List of North American settlements by year of foundation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of settlements in North America by founding year and present-day country.

Year Settlement Subdivision Country Notes
c. 7794–7664 BC Tlapacoya Ixtapaluca Mexico Silvia González et al. have published research claiming that "one Tlapacoya skull is the first directly dated human in Mexico with an age of 9730 ± 65 years BP" (before present).[1]
1500 BC Tepoztlán Morelos Mexico
1500 BC San José Mogote Oaxaca Mexico
1500 BC Chalcatzingo Morelos Mexico
1500 BC Calixtlahuaca Mexico Mexico
1500 BC Kaminaljuyu Guatemala Guatemala
1400 BC Teopantecuanitlan Guerrero Mexico
1400 BC Nakbe Petén Guatemala
1200 BC San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán Veracruz Mexico
1200 BC La Venta Veracruz Mexico
1150 BC Etlatongo Oaxaca Mexico
1000 BC Xochitecatl Tlaxcala Mexico
1000 BC Cuicuilco Tlalpan Mexico
1000 BC Tres Zapotes Veracruz Mexico
950 BC Takalik Abaj Retalhuleu Guatemala
950 BC El Mirador Petén Guatemala
950 BC Uaxactun Petén Guatemala
800 BC Zazacatla Morelos Mexico
700 BC Ticul Yucatán Mexico
600 BC Tikal Petén Guatemala
500 BC Monte Albán Oaxaca Mexico
500 BC Cholula Puebla Mexico Possibly the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in the Americas.
400 BC Tula Hidalgo Mexico
300 BC Teotihuacan México Mexico In the Valley of Mexico
200 Mitla Oaxaca Mexico
600 Cantona Puebla Mexico
650 Cahokia Illinois United States
985? Eastern Settlement Greenland Denmark First European settlement in the Americas. The Norse explorer Erik the Red established this settlement, followed by the Western Settlement, ca. 985.
1000 L'Anse aux Meadows Newfoundland & Labrador Canada First European settlement in the Americas (excluding Greenland). The Norse explorer Leif Ericson established a settlement at 51°N on this site in 1003.
1050 Motul Yucatán Mexico
1054 Antiguo Cuscatlan La Libertad El Salvador Cuscatlán was founded in 1054 by Topiltzin Atzil, last king of Tula of Anahuac. It was a city inhabited by ten thousand, with an additional twelve thousand people who lived in xacal, straw huts distributed at the edge of a maar (crater) which housed the sacred lake of Cuscatlan. In the contemporary Native language, Cuscatlán means Jewel City. On Saturday June 17, 1524, led by Pedro de Alvarado, the Spanish conquistadors found the doors of Cuscatlan, capital of the Lordship of Cuscatlan.
1100 Oraibi Arizona United States [2]
1144 Acoma Pueblo New Mexico United States Oldest continuously occupied communities in the USA. The Acoma Pueblo today is known as Sky City.
1325 Tenochtitlan Distrito Federal Mexico Today this city is known as Mexico City
1450 Taos Pueblo New Mexico United States One of the oldest continuously inhabited Native American settlements in the United States
1497 St. John's[3] Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Oldest English-founded city in North America.[4] Seasonal until about 1630.
1498 Santo Domingo Distrito Nacional Dominican Republic Capital of the Dominican Republic. Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in the Americas.
1508 Caparra Puerto Rico United States
1509 Sevilla la Nueva Seville, St. Ann's Bay Jamaica Established by Juan de Esquivel, the first Spanish Governor of Jamaica, St Ann's Bay became the third capital established by Spain in the Americas.
1510 Nombre de Dios Colón Panama Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in Panama and continental America.
1511 Baracoa Guantánamo Cuba Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in Cuba, former capital of Cuba.
1513 Bayamo Granma Cuba Former capital in Cuba in 1513.
1514 Santiago Santiago Cuba
1515 Havana Havana Cuba Current capital of Cuba
1519 La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz Veracruz Mexico Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in Mexico.
1519 Panama City Panamá Panama First European city on the Pacific coast of the Americas[5]
1521 San Juan Puerto Rico United States Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in The United States.
1524 Quetzaltenango Guatemala Guatemala
1525 San Salvador San Salvador Department El Salvador Diego de Holguín became the first mayor of San Salvador after the town was founded on April 1, 1525. Founded in what is now the archaeological site Ciudad Vieja, north of the present-day city, it was moved to the Valle de Las Hamacas or the Acelhuate Valley, named so due to the intense seismic activity that characterizes it. On January 2011 San Salvador was named the Iboeroamerican Capital of Culture because the first independent movements in Central America were played in San Salvador on November 5, 1811.
1524 Granada Granada Nicaragua Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in Nicaragua.
1526 Acámbaro Guanajuato Mexico
1526 San Miguel de Gualdape Georgia United States First European settlement in the continental United States. It was abandoned after only 3 months.
1531 Mazatlán Sinaloa Mexico
1531 Culiacán Sinaloa Mexico
1532 Oaxaca Oaxaca Mexico
1534 Villa de la Vega Saint Catherine Parish Jamaica After founding Seville in 1509, Spanish settlers moved to a new, healthier site, which they named Villa de la Vega. The English later renamed it Spanish Town when they conquered the island in 1655.
1535 Québec Quebec Canada Original settlement on this site was established by Jacques Cartier in 1535 but abandoned in 1536. He returned in 1541 but abandoned the site again. Samuel de Champlain established a permanent settlement on July 3–4, 1608. Only completely garrison-walled city north of Mexico.
1536 San Pedro Sula Cortés Honduras
1539 Zuni Pueblo New Mexico United States [Ferguson, T.J. (1985). A Zuni Atlas. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press]
1540 Compostela Nayarit Mexico Known as Capital de la Nueva Galicia Compostela (1548–1560)
1540 Childersburg Alabama United States Recently claimed by the city to be the oldest city in America.[6] Established by Native Americans.
