List of Oceanids

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Les Oceanides Les Naiades de la mer. Gustave Doré, 1860s

In Greek mythology, the nymph daughters of the Titan Oceanus (Ocean), were known collectively as the Oceanids. Four ancient sources give lists of names of Oceanids. The oldest, and longest such list, given by the late 8th–early 7th century BC Greek poet Hesiod, names 41 Oceanids.[1] Hesiod goes on to say that these "are the eldest ... but there are many besides" and that there were "three thousand" Oceanids,[2] a number interpreted as meaning "innumerable".[3] While some of these names, such as Peitho, Metis and Tyche, surely reflected existing traditions, most were probably poetic inventions.[4] The probably nearly as old Homeric Hymn to Demeter lists 21 names, 16 of which match those given by Hesiod,[5] and were probably taken directly from there.[6]

The roughly contemporary (? c. 1st century AD) Greek mythographer Apollodorus and the Latin mythographer Hyginus also give lists of Oceanids. Apollodorus gives a list containing 7 names,[7] as well as mentioning 5 other Oceanids elsewhere.[8] Of these 12 names, 8 match Hesiod.[9] Hyginus, at the beginning of his Fabulae, lists 16 names, while elsewhere he gives the names of 10 others.[10] Of these 26 names, only 9 are found in Hesiod, the Homeric Hymn, or Apollodorus. Many other names are given in other ancient sources.

The names of the Oceanids are of different types.[11] The Oceanids were the nymphs of springs,[12] and some of the names apparently reflect this aquatic connection, with some perhaps being the names of actual springs.[13] Other names have no apparent connection with water. Some, consistent with the Oceanids' function, as specified by Hesiod, of having "youths in their keeping" (i.e. being kourotrophoi),[14] represent things which parents might hope to be bestowed upon their children: Plouto ("Wealth"), Tyche ("Good Fortune"), Idyia ("Knowing"), and Metis ("Wisdom").[15] Others appear to be geographical eponyms, such as Europa, Asia, Ephyra (Corinth), and Rhodos (Rhodes).[16]

List[edit]

