List of North American dinosaurs

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This is a list of dinosaurs whose remains have been recovered from North America. North America has a rich dinosaur fossil record with great diversity of dinosaurs.

History[edit]

The earliest potential record of dinosaurs in North America comes from rare, unidentified (possibly theropod) footprints in the Middle-Late Triassic Pekin Formation of North Carolina.[1] However, the most reliable early record of North American dinosaurs comes from fragmentary saurischian fossils unearthed from the Upper Triassic Dockum Group of Texas.[2] Later in the Triassic period, dinosaurs left more recognizable remains, and could be identified as specific genera. Examples of later Triassic North American dinosaur genera include Coelophysis, Chindesaurus, Gojirasaurus, and Tawa. Fossils of Tawa-like dinosaurs have also been found in South America, which has important indications about paleogeography. During the Early Jurassic Period, dinosaurs such as Dilophosaurus, Anchisaurus, Coelophysis (formerly known as Megapnosaurus), and the early thyreophoran Scutellosaurus lived in North America. The latter is believed to have been the ancestor of all stegosaurs and ankylosaurs. The Middle Jurassic is the only poorly represented time period in North America, although several Middle Jurassic localities are known from Mexico. Footprints, eggshells, teeth, and fragments of bone representing theropods, sauropods, and ornithopods have been found, but none of them are diagnostic to the genus level.

VOA report about North American dinosaurs

The Late Jurassic of North America, however, is the exact opposite of the Middle Jurassic. The Late Jurassic Morrison Formation is found in several U.S. states, including Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Montana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas. It is notable as being the most fertile single source of dinosaur fossils in the world. The roster of dinosaurs from the Morrison is impressive. Among the theropods, Allosaurus, Saurophaganax, Torvosaurus, Ceratosaurus, Coelurus, Ornitholestes, Tanycolagreus, Stokesosaurus, and Marshosaurus are found in the Morrison. An abundance of sauropods has been found there, including Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Barosaurus, Brachiosaurus, Camarasaurus, Brontosaurus and Amphicoelias. Three genera of stegosaurs, Alcovasaurus, Stegosaurus and Hesperosaurus, have been found there. Finally, ornithopods found in the Morrison include Camptosaurus, Dryosaurus, and Nanosaurus,

During the Early Cretaceous, new dinosaurs evolved to replace the old ones. Sauropods were still present, but they were not as diverse as they were in the Jurassic Period. Theropods from the Early Cretaceous of North America include dromaeosaurids such as Deinonychus and Utahraptor, the carnosaur Acrocanthosaurus, and the coelurosaur Microvenator. Sauropods included Astrodon, Brontomerus, and Sauroposeidon. Ornithischians were more diverse than they were in the Jurassic Period. Tenontosaurus, Dakotadon, Protohadros, and Eolambia are some of the ornithopods that lived during this time period. Ankylosaurs replaced their stegosaur cousins in the Cretaceous. Ankylosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of North America include Sauropelta and Gastonia. Therizinosaurs such as Falcarius are also known from the Early Cretaceous of North America.

Finally, during the Late Cretaceous Period, the greatest abundance and diversity of dinosaurs of all time lived in North America. During the early part of the Late Cretaceous, the therizinosaur Nothronychus and the ceratopsian Zuniceratops lived. During the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous, an enormous diversity of dinosaurs is known. Theropods included the tyrannosaurs Albertosaurus, Gorgosaurus, Daspletosaurus, Teratophoneus, Bistahieversor, and Appalachiosaurus, and the dromaeosaurids Dromaeosaurus, Saurornitholestes, Atrociraptor, and Bambiraptor. Ceratopsians, such as Pachyrhinosaurus, Styracosaurus, Centrosaurus, Monoclonius, Brachyceratops and Pentaceratops also existed. Among hadrosaurs, Hypacrosaurus, Gryposaurus, Kritosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Corythosaurus, Lambeosaurus and Prosaurolophus existed. During the latest Cretaceous, the Maastrichtian age, the diversity of dinosaurs saw a decline from the preceding Campanian stage. North American herbivorous dinosaurs from this time period include the titanosaur sauropod Alamosaurus, the ceratopsians Bravoceratops, Regaliceratops, Triceratops, Leptoceratops, Torosaurus, Nedoceratops, Tatankaceratops (the latter two possible species of Triceratops), and Ojoceratops, the pachycephalosaurs Pachycephalosaurus, Stygimoloch, Dracorex, and Sphaerotholus, the hadrosaurs Augustynolophus, Saurolophus and Edmontosaurus, the ornithopod Thescelosaurus the ankylosaur Ankylosaurus and the nodosaurs Denversaurus, Glyptodontopelta and Edmontonia. Predatory dinosaurs from this time period included the tyrannosaurids Tyrannosaurus, Nanotyrannus (which may just be a juvenile of the former) and Dryptosaurus, the ornithomimids Ornithomimus, Dromiceiomimus, Struthiomimus, the oviraptorids Anzu, Leptorhynchos and Ojoraptorsaurus, the troodontids Pectinodon, Paronychodon and Troodon, the coelurosaur Richardoestesia and the dromaeosaurs Acheroraptor and Dakotaraptor.

The only recorded find of a dinosaur fossil in Central America consists of a single femur discovered from Middle Cretaceous age deposits in Comayagua Department in the central part of Honduras. The fossil had been found in January, 1971 by Bruce Simonson and Gregory Horne, though it was later sent to the National Museum of Natural History, USA where it is deposited under catalogue number USNM PAL 181339. The discovery was not formally described until 1994 where it was identified as the femur of a small hadrosaur or iguanodontid, probably the former.[3] The first report of a dinosaur from Central America ever however was a newspaper article published in August of 1933 by Canada’s Montreal Gazette, though the story was picked up by several American newspapers. The fossil was an isolated metatarsus that had been collected by University of Pennsylvania explorer George Mason from woods near Olanchito, Honduras, though a vertebra was also mentioned to be found by locals. The bones have since been lost and their true identity remains indeterminable.[4]

Criteria for inclusion[edit]

List of North American dinosaurs[edit]

Valid genera[edit]