1540 Campeche Campeche Mexico
1541 Morelia Michoacan Mexico Known as Valladolid until 1828.
1541 Charlesbourg-Royal Quebec Canada First French settlement (short lived)
1542 Yuriria Guanajuato Mexico
1542 Mérida Yucatán Mexico Founded by Francisco de Montejo over the ruins of the Maya city of T'ho.
1542 Guadalajara Jalisco Mexico
1542 San Miguel de Allende Guanajuato Mexico
1543 Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (Antigua Guatemala) Guatemala Guatemala
1550 Acapulco Guerrero Mexico Discovered by Cortés in 1531; settlement founded in 1550.[7]
1559 Pensacola Florida United States Spanish explorer Tristán de Luna founded a short-lived settlement in 1559.
1560 Port of Spain Port of Spain Trinidad And Tobago In 1560, a Spanish garrison was posted near the foot of the Laventille Hills, which today form the city's eastern boundary.
1563 Cartago Cartago Costa Rica Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement Costa Rica.
1564 Fort Caroline Florida United States Permanent settlement of 200 soldiers and artisans began in 1564, led by Rene de Goulaine de Laudonniere, who had accompanied Ribault on the previous expedition. With help from the Timucua Indians, the colonists began building a village and fort on the river’s south bank, naming the area La Caroline after their king, Charles IX.
1564 Villa Hermosa de San Juan Bautista Tabasco México The city was founded on June 24, 1564 (day of San Juan Bautista, hence its original name) by the Spanish Don Diego de Quijada
1565 Saint Augustine Florida United States The oldest continuously inhabited European-established settlement in the Continental United States.
1566 Saint Marys Georgia United States The second oldest continuously inhabited European-established settlement in the Continental United States located on the St. Mary's River.
1573 San Germán Puerto Rico United States
1575 Saltillo Coahuila Mexico Oldest post-conquest settlement in northern Mexico.[8]
1575 Aguascalientes Aguascalientes Mexico
1576 León Guanajuato Mexico
1583 Harbour Grace[9] Newfoundland and Labrador Canada First permanent English settlement in North America.
1585 Roanoke Colony North Carolina United States Settlers first left on island August 17, 1585.[ambiguous][clarification needed][10]
1596 Monterrey Nuevo León Mexico
1597 Portobelo Colón Panama
1598 Parras Coahuila Mexico
1598 Española New Mexico United States Along with San Juan de los Caballeros, the first European-founded capital of the "New World" located within the boundaries of the United States; established by Juan de Oñate
1598 San Juan de los Caballeros New Mexico United States Along with Española, the oldest European-founded settlement in the Southwestern United States
1599 Tadoussac Quebec Canada Oldest continuously inhabited French established settlement in the Americas, oldest European established settlement in Quebec.
1603 Salamanca Guanajuato Mexico
1604 Saint John New Brunswick Canada
1604 Canso Nova Scotia Canada Founded in 1604, setting began in 1518 by European Fur Traders and Fisherman. Canso and the surrounding Islands were involved in the French and English struggles to gain control of the area.
1604 L'Ile-aux-Marins Saint Pierre and Miquelon France
1604 Saint Croix Island Maine United States Established in the summer of 1604 by a French expedition led by Pierre Dugua that included Samuel de Champlain. After the winter of 1604–1605 the survivors relocated and founded Port Royal, Nova Scotia.[11]
1605 Port Royal Nova Scotia Canada Established in the summer of 1605 by French colonizing explorers Pierre du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain who, in 1608, would establish Quebec City.
1607 Jamestown Virginia United States Oldest settlement in the original thirteen colonies comprising the United States of America
1607 Popham Colony Maine United States Short lived settlement; project of the Plymouth Company
1607 Santa Fe New Mexico United States Oldest continuously inhabited state capital in the US.
1610 Cupids Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Oldest continuously occupied English settlement in Canada.
1610 Hampton Virginia United States Oldest continuously occupied English settlement in the United States.
1610 Kecoughtan Virginia United States
1611 Henricus Virginia United States
1612 St. George's St. George Bermuda Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in Bermuda.
1613 Newport News, Virginia Virginia United States
1614 Albany, New York New York United States Oldest European settlement in New York State, founded as Fort Nassau, 1614, Fort Orange 1623. First Dutch settlement in North America.
1615 Taos, New Mexico New Mexico United States
1620 Plymouth Massachusetts United States The oldest town in New England and Massachusetts. Settled by pilgrims of The Mayflower
1622 Weymouth Massachusetts United States As Wessagussett, resettled and renamed in 1623
1623 South Berwick Maine United States Settled by men whom landed at the confluence of the Salmon Falls and Great Works Rivers on the ship Pied Cow
1623 Dover New Hampshire United States oldest settlement in New Hampshire
1623 Gloucester Massachusetts United States Abandoned in 1629 but quickly resettled
1624 Burlington New Jersey United States
1624 New Amsterdam New York United States Now New York City. Was settled 1624 on Governors Island, moved to Manhattan 1625.
1625 Merrymount Massachusetts United States Now Quincy, Massachusetts
1626 Salem Massachusetts United States
1626 Socorro New Mexico United States Originally founded as Nuestra Señora de Perpetuo Socorro in 1626; abandoned in 1680 following the Pueblo Revolt; resettled in 1815
1627 Scituate Massachusetts United States Scituate, Massachusetts
1627 Basseterre Saint Kitts Saint Kitts and Nevis
1628 Bridgetown Saint Michael Barbados
1629 Marblehead Massachusetts United States Founded as first naval stronghold for the colonies.
1629 Lynn Massachusetts United States Founded as Saugus, different from town today known as Saugus.
1629 Charlestown Massachusetts United States Now a neighborhood in Boston
1630 Portsmouth New Hampshire United States First known as Strawbery Banke.
1630 Jersey City New Jersey United States Pavonia, first Dutch settlement in New Jersey
1630 Medford Massachusetts United States Settled on the "Ford" by Meadow
1630 Boston Massachusetts United States Founded by John Winthrop and his fleet, as Trimountaine
1630 Dorchester Massachusetts United States Now a neighborhood in Boston
1630 Boston Massachusetts United States Now a neighborhood in Boston
1631 Saco Maine United States Settled as Winter Harbor.
1631 Lewes Delaware United States Purchased in 1629 and settled as a short-lived Dutch colony named Zwaanendael in 1631. Because Lewes was the earliest town founded in the state, and because Delaware was the first state to ratify the constitution, the town refers to itself as "The first town in the first state."