Named Oceanids
Name Sources Notes
Hes.[17] Hom. Hymn [18] Ap.[19] Hyg.[20] Others
Acaste
Admete
Adrasteia [21]
Aethra [22] Pherecydes of Leros, fr. 90c Fowler; Ovid, Fasti 5.171
Aetna Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Παλιχη
Amalthea [23] Schol. ad Hom. II. 21.194 Usually not an Oceanid e.g. Apollodorus, 2.7.5
Amphirho
Amphitrite ✓+[24] The name of a Nereid at Hesiod, Theogony, 243, 254, and Apollodorus, 1.2.7
Argia
or Argea
✓+[25]
Asia Andron of Halicarnassus fr. 7 Fowler [= FGrHist 10 F 7] (mother is Pompholyge);[26] The name of a Nereid at Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 8
Asterodia Scholia on Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 3.242 (Parisian, Florentine).
Asterope Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Akragantes
Beroe Virgil, Georgics 4.341; cf. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41.153 The name of a Nereid at Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 8
Callirhoe [27]
Calypso The name of a Nereid at Apollodorus, 1.2.7; "probably not" the same as the Calypso who was the lover of Odysseus[28]
Camarina Pindar, Olympian 5.1–4
Capheira Diodorus Siculus, 5.55
Cerceis
Ceto Nonnus, Dionysiaca 26.355 The name of a Nereid at Apollodorus, 1.2.7
Chryseis
Clio
or Cleio
Virgil, Georgics 4.341 The name of a Nereid at Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 8
Clitemneste
Clymene [29] Tzetzes, Chiliades 4.19.359; possibly the same as at Virgil, Georgics 4.345 The name of a Nereid at Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 8
Clytie
or Clytia
Coryphe Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.59
Daeira Pausanias, 1.38.7; cf. Pherecydes of Leros, fr. 45 Fowler (called a sister of Styx)
Dione The name of a Nereid at Apollodorus, 1.2.7
Dodone Epaphroditus, fr. 57 Braswell–Billerbeck[30]
Doris The name of a Nereid at Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 8
Electra
Ephyra Hyginus, Fabulae 275.6; Eumelus fr. 1 Fowler (apud Pausanias, 2.1.1); possibly the same as at Virgil, Georgics 4.343 The name of a Nereid at Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 8
Euagoreis
Eudora The name of a Nereid at Apollodorus, 1.2.7
Europa Andron of Halicarnassus fr. 7 Fowler [= FGrHist 10 F 7] (mother is Parthenope);[31]
Eurynome ✓+[32] Homer, Iliad 18.399, Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 1.503–504
Galaxaura
Hesione Acusilaus, fr. 34 Fowler; Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 560.
Hestyaea
Hippo
Iache
Ianeira
or Ianira
The name of a Nereid at Homer, Iliad 18.47; Apollodorus, 1.2.7; Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 8
Ianthe
Ida [33]
Idyia
or Eidyia
[34] Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 3.243–244
Leucippe
Libye Andron of Halicarnassus fr. 7 Fowler [= FGrHist 10 F 7] (mother is Pompholyge)[35]
Lyris
Melia [36] Pindar, fr. 52k 43; Pausanias, 9.10.5[37]
Meliboea [38]
Melite [39] The name of a Nereid at Hesiod, Theogony 247; Homer, Iliad 18.42; Apollodorus, 1.2.7;
Melobosis
Menestho
Menippe
Mentis
Merope [40]
Metis [41]
Mopsopia Suda, s.v. Εὐφορίων, according to which, Mopsopia, an old name for Attica, was supposed to have come from her
Nemesis Pausanias, 1.33.3 A daughter of Nyx at Hesiod, Theogony 223; and Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 1
Ocyrhoe
Pasiphae
Pasithoe
Peitho Pherecydes of Leros, fr. 66 Fowler.
Periboea Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48.248
Perse
or Perseis
✓+[42] [43] Homer, Odyssey 10.139; Hecataeus of Miletus, fr. 35A Fowler; Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.48; Tzetzes, Chiliades 4.19.358
Petraea
Phaeno
Philyra [44] Pherecydes of Leros, fr. 50 Fowler; cf. Callimachus, Hymn 1—To Zeus 33–36; Scholia on Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 1.554[45]
Pleione [46] [47] Ovid, Fasti 5.81–84
Plexaura
Plouto
or Pluto
Polydora
Polyphe Suda, s.v. Ἱππεία Ἀθηνᾶ
Polyxo
Prymno
Rhodea,
Rhodeia,
or Rhodia
Rhodope
Rhodos
or Rhode
Epimenides, fr. 11 Fowler A daughter of Poseidon at Apollodorus, 1.4.5; Herodorus, fr. 62 Fowler; and Diodorus Siculus, 5.55
The Sirens Epimenides, fr. 8 Fowler Usually the daughters of Achelous, e.g. Apollodorus, 1.3.4, 1.7.10, E.7.18; Hyginus, Fabulae 125.13, 141.1; Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 4.896.[48]
Stilbo
Styx Epimenides, fr. 7 Fowler A daughter of Nyx at Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 1
Telesto
Thoe The name of a Nereid at Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 8
Thraike Andron of Halicarnassus fr. 7 Fowler [= FGrHist 10 F 7] (mother is Parthenope)[49]
Tyche
Urania
Xanthe
Zeuxo