Name Year Formation Location Notes Images
Abydosaurus 2010 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian)  United States
( Utah)
Had a short domed crest on its skull similar to that of Giraffatitan Abydosaurus NT.jpg
Acantholipan 2018 Pen Formation (Late Cretaceous, Santonian)  Mexico
( Coahuila)
Known to possess spike-like osteoderms
Achelousaurus 1994 Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Combines long spikes on the top of its frill and a low keratinous boss over its eyes and nose Achelousaurus dinosaur.png
Acheroraptor 2013 Hell Creek Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( Montana)
One of the geologically youngest dromaeosaurids Acheroraptor NT small.jpg
Acristavus 2011 Two Medicine Formation, Wahweap Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana
 Utah)
Uniquely for a hadrosaurid, it lacked any ornamentation on its skull Acristavus.jpg
Acrocanthosaurus 1950 Antlers Formation, Cloverly Formation, Twin Mountains Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Maryland?
 Oklahoma
 Texas
 Wyoming)
Possessed elongated neural spines that would have supported a low sail or hump in life Acrocanthosaurus restoration.jpg
Acrotholus 2013 Milk River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Santonian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Had a tall, oval-shaped dome Acrotholus NT.jpg
Adelolophus 2014 Wahweap Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
Potentially a basal member of the Parasaurolophini[5] Adelolophus LM.png
Agujaceratops 2006 Aguja Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Texas)
The type species was originally assigned to the genus Chasmosaurus Agujaceratops life restoration.jpg
Ahshislepelta 2011 Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Relatively small for an ankylosaur Ahshislepelta LM.png
Akainacephalus 2018 Kaiparowits Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
Much of the skeleton is known, including the entirety of the skull Akainacephalus (updated).png
Alamosaurus 1922 Black Peaks Formation, El Picacho Formation, Javelina Formation, North Horn Formation, Ojo Alamo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( New Mexico
 Texas
 Utah
 Wyoming)
One of the largest dinosaurs known from North America[6] Alamosaurus-sanjuanensis.jpg
Alaskacephale 2006 Prince Creek Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  United States
( Alaska)
Had an array of polygonal nodes on its squamosal Alaskacephale gangloffi copia.jpg
Albertaceratops 2007 Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Possessed long brow horns and a bony ridge over its nose Albertaceratops BW.jpg
Albertadromeus 2013 Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
The proportions of its hindlimb suggest a cursorial lifestyle Albertadromeus syntarsus.png
Albertavenator 2017 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Its discovery suggests the diversity of small dinosaurs may be higher than previously thought Albertavenator LM.png
Albertonykus 2009 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
May have used its specialized forelimbs to dig into tree trunks for termites Albertonykus borealis.jpg
Albertosaurus 1905 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Known from more than thirty specimens, twenty-six of which are preserved together[7] Albertosaurus NT small.jpg
Alcovasaurus 2016 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Wyoming)
May have been a species of Miragaia[8] Alcovasaurus longispinus by ABelov.jpg
Aletopelta 2001 Point Loma Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( California)
Would have lived in present-day Mexico; its fossils were only found in California due to the shifting of tectonic plates Aletopelta NT.jpg
Allosaurus (A. fragilis) (A. jimmadseni) 1877 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Montana
 New Mexico
 Oklahoma
 South Dakota
 Utah
 Wyoming)
Multiple specimens have been discovered, making it well-known both popularly and scientifically. At least two species are known from the United States, with a third described from Portugal Allosaurus Revised.jpg
Amphicoelias 1878 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado)
Originally believed to date from the Cretaceous Amphicoelias17DB2.jpg
Anasazisaurus 1993 Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
May have been a second species of Kritosaurus[9] Anasazisaurus LM.png
Anchiceratops 1914 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Had a long, rectangular frill ringed by short, triangular spikes Anchiceratops dinosaur.png
Anchisaurus 1885 Portland Formation (Early Jurassic, Hettangian to Sinemurian)  United States
( Connecticut
 Massachusetts)
Some possible remains were originally misidentified as human skeletons[10] Anchisaurus NT.jpg
Angulomastacator 2009 Aguja Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Texas)
The tip of its jaw was angled 45 degrees downward, with the tooth row bent to match Angulomastacator LM.png
Animantarx 1999 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous, Albian to Cenomanian)  United States
( Utah)
Its holotype was discovered during a radiological survey of a fossil site; no bones were exposed before it was excavated Animantarx 04829.JPG
Ankylosaurus 1908 Ferris Formation, Frenchman Formation, Hell Creek Formation, Lance Formation, Scollard Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta
 Saskatchewan)
 United States
( Montana
 Wyoming)
The largest and most well-known ankylosaur Ankylosaurus magniventris reconstruction.png
Anodontosaurus 1929 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Originally mistakenly believed to have been toothless Anodontosaurus LM.png
Anzu 2014 Hell Creek Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( North Dakota
 South Dakota)
Large and known from considerably good remains. Preserves evidence of a tall head crest Anzu wyliei.jpg
Apatoraptor 2016 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Quill knobs preserved on its ulna confirm this species had wings Apatoraptor NT small.jpg
Apatosaurus 1877 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Oklahoma
 Utah
 Wyoming)
Characteristically robust in the construction of its bones Apatosaurus louisae by durbed.jpg
Appalachiosaurus 2005 Demopolis Chalk (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Alabama)
The most complete theropod known from the eastern side of North America Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis.jpg
Aquilarhinus 2019 Aguja Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Texas)
Possessed an unusual shovel-shaped rostrum that may have been adapted to shoveling and scooping up vegetation[11] Aquilarhinus LM.png
Aquilops 2014 Cloverly Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian)  United States
( Montana)
Had a short horn protruding from its upper beak Aquilops NT small.jpg
Arkansaurus 2018 Trinity Group (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Arkansas)
State dinosaur of Arkansas. Its generic name was in use informally even before its formal description Arkansaurus NT.jpg
Arrhinoceratops 1925 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Described as lacking a nasal horn although this is an artifact of preservatiom Arrhinoceratops BW.jpg
Astrodon 1859 Arundel Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian)  United States
( Maryland)
State dinosaur of Maryland Astrodon johnstoni.jpg
Astrophocaudia 2012 Trinity Group (Early Cretaceous, Albian)  United States
( Texas)
Known from a single partial skeleton Astrophocaudia LM.png
Atlantosaurus 1877 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado)
Potentially synonymous with Apatosaurus,[12] but a referred species may represent a separate taxon[13]
Atrociraptor 2004 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Had a short, deep snout Atrociraptor.jpg
Aublysodon 1868 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Only known from teeth
Augustynolophus 2014 Moreno Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( California)
State dinosaur of California. Originally named as a species of Saurolophus Augustynolophus NT.jpg
Avaceratops 1986 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Lacked the fenestrae in its frill, a feature shared only with Triceratops Avaceratops dinosaur.png
Bambiraptor 2000 Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Small but well-preserved enough to display its mix of dinosaur- and bird-like features Bambiraptor reconstruction.jpg
Barosaurus 1890 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( South Dakota
 Utah)
Similar to Diplodocus but larger and with a longer neck Barosaurus-sketch3.jpg
Bistahieversor 2010 Fruitland Formation, Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Analysis of its braincase suggest it behaved like tyrannosaurids despite not being a member of that family[14] Bihastieversor NT.jpg
Bisticeratops 2022 Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Originally identified as a specimen of Pentaceratops Bisticeratops Life Reconstruction.png
