List of North American animals extinct in the Holocene

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This list of North American animals extinct in the Holocene features animals known to have become extinct in the last 12,000 years on the North American continent. Animals recently extinct in the West Indies and Hawaii are in their own respective lists.

Many extinction dates are unknown due to a lack of relevant information.

Mammals[edit]

Prehistoric[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Dire wolf
Aenocyon dirus
6050-5050 BCE[1] North America and western South America Canis dirus Sergiodlarosa.jpg
Giant short-faced bear
Arctodus simus
8995-8845 BCE[2] North America ArctodusSimusReconstruct.jpg
Ancient bison
Bison antiquus
5271-5131 BCE[3] North America Bison antiquus La Brea.jpg
Western bison
Bison occidentalis
220[4] Eastern Beringia Skull of the Bison occidentalis.jpg
Steppe bison
Bison priscus
c. 3450 BCE[5] Northern Eurasia and North America Prazubr rysunek 600.jpg
Woodland muskox
Bootherium bombifrons
8420 BCE[6] North America Harlan's musk ox (cast) - Indiana State Museum - DSC00404.JPG
American camel
Camelops hesternus
7250-5330 BCE[7] Western North America Camelus hesternus Sergiodlarosa.jpg
Beringian wolf
Canis lupus
5790-5658 BCE[8] Northwestern North America Beringian wolves diorama.jpg
Dwarf pronghorn
Capromeryx minor
9580-8860 BCE[6] Southwestern United States and Mexico Capromeryx minor.png
Giant beaver
Castoroides ohioensis
8250-8150 BCE[9] North America Castoroides Knight 1.jpg
Stag-moose
Cervalces scotti
8430-8130 BCE[1] Eastern United States Life restoration cervalces scotti.jpg
Highland gomphothere
Cuvieronius hyodon
9117-8793 BCE[10] Central America and the Northern and Central Andes Cuvieronius.jpg
Mexican horse
Equus conversidens
8965-8875 BCE[2] North America Equus conversidens.jpg
Yukon horse
Equus lambei
6150-5750 BCE[11] Eastern Beringia Equus ferus lambei.jpg
Scott's horse
Equus scotti
7250-6750 BCE[12] Western North America Equus scotti.jpg
Shrub-ox
Euceratherium collinum
9550 BCE[13] Southwestern North America Euceratherium BW.jpg
Northern glyptodont
Glyptotherium sp.
9948-9306 BCE[10] Florida and Texas to northeastern Brazil Glyptotheriumm.jpg
Long-legged llama
Hemiauchenia macrocephala
6833-6321 BCE[7] North and Central America Hemiauchenia macrocephala teeth.jpg
North American pampathere
Holmesina septentrionalis
7930 BCE[7] Southeastern United States Gyptodon Cosmo Caixa.JPG
Steller's sea cow
Hydrodamalis gigas
c. 800–920[14] Bering Sea Steller measuring a sea cow.jpg
American mastodon
Mammut americanum
6050-5050 BCE[1] North America Mammut americanum Sergiodlarosa.jpg
Columbian mammoth
Mammuthus columbi
7100-6300 BCE[15] Mexico, western and southern United States Archidiskodon imperator121.jpg
Pygmy mammoth
Mammuthus exilis
9130-9030 BCE[2] Channel Islands of California, United States Pygmy mammoth model - Cleveland Museum of Natural History - 2014-12-26 (20426146573).jpg
Woolly mammoth
Mammuthus primigenius
3580-3480 BCE[16] Northern Eurasian and North America Victoria.Mammut.P1033804.jpg
Jefferson's ground sloth
Megalonyx jeffersonii
9190-8870 BCE[7] North America Megalonyx Clean.png
Long-nosed peccary
Mylohyus nasutus
9350 BCE[17] Eastern United States Mylohyus nasutus.jpg
Shasta ground sloth
Nothrotheriops shastensis
8350-7550 BCE[1] Southwestern United States Nothrotheriops shastensis.jpg
Giant pika
Ochotona whartoni
8301-7190 BCE[18] Northern North America and possibly northeastern Siberia
American mountain deer
Odocoileus lucasi
9550 BCE[7] Oasisamerica[19] and Mexico[20] Navahoceros fricki.jpg
Harrington's mountain goat
Oreamnos harringtoni
8100 BCE[1] Southern Rocky Mountains Oreamnos harringtoni.jpg
American lion
Panthera atrox
9381-9281 BCE[21] North America Panthera leo atrox Sergiodlarosa.jpg
Eurasian cave lion
Panthera spelaea
10045-9905 BCE[22] Northern Eurasia and Beringia Hoehlenloewe CaveLion hharder.jpg
Giant island deer mouse
Peromyscus nesodytes
c. 950[23] Channel Islands of California, United States
Flat-headed peccary
Platygonus compressus
8850-8750 BCE[9] North America Platygonus compressus Harvard.jpg
North American saber-toothed cat
Smilodon fatalis
7615-7305 BCE[7] Southern North America and northern South America Smilodon fatalis.jpg
Stock's pronghorn
Stockoceros sp.
9550 BCE[7] Southwestern United States and Mexico Stockoceros life restoration.png
Vero tapir
Tapirus veroensis
8200-7660 BCE[1] Southern United States Tapir jaw, Tellus Science Museum.jpg
Toronto subway deer
Torontoceros hypogeos
9690-9040 BCE[15] Toronto, Canada Torontoceros.jpg
Xibalbaonyx oviceps 7390-7320 BCE[10] Quintana Roo, Mexico

