List of Nobel laureates in Physics

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Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physics presented to Edward Victor Appleton in 1947

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in physics.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.[2] The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[4]


The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1901 to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, of Germany, who received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. John Bardeen is the only laureate to win the prize twice—in 1956 and 1972. Maria Skłodowska-Curie also won two Nobel Prizes, for physics in 1903 and chemistry in 1911. William Lawrence Bragg was, until October 2014, the youngest ever Nobel laureate; he won the prize in 1915 at the age of 25.[5] Two women have won the prize: Curie and Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1963), which is the least of any of the original five Nobel Prizes.[6] As of 2016, the prize has been awarded to 203 individuals. There have been six years in which the Nobel Prize in Physics was not awarded (1916, 1931, 1934, 1940–1942).


Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
1901 WilhelmRöntgen.JPG Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen  Germany "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"[7]
1902 H A Lorentz (Nobel).jpg Hendrik Lorentz  Netherlands "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"[8]
Pieter Zeeman.jpg Pieter Zeeman  Netherlands
1903 Portrait of Antoine-Henri Becquerel.jpg Antoine Henri Becquerel  France "for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"[9]
PierreCurie.jpg Pierre Curie  France "for their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"[9]
Mariecurie.jpg Maria Skłodowska-Curie  Poland
1904 John William Strutt.jpg Lord Rayleigh  United Kingdom "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"[10]
1905 Phillipp Lenard in 1900.jpg Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard  Austria-Hungary
"for his work on cathode rays"[11]
1906 J.J Thomson.jpg Joseph John Thomson  United Kingdom "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"[12]
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg Albert Abraham Michelson  United States "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[13]
1908 G lippmann.jpg Gabriel Lippmann  France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[14]
1909 Guglielmo Marconi.jpg Guglielmo Marconi  Italy "for their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[15]
Ferdinand Braun.jpg Karl Ferdinand Braun  Germany
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals.jpg Johannes Diderik van der Waals  Netherlands "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"[16]
1911 Wilhelm Wien 1911.jpg Wilhelm Wien  Germany "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"[17]
1912 Nils Gustaf Dalén.jpg Nils Gustaf Dalén  Sweden "for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys"[18]
1913 Kamerlingh portret.jpg Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes  Netherlands "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"[19]
1914 Max von Laue 1914.jpg Max von Laue  Germany "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals",[20] an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1915 Wh-bragg.jpg William Henry Bragg  United Kingdom "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays",[21] an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography
Wl-bragg.jpg William Lawrence Bragg  Australia