Borealopelta 2017 Clearwater Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian)  Canada
( Alberta)
So well preserved that several osteoderms were found in the positions they would have been in when alive Borealopelta NT.jpg
Boreonykus 2015 Wapiti Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
One of the few dromaeosaurids known from high latitudes Boreonykus LM.jpg
Brachiosaurus 1903 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Oklahoma
 Utah
 Wyoming)
A high browser with a tall chest and elongated forelimbs Brachiosaurus NT new.jpg
Brachyceratops 1914 Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Only known from juvenile remains. One specimen has been found to represent a subadult Rubeosaurus Brachyceratops BW.jpg
Brachylophosaurus 1953 Judith River Formation, Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)
Several specimens preserve extensive soft tissue remains Brachylophosaurus NT alternate.png
Bravoceratops 2013 Javelina Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  United States
( Texas)
May have had a single small horn on the top of its frill Bravoceratops NT small.jpg
Brontomerus 2011 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Utah)
Possessed an enlarged ilium which supported powerful leg muscles, which it may have used to kick away predators Brontomerus.jpg
Brontosaurus 1879 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Utah
 Wyoming)
Popularly associated with Apatosaurus but a 2015 study found enough differences for it to be classified as a separate genus[13] Brontosaurus by Tom Parker.png
Caenagnathus 1940 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
One of the largest known caenagnathids
Camarasaurus 1877 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Utah
 Wyoming)
Very common and known from multiple specimens Camarasaurs1.jpg
Camposaurus 1998 Bluewater Creek Formation (Late Triassic, Norian)  United States
( Arizona)
Potentially the oldest known neotheropod Camposaurus arizonensis.png
Camptosaurus 1885 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Utah
 Wyoming)
May have fed on tough vegetation as evidenced by extensive wear frequently exhibited on its teeth[15] Camptosaurus.jpg
Caseosaurus 1998 Tecovas Formation (Late Triassic, Norian)  United States
( Texas)
Possibly synonymous with Chindesaurus
Cathetosaurus 1988 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Colorado
 Wyoming)
A referred specimen shows possible evidence of a keratinous beak[16]
Cedarosaurus 1999 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
One specimen preserves over a hundred gastroliths[17] Cedarosaurus SW.png
Cedarpelta 2001 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Utah)
Lacked the extensive cranial ornamentation of later ankylosaurs
Cedrorestes 2007 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
Known from a partial skeleton. The specific name, C. crichtoni, is named after Michael Crichton, author of Jurassic Park
Centrosaurus 1904 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Hundreds of individuals have been preserved in a single "mega-bonebed"[18] Centrosaurus.png
Cerasinops 2007 Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Combines features of both Asian and American basal ceratopsians Cerasinops BW.jpg
Ceratops 1888 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Although only known from a few bones, this genus is the namesake of the Ceratopsia and the Ceratopsidae
Ceratosaurus (C. nasicornis) (C. magnicornis) 1884 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Utah
 Wyoming)
Possessed a row of osteoderms running down its back Ceratosaurus nasicornis walking.jpg
Chasmosaurus 1914 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Known from multiple remains, including various skulls Chasmosaurus BW.jpg
Chindesaurus 1995 Chinle Formation (Late Triassic, Norian)  United States
( Arizona)
May have been a close relative of Tawa[19]
Chirostenotes 1924 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Originally known only from isolated body parts Volant Chirostenotes.jpg
Cionodon 1874 Denver Formation, Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Colorado)
Poorly known
Citipes 2020 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
The shape of its beak suggests a herbivorous lifestyle
Claosaurus 1890 Niobrara Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Kansas)
Historically conflated with other hadrosaurs Kansas sea2DB.jpg
Coahuilaceratops 2010 Cerro del Pueblo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Mexico
( Coahuila)
Possessed the longest brow horns of any ceratopsian Coahuilaceratops NT.jpg
Coelophysis 1889 Chinle Formation (Late Triassic, Norian)  United States
( Arizona
 New Mexico)
Known from over a thousand specimens, making it one of the more well-known early dinosaurs. Some referred species may belong to their own genera Coelophysis size.jpg
Coelurus 1879 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Wyoming)
Potentially an early member of the tyrannosauroid lineage[20] Coelurus BW.jpg
Colepiocephale 2003 Foremost Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Originally described as a species of Stegoceras Colepiocephale updating version.JPG
Convolosaurus 2019 Twin Mountains Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian)  United States
( Texas)
Before its formal description, it had been informally referred to as the "Proctor Lake hypsilophodont" 3d model Convolosaurus marri.png
Coronosaurus 2012 Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Had irregular masses of small spikes on the very top of its frill Coronosaurus NT small.jpg
Corythosaurus 1914 Dinosaur Park Formation, Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Possessed a semicircular crest which may have been used for vocalization Corythosaurus restoration.jpg
Crittendenceratops 2018 Fort Crittenden Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Arizona)
The youngest known member of the Nasutoceratopsini Crittendenceratops shaded.jpg
Daemonosaurus 2011 Chinle Formation (Late Triassic, Rhaetian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Unique among early theropods for possessing a short snout with long teeth Daemonosaurus chauliodus.jpg
Dakotadon 2008 Lakota Formation (Early Cretaceous, Barremian)  United States
( South Dakota)
Originally named as a species of Iguanodon Dakotadon restoration.png
Dakotaraptor 2015 Hell Creek Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( South Dakota)
Some referred specimens may not belong to this taxon Dakotaraptor wiki.jpg
Daspletosaurus 1970 Oldman Formation, Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)
Instead of lips, it may have possessed crocodile-like scales on its snout[21] Daspletosaurus torDB.jpg
Deinonychus 1969 Antlers Formation, Cloverly Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Maryland?
 Montana
 Oklahoma
 Wyoming)
Its discovery helped researchers realize that dinosaurs were active, warm-blooded animals, kicking off the Dinosaur Renaissance Deinonychus ewilloughby.png
Denversaurus 1988 Lance Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( South Dakota
 Wyoming)
The youngest known nodosaurid[22]
Diabloceratops 2010 Wahweap Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
Had a distinctively short and deep skull Diabloceratops NT.jpg
Diclonius 1876 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Replaced its teeth in such a way that new teeth could be used at the same time as older ones
Dilophosaurus 1970 Kayenta Formation (Early Jurassic, Sinemurian)  United States
( Arizona)
Possessed two semicircular crests running along the length of the skull Dilophosaurus with nest.png
Dineobellator 2020 Ojo Alamo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Several features of its hands and feet may be adaptations for increased grip strength[23] Dineobellator notohesperus NT.jpg
Diplodocus 1878 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Colorado
 Montana
 New Mexico
 Utah
 Wyoming)
Had a long, thin tail that may have been used like a bullwhip[24] Diplodocus carnegii.jpg
Diplotomodon 1868 Hornerstown Formation?/Navesink Formation? (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( New Jersey)
Has been suggested to be non-dinosaurian
Dromaeosaurus 1922 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Analysis of wear on its teeth suggest it preferred tougher prey, including bone Dromaeosaurus Restoration.png
Dromiceiomimus 1972 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
May be synonymous with Ornithomimus edmontonicus Dromiceiomimus 03747.JPG
Dryosaurus 1894 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Utah
 Wyoming)
Remains of multiple growth stages have been found, including embryoes[25] DryosaurusNV.jpg
Dryptosaurus 1877 New Egypt Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( New Jersey)
Its discovery showed that theropods were bipedal animals Dryptosaurus by Durbed.jpg