Recent[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Kenai Peninsula wolf
Canis lupus alces
c. 1915[24] Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, United States The Wolves of North America (1944) C. l. alces ♂.jpg
Newfoundland wolf
Canis lupus beothucus
1896[25] Newfoundland, Canada Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. beothocus mod.jpg
Banks Island wolf
Canis lupus bernardi
1918-1952[26] Banks Island, Canada Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. bernardi mod.jpg
Cascade Mountains wolf
Canis lupus fuscus
1940[27] Pacific Northwest Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate IV) C. l. fuscus mod.jpg
Mogollon mountain wolf
Canis lupus mogollonensis
1935[27] Arizona, United States Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. mogollonensis mod.jpg
Texas wolf
Canis lupus monstrabilis
1942[27] Texas, United States Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. monstrabilis mod.jpg
Great Plains wolf
Canis lupus nubilus
1922[28] North American prairie Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. nubilus mod.jpg
Southern Rocky Mountain wolf
Canis lupus youngi
1935[27] Southern Rocky Mountains Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. youngi mod.jpg
Florida black wolf
Canis rufus floridanus
c. 1920[29] Eastern United States Blackwolfdog.jpg
Eastern elk
Cervus canadensis canadensis
1867[30] Eastern North America American Elk - John J. Audubon - hi-res.jpg
Atlantic gray whale
Eschrichtius robustus
1760[31] North Atlantic and western Mediterranean Sea[A] Eschrichtius robustus1.jpg
Goff's pocket gopher
Geomys pinetis goffi
1955[32] Pineda Ridge, Florida, United States
Gull Island vole
Microtus pennsylvanicus nesophilus
c. 1900[33] Great Gull Island, New York, United States
Sea mink
Neogale macrodon
c. 1860[34] Atlantic coast of Canada and New England Neovison macrodon.png
Caribbean monk seal
Neomonachus tropicalis
1952[35] Caribbean Sea, Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico Cms-newyorkzoologicalsociety1910.jpg
Anthony's woodrat
Neotoma bryanti anthonyi
1926[36] Isla Todos Santos, Mexico
Bunker's woodrat
Neotoma bryanti bunkeri
1931[37] Coronados Islands, Mexico
San Martín Island woodrat
Neotoma bryanti martinensis
1950s[38] San Martín Island, Mexico
Nelson's rice rat
Oryzomys nelsoni
1897[39] María Madre Island, Mexico Oryzomys nelsoni dorsal.png
Pallid beach mouse
Peromyscus polionotus decoloratus
1946[40] Coastal Florida
Eastern cougar
Puma concolor couguar
1938[41] Eastern North America EasternCougar.jpg
Queen Charlotte Islands caribou
Rangifer tarandus dawsoni
1920s[42] Graham Island, British Columbia, Canada
Tacoma pocket gopher
Thomomys mazama tacomensis
20th century?[40] Tacoma-Steilacoom, Washington area, United States
California grizzly bear
Ursus arctos californicus
1924[43] California, United States Ursus arctos californicus, Santa Barbara, Natural History Museum.jpg
Mexican grizzly bear
Ursus arctos nelsoni
1976[44] Aridoamerica Mexican grizzly bear.jpeg
Southern California kit fox
Vulpes macrotis macrotis
1903[45] Coastal south California, United States


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Puebla deer mouse
Peromyscus mekisturus
1957[46] Southeast Puebla, Mexico