1631 Cambridge Massachusetts United States Drake, Samuel Adams (1880). History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts. 1. Boston: Estes and Lauriat. pp. 305–16. Retrieved December 26, 2008.
1632 Williamsburg Virginia United States
1633 Ipswich Massachusetts United States
1632 St. John's Antigua Antigua and Barbuda
1633 Hartford Connecticut United States

Founded as Fort Hoop by the Dutch, renamed by English in 1637, by Thomas Hooker

1633 Windsor Connecticut United States First English settlement in Connecticut.[12] Founded as Dorchester, renamed in 1637
1634 Beauport Quebec Canada [13] Became a borough of Québec in January, 2002.
1634 Wethersfield Connecticut United States Founded as Watertown, renamed in 1637.
1634 Green Bay Wisconsin United States
1634 St. Mary's City Maryland United States
1634 Trois-Rivières Quebec Canada
1634 Willemstad Curaçao Kingdom of the Netherlands Formerly Part of the now dissolved Netherlands Antilles, now autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Not to be confused with one of its constituent countries, the Netherlands)
1635 Concord Massachusetts United States
1635 Newbury Massachusetts United States
1636 Springfield Massachusetts United States The Massachusetts Bay Colony's first Connecticut River port – and, by far, its westernmost settlement, sitting 85 miles west of the colonial capital at Boston.[14] Founded as Agawam Plantation by William Pynchon.
1636 Providence Rhode Island United States Oldest settlement in Rhode Island, founded by Roger Williams.
1637 Taunton Massachusetts United States


1637 Sandwich Massachusetts United States Oldest town on Cape Cod


1638 Rowley Massachusetts United States


1638 Portsmouth Rhode Island United States Founded by Anne Hutchinson
1638 Exeter New Hampshire United States One of the four original towns of New Hampshire. Revolutionary War Capital of New Hampshire and site of the ratification of the first state constitution in the North American colonies in January 1776.
1638 Hampton New Hampshire United States Founded by Stephen Bachiler. First known as Winnicunnet.
1638 Sillery Quebec Canada [18] Now part of Québec
1638 Swedesboro New Jersey United States Nucleus of the New Sweden colony that spread along the Delaware River into Pennsylvania and Delaware.
1638 New Haven Connecticut United States


1638 Sainte-Foy Quebec Canada [13] Merged with the City of Québec in 2002.
1638 Wilmington Delaware United States Grew from Fort Christina, part of the New Sweden colony. Originally called Willington.
1639 (prior to) St. Marks Florida United States [20]
1639 Stratford Connecticut United States [21]
1639 Newport Rhode Island United States
1639 Sudbury Massachusetts United States
1640 Farmington Connecticut United States Founded as Tunxis.
1640 Braintree Massachusetts United States Land first settled in 1625 as Merrymount, resettled and incorporated in 1640 [22]
1640 Woburn Massachusetts United States First settled in 1640, incorporated in 1642 [23]
1641 Haverhill Massachusetts United States First settled in 1640, incorporated 1641
1642 Maspeth New York United States
1642 Montreal Quebec Canada Founded in 1642 and incorporated later on.
1642 Lexington Massachusetts United States [24]
1642 Sorel Quebec Canada [13][18] Now known as Sorel-Tracy.
1642 Warwick Rhode Island United States
1643 Basse-Terre Guadeloupe France Territorial capital.
1643 Dolores Hidalgo Guanajuato Mexico
1643 Guilford Connecticut United States [21]
1643 Rehoboth Massachusetts United States Settled 1636. Incorporated 1643.
1644 Longmeadow Massachusetts United States Settled in 1644. Incorporated October 17, 1783.
1644 Branford Connecticut United States Known as Brentford at first.
1644 Salvatierra Guanajuato Mexico
1645 Vlissingen New York United States Now Flushing, New York.
1646 Andover Massachusetts United States The original Andover, founded by Simon and Anne Bradstreet along with the Barker, Osgood, Stevens, Woodbridge and other families, broke into two separate towns April 7, 1855.
1646 Château-Richer Quebec Canada [25]
1646 New London Connecticut United States Founded as Faire Harbour
1647 Kittery Maine United States Oldest incorporated town in Maine.[26]
1647 La Prairie Quebec Canada [13] La Prairie was established as a mission by the Jesuits in 1647. The first parish was founded in 1667.
1647 Spanish Wells Eleuthera Bahamas
1649 Annapolis Maryland United States
1650 Saint-Ours Quebec Canada [13]
1650 Kingston New York United States Settled by the Dutch as Esopus, renamed in 1664 by the English
1651 Cap-de-la-Madeleine Quebec Canada

[18] Became a borough of Trois-Rivières in January, 2002.

1651 Medfield Massachusetts United States
1651 New Castle Delaware United States On the site of a former aboriginal village, "Tomakonck", settled by the Dutch as Fort Casimir, in 1654 renamed New Amstel
1651 Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré Quebec Canada [13][18]
1652 Natick Massachusetts United States Founded by John Eliot: Natick comes from the language of the Massachusett Native American tribe and is commonly considered to mean place of hills
1653 Lancaster Massachusetts United States
1654 Northampton Massachusetts United States Founded by a group led by William Houlton and John King.
1654 Pelham New York United States Founded by Thomas Pell who purchased 9000 acres from Siwanoy Indians and received a land grant from the English Crown
1655 Cap-Saint-Ignace Quebec Canada [18]
1655 Chelmsford Massachusetts United States Founded by settlers from Concord. The area currently encompassed by Chelmsford, Lowell, Westford, Carlisle and to a certain extent Dracut, were all originally part of Chelmsford. Westford seceded in 1729. Carlisle fully became a part of Concord in 1780, seceding from that town in 1805. Lowell would be formed under extraordinary circumstances when the Boston Associates purchased East Chelmsford to serve as a planned factory town, incorporated as Lowell in 1826. Dracut's relationship to Chelmsford is less clear cut, however the relationship of the two towns in the 17th century resembles a slightly imperial one as Dracut, while a separate entity, was largely dependent on Chelmsford, particularly the West Dracut area, near the old boundary of East Chelmsford.