Dynamoterror 2018 Menefee Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Known from only a single partial skeleton
Dyoplosaurus 1924 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
The holotype specimen preserves skin impressions[26]
Dysganus 1876 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Four species have been named, all from isolated teeth
Dyslocosaurus 1992 Lance Formation?/Morrison Formation? (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian?/Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian?)  United States
( Wyoming)
Has been suggested to have four claws on its hind limbs
Dystrophaeus 1877 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Utah)
Inconsistent in phylogenetic placement, although undescribed remains could further clarify its relationships
Edmontonia 1928 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Possessed forward-pointing, bifurcated spikes on its shoulders Edmontonia rugosidens.png
Edmontosaurus 1917 Frenchman Formation, Hell Creek Formation, Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Lance Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta
 Saskatchewan)
 United States
( Montana
 North Dakota
 South Dakota
 Wyoming)
Known from multiple well-preserved specimens, including a few "mummies". Several were originally assigned to their own genera and/or species Edmontosaurus BW.jpg
Einiosaurus 1994 Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Distinguished by its forward-curving nasal horn Einiosaurus BW.jpg
Eolambia 1998 Cedar Mountain Formation (Late Cretaceous, Cenomanian)  United States
( Utah)
Almost every single bone is known, represented by multiple fossils Eolambia cropped.png
Eotrachodon 2016 Mooreville Chalk (Late Cretaceous, Santonian)  United States
( Alabama)
The first Appalachian hadrosaurid known from a preserved skull[27] Eotrachodon NT small.jpg
Eotriceratops 2007 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
May have been the largest known ceratopsid Eotriceratops BW.jpg
Epichirostenotes 2011 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Its discovery allowed researchers to connect isolated caenagnathid body parts to each other
Euoplocephalus 1910 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Unusually, its palpebral bone was mobile, allowing it to be used as an eyelid[28] Euoplocephalus BW.jpg
Falcarius 2005 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
Transitional between generalized theropods and specialized therizinosaurs[29] Falcarius reconstruction.jpg
Ferrisaurus 2019 Tango Creek Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( British Columbia)
Its holotype was discovered close to a railway line[30] Ferrisaurus.jpg
Foraminacephale 2016 Dinosaur Park Formation, Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Originally believed to be a species of another pachycephalosaurid genus Foraminacephale.png
Fosterovenator 2014 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Wyoming)
Has been variously described as a ceratosaurid, a tetanuran, or a close relative of Elaphrosaurus[31] Fosterovenator churei.jpg
Fruitadens 2010 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado)
One of the smallest known ornithischians[32] Fruitadens.jpg
Galeamopus 2015 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Colorado
 Wyoming)
One specimen is nearly complete, even preserving an associated skull Galeamopus.jpg
Gargoyleosaurus 1998 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Wyoming)
Combines features of both ankylosaurids and nodosaurids Gargoyle.png
Gastonia 1998 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
Several concentrations of fossils may suggest this species lived in herds[33] Gastonia burgei dinosaur.png
Geminiraptor 2010 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
The proportions of its maxilla are similar to those of Late Cretaceous troodontids Geminiraptor NT.jpg
Glishades 2010 Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana
Described as a basal hadrosauroid but may in fact be a juvenile saurolophine[34]
Glyptodontopelta 2000 Ojo Alamo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Originally interpreted as possessing a flat mosaic of osteoderms similar to the shields of glyptodonts
Gojirasaurus 1997 Cooper Canyon Formation (Late Triassic, Norian)  United States
( New Mexico)
May be a chimera consisting of undiagnostic theropod bones mixed with pseudosuchian vertebrae[35] Gojirasaurus BW.jpg
Gorgosaurus 1914 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Dozens of specimens are known Gorgosaurus.png
Gravitholus 1979 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Potentially synonymous with Stegoceras[36]
Gryphoceratops 2012 Milk River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Santonian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Relatively derived despite its early age
Gryposaurus 1914 Dinosaur Park Formation, Javelina Formation?, Kaiparowits Formation, Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Santonian to Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana
 Texas?
 Utah)
One specimen preserves impressions of a row of pyramidal scales running along its back[37] Gryposaurus-notabilis jconway.png
Hadrosaurus 1858 Woodbury Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Jersey)
Its holotype was the first dinosaur skeleton to be mounted Hadrosaurus foulkii restoration.png
Hagryphus 2005 Kaiparowits Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
Large but only known from a single hand Hagryphus2.jpg
Hanssuesia 2003 Dinosaur Park Formation, Judith River Formation, Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)
Possibly a synonym of Stegoceras[36] Hanssuesia sternbergi.jpg
Haplocanthosaurus 1903 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Colorado
 Montana?
 Wyoming)
May have been a basal diplodocoid[13] Haplocanthosaurus.jpg
Hesperonychus 2009 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
A common component of its habitat as indicated by the great number of its remains Hesperonychus elizabethae.jpg
Hesperornithoides 2019 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Wyoming)
Before its formal description, it had been nicknamed "Lori" Hesperornithoides.png
Hesperosaurus 2001 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Montana
 Wyoming)
Two morphotypes of plates are known, which could be explained by sexual dimorphism[38] Hesperosaurus restoration.jpg
Hierosaurus 1909 Niobrara Formation (Late Cretaceous, Coniacian to Campanian)  United States
( Kansas)
Only known from a few bones, including osteoderms
Hippodraco 2010 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
Its tooth crowns were shaped like shields Life restoration of Hippodraco.jpg
Hoplitosaurus 1902 Lakota Formation (Early Cretaceous, Barremian)  United States
( South Dakota)
Known from some osteoderms, including spikes, similar to those of Polacanthus
Huehuecanauhtlus 2012 Unnamed formation (Late Cretaceous, Santonian)  Mexico
( Michoacán)
The southernmost non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid known from North America[39] Huehuecanauhtlus tiquichensis copia.jpg
Hypacrosaurus 1913 Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)
Some juveniles of this genus were originally interpreted as dwarf lambeosaurines Hypacrosaurus altispinus.jpg
Hypsibema 1869 Black Creek Group, Ripley Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Missouri
 North Carolina)
One of the largest known hadrosauroids
Hypsirhophus 1878 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado)
Usually seen as synonymous with Stegosaurus but may be a separate genus due to differences in its vertebrae[40]
Iguanacolossus 2010 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
Large and robustly built Life restoration of Iguanacolossus.jpg
Invictarx 2018 Menefee Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Only known from a few bones but can be distinguished from other genera by characters of its osteoderms
Issi 2021 Fleming Fjord Formation (Late Triassic, Norian)  Greenland
(Sermersooq)
Originally described as an exemplar of Plateosaurus
Jeyawati 2010 Moreno Hill Formation (Late Cretaceous, Turonian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Its postorbital bone had a rugose texture Jeyawati NT.jpg
Judiceratops 2013 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Unusually, its brow horns were teardrop-shaped in cross-section Judiceratops tigris by Nick Longrich.jpg
Kaatedocus 2012 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Wyoming)
One study considered it to be a basal dicraeosaurid[41] Kaatedocus siberi.jpg
Kayentavenator 2010 Kayenta Formation (Early Jurassic, Sinemurian to Pliensbachian)  United States
( Arizona)
Its holotype was juvenile as indicated by unfused neural spines Kayentavenator.jpg
Koparion 1994 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Utah)
Known from a single tooth which may have come from a troodontid Koparion NT.jpg
Kosmoceratops 2010 Kaiparowits Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