Local[edit]

Extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Reintroduction Image
Mexican wolf
Canis lupus baileyi
early 1970s Southwestern United States and northern Mexico 1998[47] Mexican Wolf 2 yfb-edit 1.jpg
Red wolf
Canis rufus
c. 1980 Southern and eastern United States 1987[48] Red wolf (4531335218).jpg

Birds[edit]

Prehistoric[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Incredible teratorn
Aiolornis incredibilis
11390-9710 BCE[49] California and Nevada, United States
Anabernicula gracilenta 11390-9710 BCE[49] Southern California and New Mexico, United States
Schneider's duck
Anas schneideri
8800-8300 BCE[49] Little Box Elder Cave, Wyoming, United States
Breagyps clarki 11390-9710 BCE[49] Southwestern United States Breagyps clarki.jpg
Daggett's eagle
Buteogallus daggetti
10250-9180 BCE[49] Southwestern United States and Nuevo León, Mexico Buteogallus fragilis.jpg
Woodward's eagle
Buteogallus woodwardi
38050-8050 BCE[49] Florida to California, United States Amplibuteo woodwardi.jpg
Slender teratorn
Cathartornis gracilis
38050-8050 BCE[49] Southern California Cathartornis gracilis.jpg
Law's diving-goose
Chendytes lawi
770-400 BCE[50] Coastal California and Oregon, United States Chendytes lawi.jpg
La Brea stork
Ciconia maltha
9050-8050 BCE[49] Americas Ciconia maltha.jpg
Euphagus magnirostris 8800-8300 BCE[49] California to Venezuela and Peru
Dow's puffin
Fratercula dowi
10035-9845 BCE[49] Channel Islands of California, United States
Page's crane
Grus pagei
10250-9180 BCE[49] Rancho La Brea, California, United States
Californian turkey
Meleagris californica
9100-8380 BCE[49] California, United States Meleagris NT.jpg
Southwestern turkey
Meleagris crassipes
11510-8770 BCE[49] New Mexico, United States
Errant vulture
Neogyps errans
10210-9850 BCE[49] California, United States Neogyps errans.jpg
Neophrontops americanus 10230-7630 BCE[49] Rancho La Brea, California, United States Neophrontops americanus fossil.jpg
La Brea owl
Oraristrix brea
10250-9180 BCE[49] Southern California, United States Oraristrix brea.JPG
Convex-billed cowbird
Pandanaris convexa
38050-8050 BCE[49] California and Florida to Peru
Pipilo angelensis 38050-8050 BCE[49] Rancho La Brea, California, United States
Pyelorhamphus molothroides 29300-9380 BCE[49] Shelter Cave, New Mexico
Grinnell's hawk-eagle
Spizaetus grinnelli
10250-9180 BCE[49] Rancho La Brea, California, United States
Willett's hawk-eagle
Spizaetus willetti
11390-9710 BCE[49] Howell's Ridge Cave, New Mexico, United States
Merriam's teratorn
Teratornis merriami
9050-8050 BCE[49] Southern California to northern Arizona, United States Teratornis BW.jpg
Vanellus downsi 38050-8050 BCE[49] Rancho La Brea, California, United States

