List of North American dinosaurs

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This is a list of dinosaurs whose remains have been recovered from North America. North America has a rich dinosaur fossil record with great diversity of dinosaurs.

History[edit]

The earliest record of dinosaurs in North America comes from rare, unidentified (possibly theropod) footprints and teeth in the Middle-Late Triassic Pekin Formation of North Carolina.[1] Later in the Triassic period, dinosaurs left more recognizable remains, and could thus be identified as specific genera. Examples of later Triassic North American dinosaur genera include Coelophysis, Chindesaurus, Gojirasaurus, and Tawa. Fossils of Tawa have also been found in South America, which has important indications about paleogeography. During the Early Jurassic Period, dinosaurs such as Dilophosaurus, Anchisaurus, Megapnosaurus (formerly known as Syntarsus), and the early thyreophoran Scutellosaurus lived in North America. The latter is believed to have been the ancestor of all stegosaurs and ankylosaurs. The Middle Jurassic is the only poorly represented time period in North America, although several Middle Jurassic localities are known from Mexico. Footprints, eggshells, teeth, and fragments of bone representing theropods, sauropods, and ornithopods have been found, but none of them are diagnostic to the genus level.

VOA report about North American dinosaurs

The Late Jurassic of North America, however, is the exact opposite of the Middle Jurassic. The Late Jurassic Morrison Formation is found in several U.S. states, including Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Montana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas. It is notable as being the most fertile single source of dinosaur fossils in the world. The roster of dinosaurs from the Morrison is impressive. Among the theropods, Allosaurus, Saurophaganax, Torvosaurus, Ceratosaurus, Coelurus, Ornitholestes, Tanycolagreus, Stokesosaurus, and Marshosaurus are found in the Morrison. An abundance of sauropods has been found there, including Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Barosaurus, Brachiosaurus, Camarasaurus, Brontosaurus and Amphicoelias. Three genera of stegosaurs, Alcovasaurus, Stegosaurus and Hesperosaurus, have been found there. Finally, ornithopods found in the Morrison include Dryosaurus, Camptosaurus, Drinker, Othnielia, and Othnielosaurus.

During the Early Cretaceous, new dinosaurs evolved to replace the old ones. Sauropods were still present, but they were not as diverse as they were in the Jurassic Period. Theropods from the Early Cretaceous of North America include dromaeosaurids such as Deinonychus and Utahraptor, Acrocanthosaurus, and Microvenator. Sauropods included Astrodon, Brontomerus, and Sauroposeidon. Ornithischians were more diverse than they were in the Jurassic Period. Tenontosaurus, Dakotadon, Protohadros, and Eolambia are some of the ornithopods that lived during this time period. Ankylosaurs replaced their stegosaur cousins in the Cretaceous. Ankylosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of North America include Sauropelta and Gastonia. Therizinosaurs such as Falcarius are also known from the Early Cretaceous of North America.

Finally, the Late Cretaceous Period, the greatest abundance and diversity of dinosaurs of all time lived in North America. During the early part of the Late Cretaceous, the therizinosaur Nothronychus and the ceratopsian Zuniceratops lived. During the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous, an enormous diversity of dinosaurs is known. Theropods included the tyrannosaurs Albertosaurus, Gorgosaurus, Daspletosaurus, Teratophoneus, Bistahieversor, and Appalachiosaurus, and the dromaeosaurids Dromaeosaurus, Saurornitholestes, Atrociraptor, and Bambiraptor. Ceratopsians, such as Pachyrhinosaurus, Styracosaurus, Centrosaurus, Monoclonius, Brachyceratops and Pentaceratops also existed. Among hadrosaurs, Hypacrosaurus, Gryposaurus, Kritosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Corythosaurus, Lambeosaurus and Prosaurolophus existed. During the latest Cretaceous, the Maastrichtian age, the diversity of dinosaurs saw a decline from the preceding Campanian stage. North American herbivorous dinosaurs from this time period include the titanosaur sauropod Alamosaurus, the ceratopsians Bravoceratops, Regaliceratops, Triceratops, Leptoceratops, Torosaurus, Nedoceratops (a possible species of Triceratops), Tatankaceratops (another possible species of Triceratops), and Ojoceratops, the pachycephalosaurs Pachycephalosaurus, Stygimoloch, Dracorex, and Sphaerotholus, the hadrosaurs Augustynolophus, Saurolophus and Edmontosaurus, the ornithopod Thescelosaurus the ankylosaur Ankylosaurus and the nodosaurs Denversaurus, Glyptodontopelta and Edmontonia. Predatory dinosaurs from this time period included the tyrannosaurids Tyrannosaurus, Nanotyrannus (which may just be a juvenile of the former) and Dryptosaurus, the ornithomimids Ornithomimus and Struthiomimus, the oviraptorids Anzu, Leptorhynchos and Ojoraptorsaurus, the troodontids Pectinodon, Paronychodon and Troodon, the coelurosaur Richardoestesia and the dromaeosaurs Acheroraptor and Dakotaraptor.