Possessed fifteen horns and horn-like structures, including eight hornlets folding down from the top of the frill Kosmoceratops NT small.jpg
Kritosaurus 1910 Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Has an elevated nasal bone with an enlarged nasal cavity to match Kritosaurus BW.jpg
Labocania 1974 La Bocana Roja Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Mexico
( Baja California)
Robustly built with particularly strengthened frontals Labocania anomala.jpg
Lambeosaurus 1923 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Possessed a hollow head crest that varied in shape between species, sexes, and ages. Most familiarly, it was hatchet-shaped in adult male L. lambei Lambeosaurus2-v2.jpg
Laosaurus 1878 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Wyoming)
Several referred specimens have been reassigned to other taxa
Latenivenatrix 2017 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
The largest known troodontid Latenivenatrix.png
Latirhinus 2012 Cerro del Pueblo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Mexico
( Coahuila)
Potentially a chimera composed of lambeosaurine and saurolophine remains[42]
Lepidus 2015 Dockum Group (Late Triassic, Norian)  United States
( Texas)
Muscle scars are preserved on the holotype bones Lepidus praecisio.jpg
Leptoceratops 1914 Hell Creek Formation, Lance Formation, Scollard Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana
 Wyoming)
Analysis of its teeth show it could chew like a mammal, an adaptation to eating tough, fibrous plants[43] Leptoceratops BW.jpg
Leptorhynchos 2013 Aguja Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  United States
( Texas)
Had a slightly upturned mandible similar to those of oviraptorids Leptorhynchos by Nick Longrich.jpg
Lophorhothon 1960 Mooreville Chalk Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Alabama)
Although incomplete, the holotype skull preserves evidence of a crest
Lythronax 2013 Wahweap Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
Already had the forward-directed orbits of derived tyrannosaurids despite its early age Lythronax by Tomopteryx.png
Machairoceratops 2016 Wahweap Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
Possessed two long, forward-pointing horns on the top of its frill Machairoceratops NT small.jpg
Magnapaulia 2012 El Gallo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Mexico
( Baja California)
Has been suggested to be semi-aquatic due to its tall, narrow tail[44] Magnapaulia laticaudus.jpg
Maiasaura 1979 Oldman Formation, Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)
Remains of hundreds of individuals, including juveniles, eggs, and nests, have been found at a single site[45] Maiasaura BW.jpg
Maraapunisaurus 2018 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado)
Named from a single, lost vertebra of immense size
Marshosaurus 1976 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Colorado?
 Utah)
Potentially a close relative of South America megalosauroids[46] Marshosaurus restoration.jpg
Martharaptor 2012 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
Had not yet acquired the robust feet of derived therizinosaurs Martharaptor.jpg
Medusaceratops 2010 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Possessed elongated spikes curving away from the sides of its frill Medusaceratops NT.jpg
Menefeeceratops 2021 Menefee Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
One of the oldest centrosaurines
Mercuriceratops 2014 Dinosaur Park Formation, Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)
Had a "wing"-like projection on its squamosal bone Mercuriceratops NT small.jpg
Microvenator 1970 Cloverly Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian)  United States
( Montana)
Teeth from Deinonychus have been mistakenly attributed to this species Microvenator.jpg
Mierasaurus 2017 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
One of the latest-surviving turiasaurs[47]
Moabosaurus 2017 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian)  United States
( Utah)
Described as a macronarian[48] but has since been reinterpreted as a turiasaur closely related to Mierasaurus[47] Moabosaurus utahensis restoration.png
Monoclonius 1876 Dinosaur Park Formation, Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)
Only known from indistinct remains of juveniles and subadults Monoclonius 07539.JPG
Montanoceratops 1951 Horseshoe Canyon Formation, St. Mary River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)
Often restored with a short nasal horn although this may be a displaced cheek horn[49] Montanoceratops BW.jpg
Moros 2019 Cedar Mountain Formation (Late Cretaceous, Cenomanian)  United States
( Utah)
The proportions of its metatarsals are similar to those of ornithomimids Moros intrepidus reconstruction.png
Mymoorapelta 1994 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado)
The first ankylosaur described from the Morrison Formation
Naashoibitosaurus 1993 Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Had a nasal arch that was not as tall as that of Gryposaurus
Nanosaurus 1877 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Wyoming)
Several referred specimens were originally assigned to other genera Othnielosaurus.jpg
Nanuqsaurus 2014 Prince Creek Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( Alaska)
Described as a dwarf tyrannosaurid although undescribed remains suggest a size comparable to Albertosaurus[50] Nanuqsaurus NT small cropped.png
Nasutoceratops 2013 Kaiparowits Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
Possessed an enlarged nasal cavity and two long, curving horns similar to those of modern cattle Nasutuceratops NT.jpg
Navajoceratops 2020 Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Had a distinctive notch at the very top of its frill, similar to its potential ancestor Pentaceratops[51]
Nedcolbertia 1998 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
Known from three partial skeletons. The specific name, N. justinhofmanni, honors a six-year-old schoolboy who won a contest to have a dinosaur named after him Nedclobertia.jpg
Nevadadromeus 2022 Willow Tank Formation (Late Cretaceous, Coniacian)  United States
( Nevada)
Niobrarasaurus 1995 Niobrara Formation (Late Cretaceous, Coniacian to Campanian)  United States
( Kansas)
Originally mistakenly believed to have been aquatic[52]
Nodocephalosaurus 1999 Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Closely related to Asian ankylosaurs[53]
Nodosaurus 1889 Frontier Formation (Late Cretaceous, Cenomanian to Coniacian)  United States
( Wyoming)
Its armor included banded dermal plates interspersed by bony nodules Nodosaurus 500 TWA.JPG
Nothronychus 2001 Moreno Hill Formation, Tropic Shale (Late Cretaceous, Turonian)  United States
( New Mexico
 Utah)
Would have lived in the marshes and swamps[54] along the Turonian shoreline[55] Nothronychus mckinleyi Restoration.png
Ojoraptorsaurus 2011 Ojo Alamo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Only known from an incomplete pair of pubes Ojoraptorsaurus.jpg
Oohkotokia 2013 Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  United States
( Montana)
Potentially a synonym of Scolosaurus[56]
Ornatops 2021 Menefee Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Preserves a pair of bumps on its skull which may have anchored a crest
Ornitholestes 1903 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Wyoming)
May have possessed a sickle claw similar to those of dromaeosaurids[57] Ornitholestes reconstruction.png
Ornithomimus 1890 Denver Formation, Dinosaur Park Formation, Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Colorado)
One referred specimen preserves impressions of ostrich-like feathers covering most of its body[58] "Ornithomimus" sp. by Tom Parker.png
Orodromeus 1988 Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Eggs considered to belong to this taxon may have actually come from a troodontid[59] Orodromeus (pencil 2013).png
Oryctodromeus 2007 Blackleaf Formation, Wayan Formation (Late Cretaceous, Cenomanian)  United States
( Idaho
 Montana)
Several specimens have been preserved in burrows Oryctodromeus.jpg
Osmakasaurus 2011 Lakota Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( South Dakota)
Originally named as a species of Camptosaurus
Pachycephalosaurus 1943 Hell Creek Formation, Lance Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( Montana
 South Dakota)
Possessed a tall, rounded head dome surrounded by bony knobs Pachycephalosaurus Reconstruction.jpg
Pachyrhinosaurus 1950 Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Prince Creek Formation, St. Mary River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Alaska)
Three species have been named, each with a unique pattern of cranial ornamentation Pachyrhinosaurus BW flipped.jpg
Panoplosaurus 1919 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Unlike other nodosaurs, it lacked enlarged spikes Panoplosaurus 055.JPG