1655 Groton Massachusetts United States
1655 Billerica Massachusetts United States
1657 Longueuil Quebec Canada [13]
1658 Harlem New York United States
1659 Assonet Massachusetts United States Settled 1659. Incorporated 1683.
1659 Hadley Massachusetts United States Founded by a group led by John Russell and Nathaniel Dickinson.
1659 Ciudad Juárez Chihuahua Mexico
1659 Jamestown Saint Helena United Kingdom
1660 Placentia Newfoundland Canada French Capital until 1713, originally called Plaisance
1660 Rye New York United States
1661 Schenectady New York United States
1662 Uxbridge Massachusetts United States
1664 L'Ange-Gardien Quebec Canada [13]
1664 Woodbridge New Jersey United States Oldest original township in New Jersey
1665 Chambly Quebec Canada [13]
1665 Port-de-Paix Nord-Ouest Haiti
1666 Charlesbourg Quebec Canada [13][18] Became a borough within the City of Québec in 2002.
1666 Newark New Jersey United States
1666 Piscatawaytown New Jersey United States One of the first five New Jersey settlements. Now part of Edison, NJ
1666 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu Quebec Canada [13][18] Grew from Fort Saint-Jean.
1667 Boucherville Quebec Canada


1667 Mendon Massachusetts United States Netmocke Plantation 1662
1668 Amesbury Massachusetts United States
1668 Saint-Nicolas Quebec Canada [13] Merged with the City of Lévis, Quebec in 2002.
1668 Sault Ste. Marie Michigan United States [27] Oldest city in Michigan.
1669 Neuville Quebec Canada [18]
1669 Westfield Massachusetts United States [28]
1669 Middleborough Massachusetts United States [29]
1670 Charleston South Carolina United States
1670 Repentigny Quebec Canada [13]
1670 Wallingford Connecticut United States [30]
1670 Hatfield Massachusetts United States
1672 Varennes Quebec Canada [13]
1672 Verchères Quebec Canada [13]
1673 Kingston Ontario Canada Grew from Fort Frontenac.
1673 L'Ancienne-Lorette Quebec Canada [13]
1673 Worcester, Massachusetts Massachusetts United States Incorporated as city in 1848.
1674 Pointe-aux-Trembles Quebec Canada [18] Now part of Montréal, Québec.
1674 Waterbury Connecticut United States
1674 Deerfield Massachusetts United States
1675 Lachine Quebec Canada [13][18] Lachine was merged into the City of Montreal in 2002.
1675 Lavaltrie Quebec Canada [13]
1676 Contrecoeur Quebec Canada [18]
1676 Loretteville Quebec Canada [13] Loretteville merged with the city of Québec in 2002.
1677 Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Quebec Canada [13][18]
1677 Crosswicks New Jersey United States Settled by Quakers
1678 La Pocatière Quebec Canada [13]
1678 Montmagny Quebec Canada [13][18]
1679 Lévis Quebec Canada [18] The first settlement was formerly known as Lauzon, which merged with Lévis in 1989.
1679 L'Islet Quebec Canada [13][18]
1679 Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures Quebec Canada [13]
1680 Ysleta Texas United States
1680 South Orange New Jersey United States Grew from Newark (later Orange)
1680 Creve Coeur Illinois United States [31] Originally Fort Crevecoeur, later Fort Clark (1813).[32]
1681 Baie-Saint-Paul Quebec Canada [13][18]
1681 Berthierville Quebec Canada


1681 Cockburn Town Turks and Caicos Islands United Kingdom
1681 Bridgewater Township New Jersey United States
1681 Saint-François (Laval) Quebec Canada [18] Integrated to the City of Laval, Quebec in 1965.
1682 Moorestown New Jersey United States
1682 Philadelphia Pennsylvania United States
1682 Norfolk Virginia United States
1683 Dover Delaware United States
1683 Lachenaie Quebec Canada [13] In 2001, the town of Lachenaie merged with the neighbouring city of Terrebonne.
1682 Rivière-du-Loup Quebec Canada [13]
1684 Bécancour Quebec Canada


1685 Prairie du Chien Wisconsin United States
1686 Arkansas Post Arkansas United States
1687 New Britain Connecticut United States
1687 Rivière-des-Prairies Quebec Canada [18] Rivière-des-Prairies is now part of the Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles borough of the City of Montreal.
1690 Oka Quebec Canada [13]
1693 Glastonbury Connecticut United States Settled 1636, Incorporated 1693 (as Glassenbury. Known as Glastenbury from about 1785 until 1870.)[33]
1693 Kingston Kingston Jamaica
1694 Newark Delaware United States
1694 Santa Cruz New Mexico United States
1695 Nassau New Providence Bahamas
1696 Rimouski Quebec Canada
1696 Sault-au-Récollet Quebec Canada [13] Sault-au-Récollet is now part of the Ahuntsic-Cartierville borough of the City of Montreal
1698 Pensacola Florida United States First established by Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano in 1559; abandoned in 1561. Permanently established in 1698 .
1699 Biloxi Mississippi United States
1700 Mascouche Quebec Canada [18]
1701 Detroit Michigan United States
1701 Dracut Massachusetts United States
1701 Nicolet Quebec Canada [13]
1702 Le Moyne Alabama United States Founded as Fort Louis de la Louisiane by France; abandoned in 1711
1703 Amherst Massachusetts United States
1703 Kaskaskia Illinois United States
1703 Saint-Sulpice Quebec Canada [18]
1705 Bath North Carolina United States Oldest incorporated town in North Carolina.
1706 Albuquerque New Mexico United States
1709 Chihuahua Chihuahua Mexico
1710 Chatham New Jersey United States On land purchased in 1680.
1710 New Bern North Carolina United States Settled initially by German-Swiss immigrants.
1711 Mobile Alabama United States Year of the relocation of the settlement of Le Moyne to Mobile
1711 Needham Massachusetts United States
1711 Pointe-Claire Quebec Canada [18]
1711 Beaufort South Carolina United States
1714 Natchitoches Louisiana United States Oldest settlement in the Louisiana Purchase
1714 Freehold New Jersey United States Originally called Monmouth Courthouse, the site of the Battle of Monmouth
1715 (prior to) Kekionga Indiana United States Capital of the Miami tribe.