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 349–361: Peitho, Admete, Ianthe, Electra, Doris, Prymno, Urania, Hippo, Clymene, Rhodea, Callirrhoe, Zeuxo, Clytie, Idyia, Pasithoe, Plexaura, Galaxaura, Dione, Melobosis, Thoe, Polydora, Cerceis, Pluto, Perseis, Ianeira, Acaste, Xanthe, Petraea, Menestho, Europa, Metis, Eurynome, Telesto, Chryseis, Asia, Calypso, Eudora, Tyche, Amphirho, Ocyrrhoe, and Styx.
  2. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 362–364.
  3. ^ Hard, p. 40.
  4. ^ West 1966, p. 260; Hard, p. 41.
  5. ^ Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 418–423. The matching names are: Acaste, Admete, Callirhoe, Calypso, Chryseis, Electra, Galaxaura, Ianeira, Ianthe, Melobosis, Ocyrhoe, Pluto, Rhodea, Styx, Tyche, and Urania. The additions are: Iache, Leucippe, Melite, Phaeno, and Rhodope.
  6. ^ West 1966, p. 260; Evelyn-White, note to Homeric Hymn to Demeter 418.
  7. ^ Asia, Styx, Electra, Doris, Eurynome, Amphitrite, and Metis (1.2.2).
  8. ^ Callirhoe (2.5.10), Idyia (1.9.23), Melia (2.1.1), Meliboea (3.8.1), and Pleione (3.10.1).
  9. ^ The matching names are: Asia, Callirhoe, Doris, Electra, Eurynome, Idyia, Metis, and Styx. The additions are: Amphitrite, Melia, Meliboea, and Pleione.
  10. ^ Hyginus lists 17 names, but one is unintelligible: Hestyaea, Melite, Ianthe, Admete, Stilbo, Pasiphae, Polyxo, Eurynome, Euagoreis, Rhodope, Lyris, Clytia, <unintelligible>, Clitemneste, Mentis, Menippe, Argia (Fabulae Th. 6; Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 95). The other 10 names are: Philyra (Fab. 138; Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 146), Merope (Fab. 154; Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 150), Persis (Fab. 156; Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 150), Ida, Amalthea, and Adrastea (Fab. 182; Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 158), Pleione (Fab. 192; Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 162), Ephyra (Fab. 275.6; Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 181), Aethra (Astronomica 2.21).
  11. ^ For a detailed treatment of many of the Hesiodic names see West 1966, pp. 264 ff.
  12. ^ West 1966, p. 259 ll. 337-70; Caldwell, p. 48; Most, p. 31.
  13. ^ West 1966, p. 260; Evelyn-White, note to Hes. Th. 346.
  14. ^ West 1966, p. 263 346. κουρίξουσι; Hesiod, Theogony 347.
  15. ^ Fowler 2013, p. 13.
  16. ^ Fowler 2013, pp. 13–16.
  17. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 349–361.
  18. ^ Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 418–423.
  19. ^ Apollodorus, 1.2.2, except where otherwise indicated.
  20. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 6 (Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 95), except where otherwise indicated.
  21. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 182
  22. ^ Hyginus, Astronomica 2.21
  23. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 182; an outdated Latin text of Hyginus' Fabulae has Althaea, see Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 191 endnote to 182; West 1983, p. 133.
  24. ^ Also Apollodorus, 1.4.5
  25. ^ Also Hyginus, Fabulae 143
  26. ^ Fowler 2001, p. 42; Fowler 2013, pp. 13, 15; Bouzek and Graninger, p. 12. Fowler calls Pompholyge, a name found nowhere else, an ad hoc invention.
  27. ^ Apollodorus, 2.5.10
  28. ^ Caldwell, p. 49 n. 359, see also West 1966, p. 267 359. καὶ ἱμερόεσσα Καλυψώ; Hard, p. 41. Odysseus' Calypso is usually the daughter of the Titan Atlas, e.g. Homer, Odyssey 1.51–54.
  29. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 156
  30. ^ Braswell, pp. 240, 242; Harder, vol. 1 p. 196, vol. 2 p. 383.
  31. ^ Fowler 2001, p. 42; Fowler 2013, pp. 13, 15; Bouzek and Graninger, p. 12. Fowler calls Parthenope, "elsewhere variously a Siren, a daughter of Ankaios, and a paramour of Herakles" an ad hoc invention.
  32. ^ Also Apollodorus, 1.3.1
  33. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 182; an outdated Latin text of Hyginus' Fabulae has Idothea, see Smith and Trzaskoma, p. 191 endnote to 182; West 1983, p. 133.
  34. ^ Apollodorus, 1.9.23
  35. ^ Fowler 2001, p. 42; Fowler 2013, pp. 13, 15; Bouzek and Graninger, p. 12. Fowler calls Pompholyge, a name found nowhere else, an ad hoc invention.
  36. ^ Apollodorus, 2.1.1
  37. ^ The Theban Oceanid Melia of Pindar and Pausanias may be different from the Archive Oceanid Melia mentioned by Apollodorus.
  38. ^ Apollodorus, 3.8.1
  39. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 8
  40. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 154
  41. ^ Also Apollodorus, 1.2.1
  42. ^ Also Hesiod, Theogony 956
  43. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 156; here, spelled "Persis", spelled "Perse" at Hyginus, Fabulae Th. 36.
  44. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 138
  45. ^ Evelyn-White, pp. 482, 483
  46. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.1
  47. ^ cf. Hyginus, Fabulae 192
  48. ^ Fowler 2013, pp. 30–31.
  49. ^ Fowler 2001, p. 42; Fowler 2013, pp. 13, 15; Bouzek and Graninger, p. 12. Fowler calls Parthenope, "elsewhere variously a Siren, a daughter of Ankaios, and a paramour of Herakles" an ad hoc invention.

References[edit]