The only dinosaur fossil from Central America is a femur of a ornithopod.,[2][3] discovered in the central part of Honduras in the year 1971 near San Luis, Comayagua Department, by Bruce Simonson and Gregory Horne. It was found in the highest part of the Valle de Angeles Redbeds. The fossil bone is in the US National Museum of Natural History in Washington (catalog number USNM PAL 181339). It was identified as ornithopod bone by John Ostrom,[3] and by Nicholas Hotton as the right femur of a small hadrosaur.[4]

There is also an older report of dinosaur fossil from Honduras documented only in US newspapers at 1933, but not scientifically documented . This report comments the discovery of a dinosaur ankle bone near the town of Olanchito, Yoro Department, Honduras; by the explorer Gregory Mason. This information is described on page 9 of The Washington Post of August 23, 1933, on page 8 of the newspaper The Norwalk Hour August 24, 1933[5] and on page 6 of Nebraska newspaper The Plattsmouth Journal of August 21 of 1933[6]

List[edit]

Key
Nomen dubium
Invalid
Nomen nudum

Inclusion criteria:

Name Period Diet[7] Notes
Abydosaurus Early Cretaceous herbivore Last known sauropod until appearance of Alamosaurus
Achelousaurus Late Cretaceous herbivore
Acheroraptor Late Cretaceous carnivore
Acristavus Late Cretaceous herbivore
Acrocanthosaurus Early Cretaceous carnivore
Acrotholus Early Cretaceous herbivore
Agathaumas Late Cretaceous herbivore Dubious, see article
Agujaceratops Late Cretaceous herbivore
Ahshislepelta Late Cretaceous herbivore
Alamosaurus Late Cretaceous herbivore
Alaskacephale Cretaceous herbivore
Albertaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Albertadromeus Cretaceous herbivore
Albertonykus Cretaceous carnivore/insectivore
Albertosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Alcovasaurus Jurassic herbivore -
Aletopelta Cretaceous herbivore
Allosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Amphicoelias Jurassic herbivore
Anasazisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Anatotitan Cretaceous herbivore
Anchiceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Anchisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Angulomastacator Cretaceous herbivore
Animantarx Cretaceous herbivore
Ankylosaurus Late Cretaceous herbivore
Anodontosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Antrodemus Jurassic carnivore Probably synonymous with Allosaurus, see article
Anzu Cretaceous omnivore
Apatodon Jurassic carnivore Highly dubious, see article
Apatosaurus Jurassic herbivore Formerly known as Brontosaurus
Appalachiosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Arkansaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Arrhinoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Astrodon Cretaceous herbivore
Astrophocaudia Cretaceous herbivore
Atlantosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Atrociraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Augustynolophus Cretaceous herbivore
Aublysodon Cretaceous carnivore
Avaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Bambiraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Barosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Beelemodon Jurassic carnivore
Bistahieversor Cretaceous carnivore
Brachiosaurus Jurassic/Cretaceous herbivore
Brachyceratops Cretaceous herbivore Only juvenile fossils found so far
Brachylophosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Bravoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Brontomerus Cretaceous herbivore
Brontosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Camarasaurus Jurassic herbivore
Camposaurus Triassic carnivore
Camptosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Capitalsaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Caseosaurus Triassic carnivore
Cathetosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Cedarosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Cedarpelta Cretaceous herbivore
Cedrorestes Cretaceous herbivore
Centrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Not to be confused with Kentrosaurus
Cerasinops Cretaceous herbivore
Ceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Ceratosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Chasmosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Chindesaurus Triassic carnivore
Chirostenotes Cretaceous carnivore
Cionodon Cretaceous herbivore
Claorhynchus Cretaceous herbivore Dubious, see article
Claosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Coahuilaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Coelophysis Triassic carnivore
Coelurus Jurassic carnivore
Coelosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Colepiocephale Cretaceous herbivore
Comanchesaurus Triassic carnivore
Coronosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Corythosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Daemonosaurus Triassic carnivore
Dakotadon Cretaceous herbivore
Dakotaraptor Late Cretaceous carnivore Latest known dromaeosaurid
Deinodon Cretaceous carnivore Dubious, see article
Deinonychus Cretaceous carnivore
Diabloceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Diclonius Cretaceous herbivore
Dilophosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Diplodocus Jurassic herbivore
Diplotomodon Cretaceous carnivore
Dracorex Cretaceous herbivore
Drinker Jurassic herbivore
Dromaeosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Dromiceiomimus Cretaceous omnivore
Dryosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Dryptosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Dyoplosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Dysganus Cretaceous herbivore
Dyslocosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Dystrophaeus Jurassic herbivore
Edmontonia Late Cretaceous herbivore
Edmontosaurus Late Cretaceous herbivore
Einiosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Eolambia Cretaceous herbivore
Eotrachodon Cretaceous herbivore
Epanterias Jurassic carnivore
Epichirostenotes Cretaceous carnivore
Euoplocephalus Cretaceous herbivore
Falcarius Cretaceous (unknown)”
Fruitadens Jurassic herbivore
Galeamopus Jurassic herbivore
Gargoyleosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Gastonia Cretaceous herbivore
Geminiraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Glishades Cretaceous herbivore
Glyptodontopelta Cretaceous herbivore
Gojirasaurus Triassic carnivore
Gorgosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Gravitholus Cretaceous herbivore
Gryphoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Gryposaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Hadrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Hagryphus Cretaceous carnivore
Hanssuesia Cretaceous herbivore
Haplocanthosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Hesperonychus Cretaceous carnivore
Hesperosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Hippodraco Cretaceous herbivore
Hoplitosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Huehuecanauhtlus Cretaceous herbivore
Hypacrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Hypsibema Cretaceous herbivore
Iguanacolossus Cretaceous herbivore
Jeyawati Cretaceous herbivore
Judiceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Kaatedocus Jurassic herbivore
Kayentavenator Jurassic carnivore
Koparion Jurassic carnivore
Kosmoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Kritosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Labocania Cretaceous carnivore
Lambeosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Laosaurus Jurassic/Cretaceous herbivore
Latenivenatrix Cretaceous carnivore
Latirhinus Cretaceous herbivore
Leptoceratops Late Cretaceous herbivore
Leptorhynchos Late Cretaceous omnivore
Lophorhothon Cretaceous herbivore
Lythronax Cretaceous carnivore
Magnapaulia Cretaceous herbivore
Magulodon Cretaceous herbivore
Maiasaura Cretaceous herbivore
Marshosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Martharaptor Cretaceous carnivore
Megapnosaurus Jurassic carnivore Formerly known as Syntarsus
Medusaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Mercuriceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Microcephale Cretaceous herbivore
Microvenator Cretaceous carnivore
Moabosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Mojoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Monoclonius Cretaceous herbivore
Montanoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Mymoorapelta Jurassic herbivore
Naashoibitosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Nanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Nanuqsaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Nanotyrannus Cretaceous carnivore Possibly a T. rex juvenile
Nasutoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Nedcolbertia Cretaceous carnivore
Nedoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Niobrarasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Nodocephalosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Nodosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Nothronychus Cretaceous herbivore
Ojoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Ojoraptorsaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Oohkotokia Cretaceous herbivore
Orcomimus Cretaceous carnivore
Ornitholestes Jurassic carnivore
Ornithomimus Cretaceous omnivore
Orodromeus Cretaceous herbivore
Oryctodromeus Cretaceous herbivore
Osmakasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Othnielia Jurassic herbivore
Othnielosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Pachycephalosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Pachyrhinosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Palaeopteryx Jurassic insectivore Dubious, see article
Palaeoscincus Cretaceous herbivore
Paluxysaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Panoplosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Parasaurolophus Cretaceous herbivore
Parksosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Paronychodon Cretaceous carnivore
Pawpawsaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Peloroplites Cretaceous herbivore
Pectinodon Cretaceous carnivore
Pentaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Planicoxa Cretaceous herbivore
Pleurocoelus Cretaceous herbivore
Podokesaurus Jurassic carnivore
Polyonax Cretaceous herbivore
Prenoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Priconodon Cretaceous herbivore
Propanoplosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Prosaurolophus Cretaceous herbivore
Protoavis Triassic carnivore Dubious, see article
Protohadros Cretaceous herbivore
Pteropelyx Cretaceous herbivore
Richardoestesia Cretaceous carnivore
Rubeosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Sarahsaurus Jurassic herbivore
Saurolophus Cretaceous herbivore
Sauropelta Cretaceous herbivore
Saurophaganax Jurassic carnivore Possibly the top land predator of the Late Jurassic
Sauroposeidon Cretaceous herbivore
Saurornitholestes Cretaceous carnivore
Scelidosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Scolosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Scutellosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Segisaurus Jurassic carnivore
Seitaad Jurassic omnivore
Siats Cretaceous carnivore
Silvisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Sonorasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Sphaerotholus Cretaceous herbivore
Spinops Cretaceous herbivore
Stegoceras Cretaceous herbivore
Stegopelta Cretaceous herbivore
Stegosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Stenonychosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Stephanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Stokesosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Struthiomimus Cretaceous omnivore
Stygimoloch Cretaceous herbivore
Styracosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Supersaurus Jurassic herbivore
Suuwassea Jurassic herbivore
Talos Cretaceous carnivore
Tanycolagreus Jurassic carnivore
Tatankacephalus Cretaceous herbivore
Tatankaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Tawa Triassic carnivore
Tenontosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Teratophoneus Cretaceous carnivore
Texacephale Cretaceous herbivore
Texasetes Cretaceous herbivore
Theiophytalia Cretaceous herbivore
Thescelosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Thespesius Cretaceous herbivore
Tichosteus Jurassic herbivore
Titanoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Torosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Torvosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Trachodon Cretaceous herbivore Dubious, see article
Triceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Troodon Cretaceous carnivore Includes Stenonychosaurus and Polyodontosaurus.
Tyrannosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Unescoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Utahceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Utahraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Uteodon Jurassic herbivore
Vagaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Velafrons Cretaceous herbivore
Venenosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Xenoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Yurgovuchia Cretaceous carnivore
Zapsalis Cretaceous carnivore
Ziapelta Cretaceous herbivore
Zephyrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Zuniceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Zuul Cretaceous herbivore -