Recent[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Dusky seaside sparrow
Ammospiza maritima nigrescens
1987[51] Merritt Island and the St. Johns River, Florida, United States Dusky Seaside Sparrow.jpg
Imperial woodpecker
Campephilus imperialis
1956[52] North-central Mexico Kaiserspecht fg02.jpg
American ivory-billed woodpecker
Campephilus principalis principalis
1944[53] Southern United States Ivory-billed Woodpecker by Jerry A. Payne.jpg
Labrador duck
Camptorhynchus labradorius
1875[54] Atlantic coast of Canada and New England Extinctbirds1907 P36 Camptolaemus labradorius0363AA.jpg
Guadalupe caracara
Caracara lutosa
1903[55] Guadalupe Island, Mexico Left lateral view of skull and mandible of Caracara lutosa.png
McGregor's house finch
Carpodacus mexicanus mcgregori
1938[56] San Benito Island, Mexico
Guadalupe flicker
Colaptes auratus rufipileus
1906[56] Guadalupe Island, Mexico
Carolina parakeet
Conuropsis carolinensis
1918[57] Eastern and central United States Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.AVES.3159 - Conuropsis carolinensis Linnaeus, 1758 - Psittacidae - skin specimen.jpeg
Goldman's yellow rail
Coturnicops noveboracensis goldmani
1964[56] Lerma River, Mexico
Passenger pigeon
Ectopistes migratorius
1914[58] Eastern North America Ectopistes migratoriusAAP042CA.jpg
Santa Barbara song sparrow
Melospiza melodia graminea
1959[59] Santa Barbara Island, California, United States
Socorro elf owl
Micrathene whitneyi graysoni
c. 1970[56] Socorro, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico
Great auk
Pinguinus impennis
1852[60] North Atlantic and western Mediterranean Sea PinguinusImpennus.jpg
Guadalupe towhee
Pipilio maculatus consobrinus
1897[56] Guadalupe Island, Mexico
Atitlán grebe
Podilymbus gigas
1983-1986[61] Lake Atitlán, Guatemala Pato poc.jpg
Slender-billed grackle
Quiscalus palustris
1910[62] Lerma River and Xochimilco, Mexico QuiscalusTenuirostris.jpg
San Benedicto rock wren
Salpinctes obsoletus exsul
1952[56] San Benedicto, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico
Zacatecas Worthen's sparrow
Spizella wortheni browni
1961[56] Northwest Zacatecas, Mexico
Guadalupe wren
Thryomanes bewickii brevicauda
1897[56] Guadalupe Island, Mexico
San Clemente wren
Thryomanes bewickii leucophrys
1968[56] San Clemente Island, California, United States
Heath hen
Tympanuchus cupido cupido
1932[63] East coast of the United States Tympanuchus cupido cupidoAEP11LA.png
New Mexico sharp-tailed grouse
Tympanuchus phasianellus hueyi
1952[56] New Mexico and possibly Colorado, United States


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Eskimo curlew
Numenius borealis
1963[56] Northwestern Canada and Alaska, and Southern Cone Numenius borealis.jpg
Guadalupe storm-petrel
Oceanodroma macrodactyla
1912[64] Guadalupe Island, Mexico Oceanodroma.macrodactyla.jpg
Bachman's warbler
Vermivora bachmanii
1988[65] Southeastern United States and Cuba Bachman's Warbler.jpg

Local[edit]

Extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Reintroduction Image
California condor
Gymnogyps californianus
1987[66] North America 1992 California Condor Pinnacles NM 2.jpg
Socorro dove
Zenaida graysoni
1972[67] Socorro, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico Zenaida graysoni - Socorrotaube - Wildfarbig - Deutscher Kanarien- und Vogelzüchterbund (DKB) - Vogelbund - Johann Alexi.jpg

Reptiles[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Southeastern giant tortoise
Hesperotestudo crassiscutata
c. 9515 BCE[68] Southern United States
Wilson's tortoise
Hesperotestudo wilsoni
c. 9050 BCE[68] Southwestern United States


Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Viesca mud turtle
Kinosternon hirtipes megacephalum
1961[69] Southwestern Coahuila, Mexico

Amphibians[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Chiriqui harlequin frog
Atelopus chiriquiensis
1996[70] Talamanca-Chiriqui Mountains, Costa Rica Chiriqui harlequin frog - Atelopus chiriquiensis.jpg
Pass stubfoot toad
Atelopus senex
1986[71] Central Costa Rica
Craugastor myllomyllon 1978[72] Finca Volcán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala
Golden toad
Incilius periglenes
1989[73] Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica Bufo periglenes2.jpg
Splendid poison frog
Oophaga speciosa
1992[74] Western Panama Oophaga speciosa.jpg
Ainsworth's salamander
Plethodon ainsworthi
1964[75] Jasper County, Mississippi, United States
Jalpa false brook salamander
Pseudoeurycea exspectata
1976[76] Cerro Miramundo, Jalapa, Guatemala


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
McCranie's robber frog
Craugastor chrysozetetes
1989[77] La Ceiba, Atlántida Department, Honduras
Rabbs' fringe-limbed treefrog
Ecnomiohyla rabborum
2016[78] El Valle de Antón, Panama Ecnomiohyla rabborum.jpg


Extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Wyoming toad
Anaxyrus baxteri
1991[79] Laramie Basin, Wyoming, United States Anaxyrus baxteri-3.jpg
Panamanian golden frog
Atelopus zeteki
2009[80] El Valle de Antón and Cerro Campana, Panama Atelopus zeteki1.jpg

Fish[edit]