Parasaurolophus 1922 Dinosaur Park Formation, Fruitland Formation, Kaiparowits Formation, Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( New Mexico
 Utah)
Possessed a curved, hollow crest that varied in size between species Parasaurolophus walkeri.png
Paraxenisaurus 2020 Cerro del Pueblo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Mexico
( Coahuila)
Described as the first deinocheirid from North America Paraxenisaurus normalensis as Deinocheirid.jpg
Parksosaurus 1937 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Had long toes which may be an adaptation to walking on soft soils in watercourses and marshlands[54] Parksosaurus Steveoc86.jpg
Paronychodon 1876 Hell Creek Formation, Judith River Formation, Lance Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  United States
( Montana
 North Dakota
 South Dakota
 Wyoming)
Only known from highly distinctive teeth
Pawpawsaurus 1996 Paw Paw Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian)  United States
( Texas)
Had enlarged nasal cavities that gave it an acute sense of smell, even more powerful than that of contemporary theropods[60]
Pectinodon 1982 Hell Creek Formation, Lance Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( Wyoming)
Had comb-like serrations on its teeth
Peloroplites 2008 Cedar Mountain Formation (Late Cretaceous, Cenomanian to Turonian)  United States
( Utah)
One of the largest known nodosaurids
Pentaceratops 1923 Fruitland Formation, Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Its epijugal bones (the hornlets under its eyes) were relatively large Pentaceratops BW.jpg
Planicoxa 2001 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Barremian to Albian)  United States
( Utah)
The rear of its ilium was characteristically flat
Platypelta 2018 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Originally assigned to Euoplocephalus but given its own genus because of several morphological differences
Podokesaurus 1911 Portland Formation (Early Jurassic, Hettangian to Sinemurian)  United States
( Massachusetts)
May have had a tail one and a half times longer than the rest of its skeleton[61] Podokesaurus restoration.jpg
Polyodontosaurus 1932 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
May be identical to Latenivenatrix[62]
Polyonax 1874 Denver Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( Colorado)
Poorly known
Prenoceratops 2004 Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
The only basal ceratopsian known from a bonebed Prenoceratops BW.jpg
Priconodon 1888 Arundel Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Maryland)
Large but only known from teeth
Probrachylophosaurus 2015 Foremost Formation, Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)
Shows a skull morphology transitional between crestless and crested brachylophosaurins Probrachylophosaurus restoration.jpg
Propanoplosaurus 2011 Patuxent Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian)  United States
( Maryland)
Only known from the imprints of a neonate skeleton Propanoplosaurus restoration.png
Prosaurolophus 1916 Dinosaur Park Formation, Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)
Had a relatively large head for a hadrosaur Prosaurolophus Maximus.jpg
Protohadros 1998 Woodbine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Cenomanian)  United States
( Texas)
Possessed a downturned jaw which may be an adaptation to grazing on low-growing plants
Pteropelyx 1889 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Potentially synonymous with Corythosaurus, although this cannot be confirmed due to a lack of cranial remains[63]
Rativates 2016 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Originally described as a specimen of Struthiomimus Rativates.png
Regaliceratops 2015 St. Mary River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Possessed a series of large, pentagonal plates lining its frill Regaliceratops peterhewsi.jpg
Richardoestesia 1990 Aguja Formation, Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Texas)
Teeth assigned to this genus have been recovered all around the world, although they may not represent a single taxon
Rugocaudia 2012 Cloverly Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Montana)
Some of this genus' remains include several caudal vertebrae Rugocaudia.png
Sarahsaurus 2011 Kayenta Formation (Early Cretaceous, Sinemurian to Pliensbachian)  United States
( Arizona)
Possessed strong hands which may indicate a feeding specialization Sarahsaurus restoration.PNG
Saurolophus 1912 Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Had a short, solid crest that pointed directly upwards. A larger, more well-known species has been found in Mongolia Saurolophus scalation.png
Sauropelta 1970 Cloverly Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian)  United States
( Montana
 Wyoming)
Its tail had at least forty vertebrae, making up half of its total body length Sauropelta jconway.png
Sauroposeidon 2000 Antlers Formation, Glen Rose Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Oklahoma
 Texas)
Could raise its head up to 18 metres (59 ft) in the air, the height of a six-storey building[64] Sauroposeidon proteles.jpg
Saurornitholestes 1978 Coachman Formation, Dinosaur Park Formation, Donoho Creek Formation, Kirtland Formation, Mooreville Chalk, Oldman Formation, Tar Heel Formation, Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta
( United States
( Alabama
 Montana
 New Mexico
 North Carolina
 South Carolina)
Its second premaxillary teeth could be adapted to preening feathers[65] Saurornitholestes digging Burrows wahweap.jpg
Scolosaurus 1928 Dinosaur Park Formation, Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Once widely believed to be synonymous with other Dinosaur Park ankylosaurids Scolosaurus SW.png
Scutellosaurus 1981 Kayenta Formation (Early Jurassic, Sinemurian)  United States
( Arizona)
Had hundreds of osteoderms arranged in rows along its back and tail Scutellosaurus lawleri NT.png
Segisaurus 1936 Navajo Sandstone (Early Jurassic, Pliensbachian to Toarcian)  United States
( Arizona)
Preserves evidence of a wishbone similar to that of modern birds Segisaurus.jpg
Seitaad 2010 Navajo Sandstone (Early Jurassic, Pliensbachian)  United States
( Utah)
The holotype may have died when a sand dune collapsed on it[66] Seitaad NT.jpg
Siats 2013 Cedar Mountain Formation (Late Cretaceous, Cenomanian)  United States
( Utah)
Large but inconsistent in phylogenetic placement Siats reconstruction.png
Sierraceratops 2022 Hall Lake Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  United States
( New Mexico)
May be part of a unique clade of ceratopsians only known from southern Laramidia[67]
Silvisaurus 1960 Dakota Formation (Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous, Albian to Cenomanian)  United States
( Kansas)
Hypothesized to live in a forested habitat Silvisaurus.jpg
Smitanosaurus 2020 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado)
Only known from a partial skull and some vertebrae
Sonorasaurus 1998 Turney Ranch Formation (Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous, Albian to Cenomanian)  United States
( Arizona)
State dinosaur of Arizona Sonorasaurus thompsoni.jpg
Sphaerotholus 2002 Frenchman Formation, Hell Creek Formation, Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian to Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta
 Saskatchewan)
 United States
( Montana
 New Mexico)
Although only known from skull fragments, this genus lived in a broad range Sphaerotholus.jpg
Spiclypeus 2016 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Has been described as "boldly audacious". Possibly identical to Ceratops[68] Spiclypeus NT small.jpg
Spinops 2011 Dinosaur Park Formation?/Oldman Formation? (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Described almost a century after its remains were collected Spinops NT.jpg
Stegoceras 1902 Dinosaur Park Formation, Fruitland Formation, Kirtland Formation, Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( New Mexico)
May have been an indiscriminate bulk-feeder due to the shape of its snout[69] Stegoceras validum.jpg
Stegopelta 1905 Frontier Formation (Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous, Albian to Cenomanian)  United States
( Wyoming)
May have possessed a sacral shield similar to other nodosaurs
Stegosaurus 1877 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Wyoming)
Had a single alternating row of large, kite-shaped plates Stegosaurus stenops sophie wiki martyniuk.png
Stellasaurus 2020 Two Medicine Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Possessed an enlarged, thickened nasal horn Rubeosaurus ovatus.png
Stenonychosaurus 1932 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Compared to its body mass, its brain was one of the largest of any non-avian dinosaur's Life reconstruction of Stenonychosaurus.png
Stephanosaurus 1914 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Poorly known
Stokesosaurus 1974 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Utah)