Timeline[edit]

This is a timeline of selected dinosaurs from the list above. Time is measured in Ma, megaannum, along the x-axis.

Mesozoic Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Thescelosaurus Tyrannosaurus Edmontosaurus annectens Ankylosaurus Triceratops Torosaurus Eotriceratops Pachycephalosaurus Leptoceratops Alamosaurus Montanoceratops Albertosaurus Ziapelta Saurolophus Anchiceratops Edmontosaurus regalis Struthiomimus Hypacrosaurus Velafrons Kritosaurus Pentaceratops Troodon Ornithomimus Brachyceratops Parasaurolophus Styracosaurus Edmontonia Corythosaurus Centrosaurus Brachylophosaurus Stegoceras Lambeosaurus Gorgosaurus Monoclonius Gryposaurus Niobrarasaurus Zuniceratops Sauroposeidon Deinonychus Acrocanthosaurus Tenontosaurus Yurgovuchia Falcarius Utahraptor Torvosaurus Ornitholestes Brachiosaurus Diplodocus Saurophaganax Dryosaurus Ceratosaurus Camarasaurus Barosaurus Apatosaurus Stegosaurus Eobrontosaurus Camptosaurus Allosaurus Haplocanthosaurus Megapnosaurus Scutellosaurus Coelophysis Mesozoic Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "CGS Interactive Field Trips". www.ncgeology.com. Retrieved 2016-04-13. 
  2. ^ LUCAS, S. G., 2014: Vertebrate paleontology in Central America: 30 years of progress.- Rev. Geol. Amér. Central, Número
  3. ^ a b Horne, Gregory S., M. G. Atwood, and Allen P. King. 1974. “Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, and Paleoenvironment of Esquias Formation of Honduras.” AAPG Bulletin 58 (2): 176–88.
  4. ^ Horne, Gregory S. 1994. “A Mid-Cretaceous Ornithopod from Central Honduras.” Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14 (1): 147–50
  5. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=TVcpAAAAIBAJ&sjid=EW4FAAAAIBAJ&hl=es&pg=3853%2C4175165
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2016-03-09. 
  7. ^ Diet is sometimes hard to determine for dinosaurs and should be considered a "best guess"