1715 Les Cèdres Quebec Canada [13]
1716 Kahnawake Quebec Canada [13][18] Homeland of Saint Kateri Tekakwitha (1656–1680).
1716 Nacogdoches Texas United States Spanish mission established about 1716 in a much older Caddo village.[34]
1716 Natchez Mississippi United States Dates to the founding of Fort Rosalie by the French.:[35]
1716 Georgetown Maine United States Originally included the modern towns of West Bath, Bath, Phippsburg, Arrowsic, and part of Woolwich as well as current-day Georgetown.[36]
1717 L'Assomption Quebec Canada [13] The territory was settled from 1647.
1717 Ouiatenon Indiana United States
1718 New Orleans Louisiana United States
1718 San Antonio Texas United States
1719 Longue-Pointe Quebec Canada [13] Now part of Montreal.
1719 Trenton New Jersey United States
1719 Baton Rouge Louisiana United States
1720 Saint-Laurent Quebec Canada [13][18] The City of Saint-Laurent merged with Montreal in 2002.
1720 Saint-Martinville Louisiana United States Source: "The Attakapas Country: A History of Lafayette Parish, Louisiana", by Harry Lewis Griffin
1721 Cortazar Guanajuato Mexico
1721 Saint-Jean-Port-Joli Quebec Canada [13]
1722 Prairie Du Rocher Illinois United States
1722 Louiseville Quebec Canada [13]
1723 Beaufort North Carolina United States
1723 Terrebonne Quebec Canada [13]
1725 Concord New Hampshire United States
1728 Fredericksburg Virginia United States
1728 Nuuk Sermersooq Greenland
1729 Baltimore Maryland United States
1729 Pabos Quebec Canada [13] Now part of Chandler, Quebec.
1729 Lancaster Pennsylvania United States
1730 New Brunswick New Jersey United States
1732 Lanoraie Quebec Canada [13]
1732 Vincennes Indiana United States
1733 Richmond Virginia United States [37]
1733 Saint-Vincent-de-Paul (Laval) Quebec Canada [18] Integrated to the City of Laval in 1965.
1733 Savannah Georgia United States
1735 Ste. Genevieve Missouri United States French-Colonial settlement. Oldest continually-inhabited settlement in Missouri.
1736 Châteauguay Quebec Canada [18]
1736 Gorham Maine United States
1736 Augusta Georgia United States [38][39]
1733 Winnipeg Manitoba Canada Formerly known as Fort Rouge.
1738 Pointe-du-Lac Quebec Canada [18] Merged with the City of Trois-Rivières in 2002.
1738 Saint-Joseph-de-Beauce Quebec Canada [13][18]
1739 Saint-Mathias-sur-Richelieu Quebec Canada [13][18]
1739 Memphis Tennessee United States Grew from the 1739 French Fort de l'Assomption.
1740 Belén New Mexico United States
1740 L'Île-Perrot and Notre-Dame-de-l'Île-Perrot Quebec Canada [13]
1741 Bethlehem Pennsylvania United States
1741 Sainte-Geneviève and Pierrrefonds Quebec Canada [13][18] Those cities merged with Montreal in 2002.
1742 Les Écureuils Quebec Canada [13][18] Now Donnacona, Quebec
1745 Sainte-Marie Quebec Canada [18]
1745 Sainte-Rose (Laval) Quebec Canada [18] Integrated to the City of Laval, Quebec in 1965.
1746 Saint-Henri Quebec Canada [13]
1746 Merrimack New Hampshire United States
1749 Alexandria Virginia United States
1749 Port-au-Prince Ouest Haiti
1749 Halifax Nova Scotia Canada
1749 Windsor Ontario Canada Oldest continually-inhabited settlement in Canada west of Montreal
1750 Toronto Ontario Canada
1750 Erie Pennsylvania United States Grew from the French Fort Presque Isle.
1750 Rock Island Illinois United States Originally a Native American settlement named Saukenuk[40]
1751 Carlisle Pennsylvania United States
1751 Georgetown Maryland United States Originally in Maryland; became part of the District of Columbia when the District was organized in 1801. Georgetown and its government were incorporated into the District government in 1871.
1751 Las Trampas New Mexico United States
1752 Akwesasne New York, Ontario, Quebec Canada, United States [13] First known as Saint-Régis.
1752 Saint-Constant Quebec Canada [13][18]
1753 Saint-Philippe Quebec Canada [18]
1754 Augusta Maine United States
1754 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania United States Grew from the French Fort Duquesne, replaced by the British Fort Pitt in 1758
1755 Charlotte North Carolina United States
1757 Saint-Hyacinthe Quebec Canada [13]
1761 Charlottesville Virginia United States
1762 Shepherdstown West Virginia United States Originally known as Mecklenburg.
1762 Allentown Pennsylvania United States Incorporated as Northamptontown.
1763 St. Louis Missouri United States
1763 Burlington Vermont United States
1764 Amherst Nova Scotia Canada [41]
1764 Charlottetown Prince Edward Island Canada
1765 St. Charles Missouri United States [42]
1766 Moncton New Brunswick Canada
1766 Vergennes Vermont United States
1768 Beloeil Quebec Canada [18]
1768 L'Acadie Quebec Canada [13] In 2001, the town of L'Acadie merged with the neighbouring city of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu.