Only known from a few remains but they are enough to tell that it was a tyrannosauroid Stokesosaurus by Tom Parker.png
Struthiomimus 1917 Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Utah)
Known from many specimens, indicating it was a common animal Struthiomimus BW.jpg
Styracosaurus 1913 Dinosaur Park Formation, Two Medicine Formation? (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
 United States
( Montana)?
Possessed several long horns jutting out from the top of its frill, the patterns of which could have varied between individuals[70] Styracosaurus BW.jpg
Supersaurus 1985 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Wyoming)
Several remains were originally believed to represent their own genera Supersaurus dinosaur.png
Suskityrannus 2019 Moreno Hill Formation (Late Cretaceous, Turonian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Small yet already possessed several features of large, derived tyrannosaurids, including an arctometatarsus Suskityrannus life reconstruction.png
Suuwassea 2004 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Montana)
Shares features with both diplodocids and dicraeosaurids, but is more likely a member of the latter group[13][41]
Talos 2011 Kaiparowits Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
The holotype specimen preserves a pathology on its sickle claw[71] Talos sampsoni.jpg
Tanycolagreus 2005 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Utah
 Wyoming)
Had a long, blunt snout Tanycolagreus reconstruction.png
Tatankacephalus 2009 Cloverly Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Montana)
Retained premaxillary teeth in its upper jaws, a basal trait
Tawa 2009 Chinle Formation (Late Triassic, Norian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Well-preserved but inconsistent in phylogenetic placement Tawa hallae Martz.jpg
Tenontosaurus 1970 Antlers Formation, Arundel Formation, Cedar Mountain Formation, Cloverly Formation, Paluxy Formation, Twin Mountains Formation, Wayan Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Idaho
 Maryland
 Montana
 Oklahoma
 Texas
 Utah)
Remains of this genus are often found associated with skeletons of Deinonychus[72] Tenontosaurus BW.jpg
Teratophoneus 2011 Kaiparowits Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
Its snout was shorter and deeper than those of other tyrannosaurids Teratophoneus NT.jpg
Terminocavus 2020 Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Had a teardrop-shaped hole on the top of its frill which was almost closed off by a pair of epoccipitals Terminocavus.jpg
Texacephale 2010 Aguja Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Texas)
Possessed a series of vertical flanges on its dome which may have functioned as "gears" that interlocked when head-butting
Texasetes 1995 Paw Paw Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian)  United States
( Texas)
Potentially synonymous with Pawpawsaurus
Thanatotheristes 2020 Foremost Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
May be a species of Daspletosaurus[73] Thanatotheristes.jpg
Theiophytalia 2006 Purgatoire Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Colorado)
Only known from a skull originally referred to Camptosaurus
Thescelosaurus 1913 Frenchman Formation, Hell Creek Formation, Lance Formation, Laramie Formation, Scollard Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta
 Saskatchewan)
 United States
( Colorado
 South Dakota
 Wyoming)
One specimen was originally considered to have preserved its heart, although later this was found to be a mineral concretion[74] Thescelosaurus filamented.jpg
Thespesius 1856 Lance Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( South Dakota)
Once suggested to be a possible Miocene mammal
Tichosteus 1877 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian)  United States
( Colorado)
Two species have been named, both from isolated vertebrae
Titanoceratops 2011 Fruitland Formation?/Kirtland Formation? (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Potentially a large, old specimen of Pentaceratops[51] Titanoceratops dinosaur.png
Tlatolophus 2021 Cerro del Pueblo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Mexico
( Coahuila)
Possessed a short, broad crest resembling an inverted comma Tlatolophus.png
Torosaurus 1891 Hell Creek Formation, Lance Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( South Dakota
 Utah?
 Wyoming)
Once believed to be potentially synonymous with Triceratops Torosaurus life restoration.png
Torvosaurus 1979 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Colorado
 Wyoming)
Had short but powerfully built arms. Several species, many of them unnamed, have been found in Europe, South America, and possibly Africa Torvosaurus tanneri Reconstruction.png
Tototlmimus 2016 Packard Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Mexico
( Sonora)
The southernmost ornithomimid known from North America
Trachodon 1856 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Several remains assigned to this genus actually belong to other taxa, most notably Edmontosaurus
Triceratops 1889 Denver Formation, Evanston Formation, Hell Creek Formation, Lance Formation, Laramie Formation, Scollard Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta
 Saskatchewan?)
 United States
( Colorado
 Montana
 South Dakota
 Wyoming)
A common ceratopsid with long brow horns and a short nasal horn Triceratops by Tom Patker.png
Trierarchuncus 2020 Hell Creek Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  United States
( Montana)
Known from remains of different sizes which depict how the claws of alvarezsaurids grew more hooked as they aged
Troodon 1856 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Only known from teeth. Most referred skeletal remains cannot be confidently assigned to this genus[62] Troodon (cropped).jpg
Tyrannosaurus 1905 Frenchman Formation, Hell Creek Formation, Lance Formation, Willow Creek Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)  Canada
( Alberta
 Saskatchewan)
 United States
( Colorado
 South Dakota
 Wyoming)
The last, largest, and most well-known tyrannosaurid Tyrannosaurus-rex-Profile-steveoc86.png
Unescoceratops 2012 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Had the roundest teeth of any known leptoceratopsid
Utahceratops 2010 Kaiparowits Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Utah)
Almost the entire skeleton and skull is known Utahceratops gettyi.jpg
Utahraptor 1993 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Berriasian to Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
Very large and powerfully built Utahraptor Restoration.png
Uteodon 2011 Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic, Tithonian)  United States
( Utah)
May be a species of Camptosaurus, with a referred braincase being from Dryosaurus[75]
Vagaceratops 2010 Dinosaur Park Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta
Possessed a row of fused epoccipitals folding over the top of the frill Vagaceratops NT.jpg
Velafrons 2007 Cerro del Pueblo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Mexico
( Coahuila)
May have had elongated neural spines similar to those of Hypacrosaurus altispinus Velafrons BW.jpg
Venenosaurus 2001 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Utah)
Its skeleton has traits of both titanosaurs and more basal macronarians
Wendiceratops 2015 Oldman Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Had three pairs of enlarged, curved epiparietals at the very top of its frill Wendiceratops restoration.PNG
Xenoceratops 2012 Foremost Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Canada
( Alberta)
Possessed two long spines at the top of its frill with smaller knobs at their bases Xenoceratops NT small.jpg
Yehuecauhceratops 2017 Aguja Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  Mexico
( Coahuila)
One of the smallest known ceratopsids Yehuecauhceratops.jpg
Yurgovuchia 2012 Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Valanginian)  United States
( Utah)
May have had a flexible tail due to the structure of its caudal vertebrae Yurgovuchia.jpg
Zapsalis 1876 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Some teeth referred to this genus actually belong to Saurornitholestes[65]
Zephyrosaurus 1980 Cloverly Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian to Albian)  United States
( Montana)
Currently only known from fragmentary remains but several undescribed specimens exist[76]
Ziapelta 2014 Kirtland Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Many specimens are known, most from the front part of the animal Ziapelta.png
Zuniceratops 1998 Moreno Hill Formation (Late Cretaceous, Turonian)  United States
( New Mexico)
Carried a pair of brow horns despite not being a member of the Ceratopsidae Zuniceratops BW.jpg
Zuul 2017 Judith River Formation (Late Cretaceous, Campanian)  United States
( Montana)
Several osteoderms, keratin, and skin remains were found in the positions they had in life Zuul.jpg