Recent[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Parras characodon
Characodon garmani
1880s[81] Southern Coahuila, Mexico
Snake River sucker
Chasmistes muriei
1927[81] Snake River, United States
Longjaw cisco
Coregonus alpenae
1975[81] Lake Erie, Michigan, and Huron
Deepwater cisco
Coregonus johannae
1952[81] Lake Michigan and Huron FMIB 42892 Bloater of Lake Michigan - Leucichthys johannae (Wagner).jpeg
Lake Ontario kiyi
Coregonus kiyi orientalis
1964[81] Lake Ontario
Blackfin cisco
Coregonus nigripinnis
1969[81] Lake Michigan and Huron
Utah Lake sculpin
Cottus echinatus
1928[81] Utah Lake, United States
Maravillas red shiner
Cyprinella lutrensis blairi
1954[81] Maravillas Creek, Texas, United States
Villa Lopez pupfish
Cyprinodon ceciliae
before 1992[82] Bolsón de Sandía, Nuevo León, Mexico
Cachorrito de la Trinidad
Cyprinodon inmemoriam
1984[83] Ojo La Trinidad, northern Mexico
Tecopa pupfish
Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae
1982[59] Tecopa Hot Springs, California, United States Tecopapupfish.png
Raycraft Ranch killifish
Empetrichthys latos concavus
1953[81] Pahrump Valley, Nevada, United States
Pahrump Ranch poolfish
Empetrichthys latos pahrump
1958[81] Nye County, Nevada, United States
Ash Meadows killifish
Empetrichthys merriami
1948[81] Ash Meadows, Nevada Empetrichthys.merriami.dsj.jpg
Maryland darter
Etheostoma sellare
1988[84] Lower Susquehanna River, United States Maryland Darter - Dave Neely (illustration).jpg
Mexican dace
Evarra bustamantei
1970[85] Xochimilco-Tlahuac channels, Valley of Mexico
Plateau chub
Evarra eigenmanni
1954[86] Chalco and Xochimilco-Tlahuac channels, Valley of Mexico FMIB 34174 Evarra eigenmanni, genet sp nov.jpeg
Endorheic chub
Evarra tlahuacensis
1970[87] Lake Chalco, Valley of Mexico
Whiteline topminnow
Fundulus albolineatus
1889[81] Huntsville, Alabama, United States
Amistad gambusia
Gambusia amistadensis
1968[81] Goodenough Spring, Texas, United States
San Marcos gambusia
Gambusia georgei
1983[88] San Marcos River and spring, Texas, United States
Hadley Lake sticklebacks
Gasterosteus spp.
1999[42] Hadley Lake, British Columbia, Canada
Independence Valley tui chub
Gila bicolor isolata
1966[81] Warm Springs, Nevada, United States
Thicktail chub
Gila crassicauda
1957[81] California Central Valley and San Francisco Bay, United States Thicktail Chub.jpg
Harelip sucker
Lagochila lacera
1893[81] Southeastern United States The fishes of North and Middle America (Pl. XXXVIII) (7983313972).jpg
Pahranagat spinedace
Lepidomeda altivelis
1938[81] Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, United States
Catarina pupfish
Megupsilon aporus
2012[89] Potosí Spring, Nuevo León, Mexico Megupsilon aporus - last male.tif
Durango shiner
Notropis aulidion
1961[81] Tunal River, Durango, Mexico
Salado shiner
Notropis saladonis
before 1988[90] Salado River, Mexico
Rio Grande bluntnose shiner
Notropis simus simus
1964[81] Upper Rio Grande
Phantom shiner
Notropis orca
1975[81] Rio Grande
Scioto madtom
Noturus trautmani
1957[91] Big Darby Creek, Ohio, United States
Yellowfin cutthroat trout
Oncorhynchus clarkii macdonaldi
1910[81] Twin Lakes, Colorado, United States FMIB 51774 Yellow-fin Trout of Twin Lakes, Salmo macdonaldi Jordan & Evermann Twin Lakes, Colo.jpeg
Alvord cutthroat trout
Oncorhynchus clarki ssp.
early 1930s[81] Alvord Basin in Oregon and Nevada, United States
Clear Lake splittail
Pogonichthys ciscoides
1970[81] Clear Lake and its tributaries, California, United States
Banff longnose dace
Rhinichthys cataractae smithi
1986[92] Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada
Las Vegas dace
Rhinichthys deaconi
1940[81] Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, United States
Grass Valley speckled dace
Rhinichthys osculus reliquus
1938[81] Lander County, Nevada, United States
Silver trout
Salvelinus agassizi
1930[81] Dublin Pond and Christine Lake, New Hampshire, United States Salvelinus agassizi.jpg
Blue walleye
Sander vitreus glaucus
1958[59] Lake Ontario, Erie, and Niagara River Blue walleye.jpg
Stumptooth minnow
Stypodon signifer
1903[81] Southern Coahuila, Mexico