1768 New Smyrna Beach Florida United States Scottish entrepreneur Dr. Turnbull established a colony of 1,225 immigrants at New Smyrna which was the largest colonization attempt in the US.[43]
1768 Saint-Eustache Quebec Canada [13][18]
1769 San Diego California United States Grew from Presidio of San Diego.
1770 Monterey California United States Grew from Presidio of Monterey. Original capital of California[44]
1770 San Blas Nayarit Mexico Spanish Naval Department headquarters established at San Blas.[45]
1771 Greenville North Carolina United States Settled and founded as Martinsborough. Renamed to Greenville in 1786.
1772 Ellicott City Maryland United States
1772 Morgantown West Virginia United States
1773 Guatemala City Guatemala Guatemala
1774 Unalaska Alaska United States Oldest Russian settlement of Aleutian Islands, dating to the 1760s.[46] Permanent trading post established in 1774.[47]
1774 Orizaba Veracruz Mexico In 1774, Charles IV grants the title of Villa, but the city was already a Spanish settlement since times of Cortez
1775 Tucson Arizona United States The town of Tucson had existed for over 2000 years at this point but this is the date the Spanish built a presidio and formally recognized the town
1775 Lexington Kentucky United States
1775 Boonesborough Kentucky United States Grew from Fort Boonesborough, built by pioneer Daniel Boone.
1776 San Francisco California United States
1777 San Jose California United States Originally known as El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first town in the Spanish colony of Nueva California, which later became Alta California.
1778 Louisville Kentucky United States Grew from Fort Nelson, established by explorer George Rogers Clark.
1778 West Point New York United States Grew from Fort Clinton
1779 Jonesborough Tennessee United States Later organized as the lost State of Franklin with Jonesborough as capital 1784.[48]
1779 Nashville Tennessee United States Grew from Fort Nashborough
1781 Montpelier Vermont United States
1781 Los Angeles California United States
1783 Clarksville Indiana United States
1784 Cornwall Ontario Canada Founded on June 6, 1784 by a group of United Empire Loyalists led by Lieutenant-Colonel Sir John Johnson, 2nd Baronet.[49]
1784 Frenchtown Michigan United States Third French settlement in Michigan
1785 Harrisburg Pennsylvania United States
1785 Asheville North Carolina United States
1785 Dubuque Iowa United States Oldest city in Iowa, among oldest European settlements west of the Mississippi River.[50]
1785 Fredericton New Brunswick Canada
1785 Sydney Nova Scotia Canada Former capital of Cape Breton Island Colony until 1820.
1786 Columbia South Carolina United States
1786 Florissant Missouri United States Originally known as St. Ferdinand.
1786 Frankfort Kentucky United States
1786 Portland Maine United States
1786 Steubenville Ohio United States
1788 Marietta Ohio United States First permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory
1788 Cincinnati Ohio United States
1788 Charleston West Virginia United States Grew from Fort Lee[51]
1789 Buffalo New York United States
1789 Santa Cruz de Nuca British Columbia Canada First European settlement in British Columbia, only Spanish settlement in what is today Canada
1790 Hamilton Bermuda United Kingdom
1790 Washington District of Columbia United States
1790 Vicksburg Mississippi United States Grew from Fort Nogales established by Spain in 1790.
1791 Georgetown Delaware United States
1791 Santa Cruz California United States
1791 Monroe Louisiana United States Originally known as Fort Miro[52]
1791 Kenai Alaska United States Grew from Fort St. Nicholas of the Russian-American Company.[53]
1791 Knoxville Tennessee United States
1791 Bangor Maine United States
1792 Kodiak Alaska United States Founded in 1792 by Alexander Baranov as the new site for at Three Saints Bay, founded in 1784.[54]
1792 Raleigh North Carolina United States
1793 York Ontario Canada First established as Fort Rouillé; now Toronto.
1793 Ancaster Ontario Canada
1794 Fort Wayne Indiana United States
1795 Edmonton Alberta Canada Grew from Fort Edmonton.
1796 Cleveland Ohio United States
1796 Dayton Ohio United States
1796 Youngstown Ohio United States
1797 Athens, Ohio Ohio United States
1797 Franklinton Ohio United States Eventually absorbed by Columbus, Ohio.
1797 Mentor Ohio United States
1797 Zanesville Ohio United States
1798 Bowling Green Kentucky United States
1798 Shepherdstown West Virginia United States Formerly known as Mecklenburg.
1798 Warren Ohio United States
1798 Bethel, Ohio Ohio United States Formerly known as Denham Town, founded by Obed Denham
1799 Hudson Ohio United States
1799 Potosi Missouri United States Town was founded by Moses Austin and was the sight of many small battles during the American Civil War.
1799 Ravenna Ohio United States
1799 Aurora Ohio United States
1799 Sitka Alaska United States Original capital of Alaska, founded by the Russian-American Company in 1799, destroyed in 1802, reestablished in 1804.[55]
1800 Buffalo New York United States "In 1800, it was a town of four log cabins.".[56]
1800 Hull Quebec Canada Formerly known as Wright's Town
1801 Athens Georgia United States Named after Athens, Greece.
1803 Ashtabula Ohio United States
1803 Chicago Illinois United States Grew from Fort Dearborn.
1796 Chillicothe Ohio United States
1804 Stow Ohio United States
1805 Huntsville Alabama United States
1807 Prince George British Columbia Canada Grew from fur trading post of Fort George, established in 1807 by the North West Company.[57]
1810 Manchester New Hampshire United States
1810 San Bernardino California United States
1811 Astoria Oregon United States Grew from Fort Astoria, founded by the Pacific Fur Company in 1811.[58]
1811 Murfreesboro Tennessee United States Originally named Cannonsburgh. State capital from 1818 until 1826.
1812 Columbus Ohio United States
1812 Kamloops British Columbia Canada Grew from fur trading posts of Fort Cumcloups (Fort Kamloops) and Fort She-whaps (Shuswap), founded by the Pacific Fur Company and North West Company, both in 1812.[59]
1815 Hamilton Ontario Canada
1815 Pickerington Ohio United States
1815 Jonesboro Arkansas United States
1816 Chattanooga Tennessee United States Originally named Ross's Landing.
1816 Cambridge Ontario Canada Original settlement in 1816 named Shades Mill, ON, renamed Galt, ON in 1827. City of Galt amalgamated with the towns of Preston and Hespeler, village of Blair and parts of Waterloo township to form City of Cambridge in 1973. Oldest settled area of Regional Municipality of Waterloo.
1816 Saginaw Michigan United States
1817 Fort Smith Arkansas United States
1817 Milan Ohio United States
1818 Pontiac Michigan United States The first settlers arrived in what is now the City of Pontiac in 1818. Two years later there were enough people there to form a village named after the famous Indian Chief Chief Pontiac. Pontiac was Michigan's first inland settlement.The village was officially recognized by the state legislature in 1837 and it incorporated as a city in 1861.