Dubious, uncertain, and invalid genera[edit]

Timeline[edit]

This is a timeline of selected dinosaurs from the list above. Time is measured in Ma, megaannum, along the x-axis.

MesozoicTriassicJurassicCretaceousLeptoceratopsEdmontosaurus annectensThescelosaurusTyrannosaurusAnkylosaurusTriceratopsTorosaurusEotriceratopsSaurolophusPachycephalosaurusAlamosaurusMontanoceratopsAlbertosaurusAnchiceratopsVelafronsEdmontosaurus regalisKritosaurusZiapeltaBrachyceratopsHypacrosaurusStruthiomimusPentaceratopsStyracosaurusParasaurolophusOrnithomimusEdmontoniaMonocloniusLambeosaurusCorythosaurusCentrosaurusGorgosaurusTroodonStegocerasBrachylophosaurusGryposaurusNiobrarasaurusZuniceratopsSauroposeidonTenontosaurusDeinonychusAcrocanthosaurusUtahraptorYurgovuchiaFalcariusOrnitholestesBrachiosaurusSaurophaganaxApatosaurusBarosaurusTorvosaurusCeratosaurusDiplodocusHaplocanthosaurusStegosaurusAllosaurusDryosaurusCamarasaurusBrontosaurusCamptosaurusScutellosaurusMegapnosaurusCoelophysisMesozoicTriassicJurassicCretaceous

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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