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Alberca silverside
Chirostoma bartoni
2006[93] La Alberca caldera, Lerma River basin, Mexico
Least silverside
Chirostoma charari
1957[94] La Mintzita spring, Michoacan, Mexico
Shortnose cisco
Coregonus reighardi
1985[95] Lake Michigan, Ontario, and Huron Coregonus reighardi.png
Perrito de Parras
Cyprinodon latifasciatus
2012[96] Parras drainage basin, Coahuila, Mexico
Graceful priapella
Priapella bonita
1965[97] Motzorongo River, Veracruz, Mexico

Local[edit]

Extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Banded allotoca
Allotoca goslinei
2004[98] Jalisco, Mexico
Potosi pupfish
Cyprinodon alvarezi
1994[99] Potosi Spring, Galeana, Nuevo León, Mexico
La Palma pupfish
Cyprinodon longidorsalis
1994[100] Bolson de Sandia, Nuevo León, Mexico
Charco Palma pupfish
Cyprinodon veronicae
1995[101] Bolson de Sandia, Nuevo León, Mexico
Ameca shiner
Notropis amecae
2008[102] Ameca River, Jalisco, Mexico
Golden skiffia
Skiffia francesae
2010[103] Jalisco, Mexico
Monterrey platyfish
Xiphophorus couchianus
1967[104] Atlantic slope of Mexico 016776F000199W000002.jpg
Marbled swordtail
Xiphophorus meyeri
1997[105] Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico Swordtail2med.jpg

Crustaceans[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Cambarellus alvarezi 1991[106] Potosí Spring, Nuevo León, Mexico
Chihuahua dwarf crayfish
Cambarellus chihuahuae
1980[107] Ojo de Carbonera Spring, Chihuahua, Mexico
Sooty crayfish
Pacifastacus nigrescens
19th century[108] San Francisco Bay, California, United States Pacifastacus nigrescens.jpeg
Sandhills crayfish
Procambarus angustatus
1958[109] Sand Hills, Georgia, United States
Pasadena freshwater shrimp
Syncaris pasadenae
1933[110] Los Angeles River drainage basin, California, United States


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Hemigrapsus estellinensis 1962[111] Estelline Hot Spring, Texas, United States


Extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Socorro isopod
Thermosphaeroma thermophilum
1988[112] Sedillo Spring, Socorro County, New Mexico Thermosphaeroma thermophilum male.jpg

Insects[edit]

Holocene extinctions of unknown date
Common name/scientific name Range Image
Robert's stonefly
Alloperla roberti
United States[113]
Chestnut casebearer moth
Coleophora leucochrysella
United States[114] Coleophora leucochrysella case.jpg
Mono Lake diving beetle
Hygrotus artus
United States[115]
Castle Lake caddisfly
Rhyacophila amabilis
United States[116]
Volutine stoneyian tabanid fly
Stonemyia velutina
United States[117]
Chestnut clearwing moth
Tischeria perplexa
United States[118]
Athens caddisfly
Triaenodes phalacris
United States[119]


Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Pecatonica River mayfly
Acanthometropus pecatonica
1927[120] United States
Chestnut ermine moth
Argyresthia castaneella
1923[121] United States
California condor louse
Colpocephalum californici
c. 1985[18] North America
Central Valley grasshopper
Conozoa hyalina
1953[122] Central Valley, California, United States
Phleophagan chestnut moth
Ectoedemia phleophaga
1900s[123] United States
Xerces blue butterfly
Glaucopsyche xerces
before 1941[124] San Francisco, California, United States Glaucopsyche xerces.jpg
Rocky Mountain locust
Melanoplus spretus
1902[125] Northern Rocky Mountains Rocky Mountain locust.jpg
Antioch Dunes shieldback katydid
Neduba extincta
1937[126] United States
Oeobia sp. nov. 1911[127] United States
Robust burrowing mayfly
Pentagenia robusta
1926[128] Ohio River area, United States
Three-toothed caddisfly
Triaenodes tridontus
1991[129] United States
Fort Ross weevil
Trigonoscuta rossi
1975[130] Fort Ross, California, United States
Yorba Linda weevil
Trigonoscuta yorbalindae
1975[131] Yorba Linda desert dunes, California, United States