1818 Medina Ohio United States
1818 Columbia Missouri United States
1818 Jim Thorpe Pennsylvania United States Formally known as Mauch Chunk also known as the burial place of Native American athlete Jim Thorpe.
1819 Chapel Hill North Carolina United States
1819 Montgomery Alabama United States State capital, grew from the 1540 French settlement Fort Toulouse.
1819 Springfield Illinois United States
1819 Tuscaloosa Alabama United States
1820 South Bend Indiana United States Formerly named Big St. Joseph Station.
1820 Oliver's Grove Minnesota United States Near the confluence of the Mississippi, St. Croix, and Vermillion Rivers. In 1820, Oliver's Grove was established as a Trading Post community and a military detachment sent from Fort Snelling. However, until the Treaty of Mendota (1851), the community could not officially be noted for white settlement. In 1857, a year before Minnesota's admission to the union, the area was surveyed and incorporated as the city of Hastings and named the county seat of Dakota County.
1821 Alexandria British Columbia Canada Grew from fur trading posts of Fort Alexandria, founded by the North West Company in 1821.[60]
1821 Bridgeport Connecticut United States
1821 Little Rock Arkansas United States
1821 Indianapolis Indiana United States
1822 Jacksonville Florida United States
1822 Jackson Mississippi United States
1823 Peoria Illinois United States [61]Founded as Peoria in 1823.[62]
1823 Tampa Florida United States Grew from earlier military post Fort Brooke.
1824 Ann Arbor Michigan United States
1824 Tallahassee Florida United States
1825 Akron Ohio United States
1825 Vancouver Washington United States Grew from Fort Vancouver.[63]
1825 Grand Rapids Michigan United States
1825 Irapuato Guanajuato Mexico Becomes villa in 1825 and ciudad in 1893.
1826 London Ontario Canada
1826 Ottawa Ontario Canada Originally known as Bytown.
1826 Wabasha Minnesota United States Oldest city in Minnesota
1827 Mineral Point Wisconsin United States 3rd oldest city in Wisconsin
1827 Guelph Ontario Canada
1827 St. Andrews Florida United States Now part of Panama City
1827 Langley British Columbia Canada
1828 Key West Florida United States
1829 Oregon City Oregon United States
1829 Bainbridge Georgia United States
1833 Milwaukee Wisconsin United States
1833 Kitchener Ontario Canada Formerly Berlin, ON, renamed Kitchener, ON in 1916.
1835 Austin Texas United States
1835 Kenosha Wisconsin United States Originally named Southport, renamed Kenosha in 1850.
1836 Shreveport Louisiana United States
1836 Madison Wisconsin United States
1837 Lansing Michigan United States
1837 Houston Texas United States
1837 Oxford Mississippi United States
1837 Toledo Ohio United States
1839 Sacramento California United States
1841 Dallas Texas United States
1841 Racine Wisconsin United States
1843 Atlanta Georgia United States first known as "Terminus", and for a short time was renamed "Marthasville" to honor Governor Lumpkin's daughter.