 United Kingdom

1916 Not awarded World War I
1917 Charles Glover Barkla.jpg Charles Glover Barkla  United Kingdom "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements",[22] another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1918 Max Planck 1933.jpg Max Planck  Germany "for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta"[23]
1919 Johannes Stark.jpg Johannes Stark  Germany "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"[24]
1920 Guillaume 1920.jpg Charles Édouard Guillaume   Switzerland "for the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys"[25]
1921 Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer 4.jpg Albert Einstein  Germany
"for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[26]
1922 Niels Bohr.jpg Niels Bohr  Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[27]
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan 1920s.jpg Robert Andrews Millikan  United States "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[28]
1924 1924 Karl Manne Siegbahn.jpg Manne Siegbahn  Sweden "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"[29]
1925 James Franck 1925.jpg James Franck  Germany "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[30]
Gustav Hertz.jpg Gustav Hertz  Germany
1926 Jean Perrin 1926.jpg Jean Baptiste Perrin  France "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"[31]
1927 Arthur Compton.jpg Arthur Holly Compton  United States "for his discovery of the effect named after him"[32]
CTR Wilson.jpg Charles Thomson Rees Wilson  United Kingdom "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"[32]
1928 Owen Richardson.jpg Owen Willans Richardson  United Kingdom "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"[33]
1929 Broglie Big.jpg Louis Victor Pierre Raymond, 7th Duc de Broglie  France "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"[34]
1930 Sir CV Raman.JPG Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman  India "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"[35]
1931 Not awarded
1932 Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg.jpg Werner Heisenberg  Germany "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[36]
1933 Erwin Schrödinger (1933).jpg Erwin Schrödinger  Austria "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"[37]
Dirac 4.jpg Paul Dirac  United Kingdom
1934 Not awarded
1935 James Chadwick.tif James Chadwick  United Kingdom "for the discovery of the neutron"[38]
1936 Hess.jpg Victor Francis Hess  Austria "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[39]
Carl Anderson.jpg Carl David Anderson  United States "for his discovery of the positron"[39]
1937 Clinton Davisson.jpg Clinton Joseph Davisson  United States "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"[40]
George Paget Thomson.jpg George Paget Thomson  United Kingdom
1938 Enrico Fermi 1943-49 140x190.jpg Enrico Fermi  Italy "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[41]
1939 Ernest Lawrence.jpg Ernest Lawrence  United States "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"[42]
1940 Not awarded World War II
1941 Not awarded World War II
1942 Not awarded World War II
1943 Otto Stern.jpg Otto Stern  United States "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[43]
1944 II Rabi.jpg Isidor Isaac Rabi  United States "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[44]
1945 Pauli.jpg Wolfgang Pauli  Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[45]
1946 Bridgman.jpg Percy Williams Bridgman  United States "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"[46]
1947 Appleton.jpg Edward Victor Appleton  United Kingdom "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"[47]
1948 Blackett-large.jpg Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett  United Kingdom "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"[48]
1949 Yukawa.jpg Hideki Yukawa  Japan "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"[49]
1950 Cecil Powell.jpg Cecil Frank Powell  United Kingdom "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"[50]
1951 Cockcroft.jpg John Douglas Cockcroft  United Kingdom "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[51]
Ernest Walton.jpg Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton  Ireland
1952 Felix Bloch, Stanford University.jpg Felix Bloch   Switzerland
 United States
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[52]
Edward Mills Purcell.jpg Edward Mills Purcell  United States
1953 Zernike.jpg Frits Zernike  Netherlands "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"[53]
1954 Max Born.jpg Max Born  West Germany
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[54]
Bothe.jpg Walther Bothe  West Germany "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"[54]
1955 Willis Lamb 1955.jpg Willis Eugene Lamb  United States "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"[55]
Polykarp Kusch.jpg Polykarp Kusch  United States
"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"[55]
1956 Bardeen.jpg John Bardeen  United States "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"[56]
Brattain.jpg Walter Houser Brattain  United States
William Shockley, Stanford University.jpg William Bradford Shockley  United States
1957 TD Lee.jpg Tsung-Dao Lee  China
 United States
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"[57]
CNYang.jpg Chen Ning Yang  China
 United States
1958 Cerenkov.jpg Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov  Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[58]
Ilya Frank.jpg Ilya Frank  Soviet Union
Igor Tamm.jpg Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm  Soviet Union
1959 Segre.jpg Emilio Gino Segrè  Italy "for their discovery of the antiproton"[59]
Owen Chamberlain.jpg Owen Chamberlain  United States
1960 Donald Glaser 1.jpg Donald Arthur Glaser  United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[60]
1961 Robert Hofstadter.jpg Robert Hofstadter  United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[61]
Mossbauer.jpg Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer  West Germany "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"[61]
1962 Landau.jpg Lev Davidovich Landau  Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[62]
1963 Wigner.jpg Eugene Paul Wigner  Hungary
 United States
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[63]
Maria Goeppert-Mayer.jpg Maria Goeppert-Mayer  United States "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"[63]
Jensen.jpg J. Hans D. Jensen  West Germany
1964 Basov.jpg Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov  Soviet Union "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle"[64]
Aleksandr Prokhorov.jpg Alexander Prokhorov  Soviet Union
Charles Townes Nobel.jpg Charles Hard Townes  United States
1965 Richard Feynman Nobel.jpg Richard Phillips Feynman  United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[65]
Schwinger.jpg Julian Schwinger  United States
Tomonaga.jpg Sin-Itiro Tomonaga  Japan
1966 Kastler.jpg Alfred Kastler  France "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"[66]
1967 Hans Bethe.jpg Hans Albrecht Bethe  United States "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[67]
1968 LWA Picture Final.jpg Luis Walter Alvarez  United States "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"[68]
1969 Murray Gell-Mann.jpg Murray Gell-Mann  United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[69]
1970 YoungAlfven.jpg Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén  Sweden "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"[70]
Louis Neel 1970.jpg Louis Néel  France "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"[70]