Arachnids[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Caribbean monk seal nasal mite
Halarachne americana
1952?[132] Caribbean Sea

Molluscs[edit]

Undated[edit]

Holocene extinctions of unknown date
Common name/scientific name Range Image
Carolina elktoe
Alasmidonta robusta
North and South Carolina, United States[133]
Shoal sprite
Amphigyra alabamensis
Alabama, United States[134] Amphigyra alabamensis shell.jpg
Boulder snail
Athearnia crassa
Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, and Virginia, United States[135]
Umbilicate pebblesnail
Clappia umbilicata
Alabama, United States[136] Clappia umbilicata shell 2.png
Short-spired elimia
Elimia brevis
Alabama, United States[137]
Closed elimia
Elimia clausa
St. Clair County, Alabama, United States[138]
Fusiform elimia
Elimia fusiformis
Coosa River, Alabama, United States[139]
Shouldered elimia
Elimia gibbera
Alabama, United States[140]
High-spired elimia
Elimia hartmaniana
United States[141]
Constricted elimia
Elimia impressa
Alabama, United States[142]
Hearty elimia
Elimia jonesi
Coosa River, Alabama, United States[143]
Ribbed elimia
Elimia laeta
Alabama, United States[144]
Wrinkled elimia
Elimia macglameriana
Alabama and Georgia, United States[145]
Pupa elimia
Elimia pupaeformis
Alabama, United States[146]
Pygmy elimia
Elimia pygmaea
Alabama, United States[147]
Rough-lined elimia
Elimia pilsbryi
Coosa River, Alabama, United States[148]
Cobble elimia
Elimia vanuxemiana
Alabama, United States[149] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MOL.175299 - Elimia vanuxemiana (Lea, 1843) - Pleuroceridae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Round slitshell
Gyrotoma walkeri
Alabama, United States[150]
Agate rocksnail
Leptoxis clipeata
Alabama, United States[151]
Maiden rocksnail
Leptoxis formosa
Alabama and Georgia, United States[152]
Rotund rocksnail
Leptoxis ligata
Alabama, United States[153]
Lyrate rocksnail
Leptoxis lirata
Alabama, United States[154]
Bigmouth rocksnail
Leptoxis occultata
Alabama, United States[155]
Coosa rocksnail
Leptoxis showalterii
United States[156]
Squat rocksnail
Leptoxis torrefacta
United States[157]
Striped rocksnail
Leptoxis vittata
United States[158]
Tombigbee moccasinshell
Medionidus mcglameriae
United States[159]
Carinate flat-top snail
Neoplanorbis carinatus
United States[160]
Angled flat-top snail
Neoplanorbis smithi
United States[161]
Umbilicate flat-top snail
Neoplanorbis umbilicatus
United States[162]
Fish Lake physa
Physella microstriata
Utah, United States[163]
Acorn ramshell
Planorbella multivolvis
Michigan, United States[164]
Highnut
Pleurobema altum
United States[165]
Hazel pigtoe
Pleurobema avellanum
United States[166]
Scioto pigtoe
Pleurobema bournianum
United States[167]
Yellow pigtoe
Pleurobema flavidulum
United States[168]
Brown pigtoe
Pleurobema hagleri
United States[169]
Alabama pigtoe
Pleurobema johannis
Alabama, Tennessee, and Georgia, United States[170]
Coosa pigtoe
Pleurobema murrayense
United States[171]
Longnut
Pleurobema nucleopsis
United States[172]
Alabama clubshell
Pleurobema troschelianum
Alabama, Tennessee, and Georgia, United States[173]
True pigtoe
Pleurobema verum
Alabama, United States[174]
Corded purg
Pyrgulopsis nevadensis
Nevada, United States[175] Pyrgulopsis nevadensis shell.jpg
Reverse pebblesnail
Somatogyrus alcoviensis
Georgia, United States[176]
Oachita pebblesnail
Somatogyrus amnicoloides
Arkansas, United States[177]
Channeled pebblesnail
Somatogyrus wheeleri
Arkansas, United States[178]