1843 Des Moines Iowa United States
1843 Victoria British Columbia Canada Fort Victoria established in 1843; Victoria incorporated in 1862.
1844 Chagrin Falls Ohio United States
1845 Portland Oregon United States
1847 Brantford Ontario Canada Originally known as Brant's ford.
1847 Salt Lake City Utah United States Originally known as Great Salt Lake City.
1847 Harrisburg Illinois United States
1848 Mesilla New Mexico United States
1849 Las Cruces New Mexico United States
1849 Provo Utah United States Grew from Fort Utah.
1850 Kansas City Missouri United States Originally named Kansas.
1850 Phoenix Oregon United States
1851 La Crosse Wisconsin United States [64]
1851 Seattle Washington United States [65]
1852 Oakland California United States
1854 Gainesville Florida United States
1854 Omaha Nebraska United States
1854 Saint Paul Minnesota United States
1854 Topeka Kansas United States
1854 Versailles Missouri United States
1855 Champaign Illinois United States Originally named West Urbana.
1856 College Park Maryland United States
1856 Lincoln Nebraska United States Originally named Lancaster.
1856 O'Fallon Missouri United States
1857 Appleton Wisconsin United States
1858 Carson City Nevada United States
1858 Denver Colorado United States
1858 New Westminster British Columbia Canada
1859 Olympia Washington United States
1862 Boise Idaho United States
1862 Prince Albert Saskatchewan Canada Originally called Isbister's Settlement.
1864 Salinas California United States [66]
1865 Sioux Falls South Dakota United States Grew from Fort Dakota.
1867 Cheyenne Wyoming United States
1867 Minneapolis Minnesota United States
1868 Phoenix Arizona United States
1869 Lethbridge Alberta Canada Grew from Fort Whoop-Up.
1870 Wichita Kansas United States
1871 Birmingham Alabama United States
1871 Colorado Springs Colorado United States Originally named Fountain Colony.
1871 Fargo North Dakota United States Originally named Centralia.
1872 Anniston Alabama United States
1874 Pasadena California United States
1875 Orlando Florida United States
1875 Calgary Alberta Canada Grew from Fort Calgary
1877 Billings Montana United States
1881 Brandon Manitoba Canada
1882 Regina Saskatchewan Canada
1882 Moose Jaw Saskatchewan Canada
1882 Yorkton Saskatchewan Canada
1883 Saskatoon Saskatchewan Canada
1883 Swift Current Saskatchewan Canada
1885 Ruston Louisiana United States
1886 Vancouver British Columbia Canada Named after English explorer George Vancouver
1886 Nelson British Columbia Canada
1886 Takoma Park Maryland United States
1887 Gulfport Mississippi United States [67]
1889 Clemson South Carolina United States Originally known as Calhoun.
1889 Norman Oklahoma United States
1889 Oklahoma City Oklahoma United States
1889 Tijuana Baja California Mexico Tijuana derives from the Kumeyaay word Tiwan, meaning by-the-sea.
1892 Estevan Saskatchewan Canada
1892 Grottoes Virginia United States
1893 Kamloops British Columbia Canada From the Shuswap language "Tk'emlups" meaning meeting of the waters.
1894 Palo Alto California United States
1894 Tempe Arizona United States
1896 Dawson City Yukon Canada Capital of Yukon Territory until 1952.
1896 Miami Florida United States
1896 State College Pennsylvania United States
1905 Cranbrook British Columbia Canada
1903 North Battleford Saskatchewan Canada
1905 Las Vegas Nevada United States
1906 Virginia Beach Virginia United States
1911 The Pas Manitoba Canada Grew from Fort Paskoyac
1914 Anchorage Alaska United States
1915 Prince George British Columbia Canada Grew from Fort George
1916 Truth Or Consequences New Mexico United States Originally named Hot Springs, the city changed its name to "Truth or Consequences", the title of a popular NBC Radio program. In March 1950, Ralph Edwards, the host of the radio quiz show Truth or Consequences, announced that he would air the program on its 10th anniversary from the first town that renamed itself after the show; Hot Springs won the honor, officially changing its name on March 31, 1950 (the program broadcast from there the following evening, April 1).
1934 Yellowknife Northwest Territories Canada
1942 Iqaluit Nunavut Canada
1950 Alert Nunavut Canada Northernmost permanently inhabited place in the world
1956 Corner Brook Newfoundland and Labrador Canada
1970 Cancún Quintana Roo Mexico Planned tourist balneario resort city
2002 Gatineau Quebec Canada Formed by the merging of five cities, including Hull, above.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gonzalez, S., Jimenez-Lopez, J.C, Hedges, R., Huddart, D., Ohman, J.C., Turner, A. and Pompa y Padilla, J.A. 2003. Earliest humans in the Americas: new evidence from México. Journal of Human Evolution44, 379-387.
  2. ^ "Cline Library - Indigenous Voices of the Colorado Plateau - Hopi Places".
  3. ^ "St John's – The Canadian Encyclopedia". Retrieved March 21, 2010.
  4. ^ Paul O'Neill, The Oldest City: The Story of St. John's, Newfoundland, 2003, ISBN 0-9730271-2-6.
  5. ^
  6. ^ City of Childersburg website, accessed July 18, 2011
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster's collegiate encyclopedia, Acapulco (de Juárez), p. 7
  8. ^ Merriam-Webster's collegiate encyclopedia, Saltillo, p. 1418
  9. ^ "History of Harbour Grace". Archived from the original on September 4, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
  10. ^ Lane, Ralph. "The Account by Ralph Lane. An account of the particularities of the imployments of the English men left in Virginia by Richard Greenevill under the charge of Master Ralph Lane Generall of the same, from the 17. of August 1585. until the 18. of June 1586. at which time they departed the Countrey; sent and directed to Sir Walter Ralegh". Old South Leaflets (General Series); No. 119. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
  11. ^ "History & Culture - Saint Croix Island International Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)".
  12. ^ 1633-Windsor, The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay Gouvernement du Québec, Commission de toponymie (2006.) Noms et lieux du Québec, dictionnaire illustré. Québec (Québec) : 925 p.
  14. ^ "Springfield, MA".
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ "Town of Sandwich Massachusetts - The Oldest Town on Cape Cod".
  17. ^ "First Settlers of Rowley".
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am "Liste des paroisses suivant le nom usuel - PRDH-IGD".
  19. ^ " : Online Exhibit".
  20. ^ "St. Marks (Florida)".
  21. ^ a b [2]
  22. ^ "Home". Town of Braintree.
  23. ^ "Home". City of Woburn.
  24. ^ "Wayback Machine". February 2, 2015. Archived from the original on February 2, 2015.
  25. ^ "Historical overview".
  26. ^
  27. ^ [3]
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "About Middleborough Massachusetts".
  30. ^ "History and Description".
  31. ^ "The First European Settlement in Illinois".
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 2, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ "History of Glastonbury - Glastonbury, CT".
  34. ^ Nacogdoches, Texas History Archived July 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, City of Nacogdoches
  35. ^ [4]
  36. ^ [to be added]
  37. ^ "Richmond VA > Visitors".
  38. ^ "History - Augusta, GA - Official Website".
  39. ^ "History of Augusta--Augusta: A Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary".
  40. ^ Coopman, David T. Rock Island County. Charleston SC, Chicago IL, Portsmouth NH, San Francisco CA: Arcadia Publishing, 2008.
  41. ^ Amherst, Nova Scotia
  42. ^ St. Charles, Missouri
  43. ^ New Smyrna Beach, FL – Official Website – History, New Smyrna Beach, Florida
  44. ^ "Monterey County Historical Society, Local History Pages--The Colonization of Monterey".
  45. ^ The Naval Department of San Blas, The California State Military Museum
  46. ^ Merriam-Webster's geographical dictionary, p. 1219
  47. ^ Dutch Harbor/Unalaska, Community Profiles for North Pacific Fisheries, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NOAA
  48. ^ Jonesborough, Tennessee
  49. ^ "Cornwall and the War of 1812". Choose Cornwall. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
  50. ^ "History - Dubuque, IA - Official Website".
  51. ^ "Time Trail, West Virginia, December 1997 Programs".
  52. ^ "Monroe - Louisiana, United States".
  53. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kenai
  54. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kodiak
  55. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Old Sitka
  56. ^ [5]
  57. ^ "Prince George". BC Geographical Names.
  58. ^ Fort Astoria, Oregon, Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
  59. ^ "Kamloops". BC Geographical Names.
  60. ^ "Alexandria". BC Geographical Names.
  61. ^ "The First European Settlement in Illinois".
  62. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 2, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  63. ^ An Overview of Vancouver's History, City of Vancouver
  64. ^ "La Crosse". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  65. ^ Brief History of Seattle, City of Seattle
  66. ^ "Monterey County Historical Society, Local History Pages--A Short History of Salinas, California".
  67. ^ [6]
  • ^ "The Founding of Monterey", The Monterey County Historical Society, 1996. Accessed June 15, 2007
  • ^ "A Short History of Salinas, California", The Monterey County Historical Society, 2006. Accessed June 15, 2007