirk Ministry: 1972-1974: 8 December 1972 to 10 September 1974
  • Rowling Ministry, 1974-1975: 6 September 1974 to 12 December 1975
Note: while Rowling was sworn in on 6 September, his ministers were not sworn in until 10 September

Third National Government of New Zealand (1975–84)[edit]

  • Muldoon Ministry, 1975-1984: 12 December 1975 to 26 July 1984

Note: Wood has three Muldoon Ministries: 12 December 1975 to 13 December 1978; 13 December 1978 to 11 December 1981; 11 December 1981 to 26 July 1984

Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand (1984–90)[edit]

  • Lange Ministry: from 26 July 1984 to 24 August 1987
  • Lange Ministry: from 24 August 1987 to 4 August 1989
  • Palmer/Moore Ministry: from 14 August 1989 to 2 November 1990

Note: On 4 September 1990 Mike Moore succeeded Geoffrey Palmer as Prime Minister. Wood has a gap between the Lange Ministry and the Palmer/Moore Ministry from 4 to 14 August 1989.

Fourth National Government of New Zealand (1990–99)[edit]

  • Bolger Ministry: from 2 November 1990 to 29 November 1993
  • Bolger Ministry: from 29 November 1993 to 16 December 1996
  • Bolger Ministry: from 16 December 1996[2] to 1997
  • Shipley Ministry: from 1997 to 10 December 1999

Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand (1999–2008)[edit]

  • Clark Ministry: from 10 December 1999 to 19 November 2008.[3]

Fifth National Government of New Zealand (2008–present)[edit]

  • Key Ministry: 19 November 2008 – 12 December 2016
  • English Ministry: from 12 December 2016

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 27.
  2. ^ Dominion (Wellington) 17 December page 2
  3. ^ Evening Post (Wellington) 8 December page 1 & 10 December page 1

References[edit]

  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. pp. 59–98. OCLC 154283103. 
  • Wood, G. A. (1996) [First ed. published 1987]. Ministers and Members in the New Zealand Parliament (2nd ed.). Dunedin: University of Otago Press. pp. 1–84. ISBN 1-877133-00-0. 

See also[edit]