Recent[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Coosa elktoe
Alasmidonta mccordi
1964[18] Coosa River, Alabama, United States
Ochlockonee arcmussel
Alasmidonta wrightiana
1930s[18] Ochlockonee River, Florida, United States
Cahaba pebblesnail
Clappia cahabensis
1965[179] Cahaba River, Alabama, United States Clappia cahabensis shell.png
Arc-form pearly mussel
Epioblasma arcaeformis
1940s[18] Cumberland and Tennessee River systems, United States[180] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MOL.327100 - Epioblasma arcaeformis (Lea, 1831) - Unionidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Angled riffleshell
Epioblasma biemarginata
1970[18] Cumberland and Tennessee River systems, United States[181] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.418038 - Epioblasma biemarginata (Lea, 1857) - Unionidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Arcuate pearly mussel
Epioblasma flexuosa
1920s-1930s[18] Tennessee, Cumberland, and Ohio River systems, United States[182] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MOL.327105 - Epioblasma flexuosa (Rafinesque, 1820) - Unionidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Curtis pearly mussel
Epioblasma florentina curtisi
1990s[18] Little Black River, Missouri, United States
Yellow blossom
Epioblasma florentina florentina
1940s[18] Holston River, Tennessee, United States
Acorn pearly mussel
Epioblasma haysiana
1970[18] Cumberland and Tennessee River systems, United States[183] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.418521 - Epioblasma haysiana (Lea, 1834) - Unionidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Stone's pearly mussel
Epioblasma lenior
1967[184] Tennessee River system, United States
Lewis pearly mussel
Epioblasma lewisii
1950[18] Cumberland and Tennessee River systems, United States[185]
Upland combshell
Epioblasma metastriata
1980s[18] Conasauga River, Georgia, United States
Southern acornshell
Epioblasma othcaloogensis
1970s[18] Conasauga River, Georgia, United States
Fine-rayed pearly mussel
Epioblasma personata
1924[186] Tennessee, Ohio, and Wabash River systems, United States
Nearby pearly mussel
Epioblasma propinqua
1936[18] Tennessee, Cumberland, Ohio, and Wabash River systems, United States[187] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.418310 - Epioblasma propinqua (Lea, 1857) - Unionidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Sampson's pearly mussel
Epioblasma sampsonii
1930s-1940s[18] Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana, United States[188] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MOL.327113 - Epioblasma sampsonii (Lea, 1862) - Unionidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Steward's pearly mussel
Epioblasma stewardsonii
1940s[18] Tennessee and Coosa River systems, United States[189] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.419405 - Epioblasma stewardsonii (Lea, 1852) - Unionidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Green-blossom pearly mussel
Epioblasma torulosa gubernaculum
1984[190] Tennessee River system, United States Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.419400 - Epioblasma torulosa (Rafinesque, 1820) - Unionidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Tubercled-blossom pearly mussel
Epioblasma torulosa torulosa
1970s[18] Tennessee and Ohio River systems, United States[191]
Turgid-blossom pearly mussel
Epioblasma turgidula
1976[18] Southern Appalachians and Cumberland Plateau, United States[192] Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.210667 - Epioblasma turgidula (Lea, 1858) - Unionidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Excised slitshell
Gyrotoma excisa
1924[193] Alabama, United States
Striate slitshell
Gyrotoma lewisii
1924[194] Alabama, United States
Pagoda slitshell
Gyrotoma pagoda
1924[195] Alabama, United States
Ribbed slitshell
Gyrotoma pumila
1924[196] Alabama, United States
Pyramid slitshell
Gyrotoma pyramidata
1924[197] Alabama, United States
Lined pocketbook
Lampsilis binominata
1970s[18] Flint River, Georgia, United States Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MOLL.418098 - Lampsilis binominata Simpson, 1900 - Unionidae - Mollusc shell.jpeg
Eelgrass limpet
Lottia alveus
1929[42] Atlantic Canada[42] and the United States[198]
Olive marstonia
Marstonia olivacea
1940[199] Big Sprink Creek, Madison County, Alabama, United States
Little flat-top snail
Neoplanorbis tantillus
c. 1914-1967[200] Coosa River, Alabama, United States Neoplanorbis tantillus shell.jpg
Black clubshell
Pleurobema curtum
1990s[18] East Fork Tombigbee River, Mississippi, United States
Flat pigtoe
Pleurobema marshalli
1984[18] Tombigbee River, Mississippi and Alabama, United States
Rio Grande monkeyface
Quadrula couchiana
early 1900s[18] Rio Grande
Stirrup shell
Quadrula stapes
1980s[18] Sipsey River, Alabama, United States
Thick-lipped pebblesnail
Somatogyrus crassilabris
1915[201] White River, Baxter County, Arkansas, United States

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The same species survives in the Pacific Ocean.

References[edit]

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