1971 Dénes Gábor 1988 Hungarian stamp.jpg Dennis Gabor  Hungary
 United Kingdom
"for his invention and development of the holographic method"[71]
1972 Bardeen.jpg John Bardeen  United States "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[72]
Nobel Laureate Leon Cooper in 2007.jpg Leon Neil Cooper  United States
John Robert Schrieffer.jpg John Robert Schrieffer  United States
1973 Leo Esaki 1959.jpg Leo Esaki  Japan "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"[73]
Ivar Giaever.jpg Ivar Giaever  United States
Brian David Josephson  United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[73]
1974 Martin Ryle  United Kingdom "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[74]
Antony Hewish  United Kingdom
1975 Aage Bohr.jpg Aage Bohr  Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[75]
Mottelson,Ben 1963 Kopenhagen.jpg Ben Roy Mottelson  Denmark
Leo James Rainwater.jpg Leo James Rainwater  United States
1976 Burton Richter - charm quark.jpg Burton Richter  United States "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[76]
Samuel ting 10-19-10.jpg Samuel Chao Chung Ting  United States
1977 Andersonphoto.jpg Philip Warren Anderson  United States "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"[77]
Mott,Nevill Francis Heisenberg 1952 London.jpg Nevill Francis Mott  United Kingdom
JH van Vleck 1974.jpg John Hasbrouck Van Vleck  United States
1978 Pyotr L Kapitsa Russian physicist 1964.jpg Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa  Soviet Union "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"[78]
Arno Penzias.jpg Arno Allan Penzias  United States "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[78]
Wilson penzias200.jpg Robert Woodrow Wilson  United States
1979 Sheldon Glashow at Harvard cropped.jpg Sheldon Lee Glashow  United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[79]
Abdus Salam 1987.jpg Abdus Salam  Pakistan
Steven weinberg 2010.jpg Steven Weinberg  United States
1980 James-cronin.jpg James Watson Cronin  United States "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"[80]
Val Fitch.jpg Val Logsdon Fitch  United States
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen 1981.jpg Nicolaas Bloembergen  Netherlands
 United States
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"[81]
Artur Schawlow, Stanford University.jpg Arthur Leonard Schawlow  United States
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn 2.jpg Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn  Sweden "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"[81]
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson.jpg Kenneth G. Wilson  United States "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"[82]
1983 ChandraNobel.png Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar  India
 United States
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"[83]
William A. Fowler Los Alamos ID.png William Alfred Fowler  United States "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"[83]
1984 Carlo Rubbia 2012.jpg Carlo Rubbia  Italy "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"[84]
Simon van der Meer  Netherlands
1985 Klausvonklitzing.jpg Klaus von Klitzing  West Germany "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"[85]
1986 Ernst Ruska  West Germany "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"[86]
Gerd Binnig sw.jpg Gerd Binnig  West Germany "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"[86]
Rohrer.jpg Heinrich Rohrer   Switzerland
1987 Ibmgb.jpg Johannes Georg Bednorz  West Germany "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[87]
Karl Alexander Mueller.jpg Karl Alexander Müller   Switzerland
1988 Leon M. Lederman.jpg Leon Max Lederman  United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[88]
Melvin Schwartz  United States
Jack-Steinberger-2008.JPG Jack Steinberger  United States
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey 1970 (cropped).jpg Norman Foster Ramsey  United States "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"[89]
Hans Georg Dehmelt  United States "for the development of the ion trap technique"[89]
Wolfgang Paul.jpg Wolfgang Paul  West Germany
1990 Physics Nobel laureate Jerry Friedman, 2016.jpg Jerome I. Friedman  United States "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[90]
Henry Kendall by Tom Frost crop.jpg Henry Way Kendall  United States
Richard E. Taylor.jpg Richard E. Taylor  Canada
1991 Pierre-Gilles crop.jpg Pierre-Gilles de Gennes  France "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"[91]
1992 CHARPAK Georges-24x50-2005 cropped.JPG Georges Charpak  France
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[92]
1993 Russell Alan Hulse.jpg Russell Alan Hulse  United States "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"[93]
2008JosephTaylor.jpg Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.  United States
1994 Bertram Brockhouse.jpg Bertram Brockhouse  Canada "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[94]
HD.3F.113 (10347363986).jpg Clifford Glenwood Shull  United States "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[94]
1995 Martin Perl - tau.jpg Martin Lewis Perl  United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[95]
Frederick Reines.jpg Frederick Reines  United States "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[95]
1996 Nobel Laureate David Morris Lee in 2007.jpg David Morris Lee  United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[96]
Douglas Osheroff NSF.jpg Douglas D. Osheroff  United States
Robert Coleman Richardson.jpg Robert Coleman Richardson  United States
1997 Steven Chu official portrait headshot.jpg Steven Chu  United States "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[97]
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.JPG Claude Cohen-Tannoudji  France
William D. Phillips.jpg William Daniel Phillips  United States
1998 Robert Laughlin, Stanford University.jpg Robert B. Laughlin  United States "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"[98]
Horst Störmer cropped.jpg Horst Ludwig Störmer  Germany
Daniel Chee Tsui.jpg Daniel Chee Tsui  China
 United States
1999 Gerard 't Hooft.jpg Gerard 't Hooft  Netherlands "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"[99]
Martinus Veltman.jpg Martinus J. G. Veltman  Netherlands
2000 Zhores Alferov.jpg Zhores Ivanovich Alferov  Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[100]
Herbert Kroemer.jpg Herbert Kroemer  Germany
Jack Kilby.jpg Jack St. Clair Kilby  United States "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"[100]
2001 Physics Nobel Laureate Eric Allin Cornell, in June of 2015.jpg Eric Allin Cornell  United States "for the achievement of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"[101]
Carl Wieman.jpg Carl Edwin Wieman  United States
Ketterle.jpg Wolfgang Ketterle  Germany
2002 Raymond Davis, Jr 2001.jpg Raymond Davis, Jr.  United States "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"[102]
Masatoshi Koshiba  Japan
RiccardoGiacconi.jpg Riccardo Giacconi  Italy
 United States
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"[102]
2003 AA Abrikosov ANL1.jpg Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov  Russia
 United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[103]
Ginzburg in MSU opaque.jpg Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg  Russia
Nobel Laureate Sir Anthony James Leggett in 2007.jpg Anthony James Leggett  United Kingdom
 United States
2004 David Gross LANL.jpg David J. Gross  United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[104]
Hugh David Politzer  United States
Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek 2007.jpg Frank Wilczek  United States
2005 Roy Glauber Dec 10 2005.jpg Roy J. Glauber  United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[105]
John L. Hall.jpg John L. Hall  United States "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"[105]
Theodor W Haensch.jpg Theodor W. Hänsch  Germany
2006 John-C-Mather5.jpg John C. Mather  United States "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"[106]
George Smoot crop.jpg George F. Smoot  United States
2007 Albert Fert 0109.jpg Albert Fert  France "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[107]
Peter Gruenberg 01.jpg Peter Grünberg  Germany
2008 Mkobayashi.jpg Makoto Kobayashi  Japan "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"[108]
Masukawa.jpg Toshihide Maskawa  Japan
YoichiroNambu.jpg Yoichiro Nambu  Japan
 United States
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"[108]
2009 Charles K. Kao cropped 2.jpg Charles K. Kao  Hong Kong
 United Kingdom
 United States
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"[109]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-23.jpg Willard S. Boyle  Canada
 United States
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor"[109]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-27.jpg George E. Smith  United States
2010 Andre Geim 2010-1.jpg Andre Geim  United Kingdom
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"[110]
Konstantin Novoselov at MIPT.jpg Konstantin Novoselov  Russia
 United Kingdom
2011 Saul Perlmutter.jpg Saul Perlmutter  United States "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"[111]
Brian P Schmidt.jpg Brian P. Schmidt  Australia
 United States
Adam Riess.jpg Adam G. Riess  United States
2012 Serge Haroche - Théâtre de la Commune d'Aubervilliers - 4 mai 2009.jpg Serge Haroche  France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems."[112]
David Wineland 2008crop.jpg David J. Wineland  United States
2013 Francois Englert.jpg François Englert  Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"[113]
Higgs, Peter (1929)3.jpg Peter Higgs  United Kingdom
2014 Isamu Akasaki  Japan "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"[114]
Hiroshi Amano  Japan
Professor Shuji Nakamura (Cropped).jpg Shuji Nakamura  Japan
2015 Takaaki Kajita 5171-2015.jpg Takaaki Kajita  Japan "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"[115]
Arthur B. McDonald 5193-2015.jpg Arthur B. McDonald  Canada
2016 David J. Thouless  United Kingdom
 United States
"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"[116]
F. Duncan M. Haldane  United Kingdom
 United States
Jkosterl.jpg John M. Kosterlitz  United Kingdom
 United States

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  5. ^ "Nobel Laureates Facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  6. ^ "Women Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  7. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  8. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  9. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  10. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  11. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  12. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  13. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  14. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  15. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  16. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  17. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  18. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  19. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  20. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  21. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  22. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  23. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  24. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  25. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  26. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  27. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  28. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  29. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  30. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  31. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  32. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  33. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  34. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  35. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  36. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  37. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  38. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  39. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
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  41. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
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  49. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  50. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  51. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  52. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  53. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
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  55. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  56. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  57. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  58. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  59. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  60. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
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  62. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  63. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  64. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  65. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  66. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  67. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  68. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  69. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
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  71. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  72. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
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  74. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
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  76. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
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  99. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
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  106. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
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  109. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  110. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2010-10-05. 
  111. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-04. 
  112. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  113. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 Press Release" (PDF). Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  114. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  115. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2015-10-05. 
  116. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-04. 

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at

^ B. The information in the country column is according to, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physics for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

External links[edit]