List of Ottoman conquests, sieges and landings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of Ottoman sieges and landings from the late 1200s to World War I.

A map of the territorial expansion of the Ottoman Empire from 1307 to 1683.
Ottoman territories acquired between 1481 and 1683 (See: list of territories)

Rise (1299–1453)[edit]

Event Date Result
Conquest of the island of Kalolimnos (present day İmralı Island) and the beginning of Ottoman presence in the Sea of Marmara 1308
Conquest of Mudanya by the Ottoman Emirate and the first Ottoman landings in Thrace, southeastern Europe 1321
Conquest of the strategic port city and gulf of Gemlik on the Marmara Sea by the Ottoman Emirate 1333
Naval victories of Umur Bey against the Byzantine and Genoese fleets off the Aegean coasts of Anatolia, Rhodes, the Dardanelles Strait, Macedonia and Morea 1334–1348
Conquest of Üsküdar (formerly Scutari or Chrysopolis) and Kadıköy (formerly Chalcedon) on the Anatolian side of İstanbul, the Marmara Island, Thrace and Gallipoli 1352
First Ottoman landings in Attica, Morea and the Adriatic Sea 1372
First conquests and acquisitions in Macedonia 1373
Conquest of Thessaloniki and Macedonia 1387
Conquest of most of the Balkans including northern Bulgaria and Wallachia 1389
Landings at Chios, Euboea, Attica, Morea 1390–1391
Conquest of northern Albania and southern Montenegro 1392
Landings at Morea 1394
Ottoman blockade of Constantinople (1394–1402) begins 1394
Conquest of Albania 1396
Conquest of several coastal settlements on the Aegean Sea coasts of Greece and of several Anatolian beyliks on the Black Sea coasts of Anatolia 1397
Landings at Thessaly, Morea, Albania and Epirus 1397–1399
Second Ottoman siege of Constantinople 1411
Conquest of several islands in the Aegean Sea 1415–1416
Conquest of the strategic port of Samsun in the Black Sea 1417
Third Ottoman siege of Constantinople 1422
Reconquest of Albania, conquests of several coastal settlements in Morea 1423
Ottoman-Venetian War 1423–1430
Conquest of the strategic port of Sinop (Sinope) in the Black Sea 1424
Conquest of Smyrna from the Anatolian Beylik of that city 1426
Reconquest of Thessalonica 1422–1430
Conquest of Ioannina[1] 1430
Attempted reconquest of Albania (see Siege of Krujë (1450)) 1448–1450
Conquest of Arta, in Epirus [2] 1449
Conquest of Constantinople (İstanbul), Imbros (currently Gökçeada), Lemnos and Thasos 1453

Growth (1453–1550)[edit]

Event Date Result
Landings at the Dodecanese Islands 1454
Conquest of Morea and the Duchy of Athens 1458 1460
Conquest of the Empire of Trebizond and the Genoese colony of Amasra 1461
Conquest of the Genoese islands in the northern Aegean Sea, including Lesbos 1462
Conquest of the castle of Riniassa and its dependent region of Preveza[3] 1463
Ottoman-Venetian War 1463–1479
Conquest of castles and forts in Albania and failed sieges of Krujë (see Siege of Krujë (1466) and Siege of Krujë (1467)) 1466
Siege of Negroponte (1470) 1470
Siege of Shkodër Archived 10 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine 1474
Conquest of Crimea 1475
Conquest of Venetian forts in Albania and second siege of Shkodra 1477 1478
Landings at Lepanto in Greece and Veneto in Italy 1477 1478
Conquest of Vonitsa, Lefkas, Cephalonia, and Zante[4] 1463
First siege and capture of Otranto 1480
First siege of Rhodes 1480 1481
Ottoman conquest of Kilia (Kiliya) and Akkerman(Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi) 1484
Landings at the Balearic Islands, Corsica and Pisa 1487 1490
Landings at Elche, Almeria, Málaga 1490 1495
Landings at the Gulf of Taranto 1496
Conquest of Montenegro 1499
Ottoman-Venetian Wars 1499 1503
Battle of Zonchio 1499
Landings at Corfu 1500
Capture of the Isle of Pianosa 1501
Capture of several towns in Sardinia 1501
Landings at Piombino 1501
Landings at the Balearic Islands and Andalusia 1501
Reconquest of Morea 1503
Landings at Rhodes, Calabria, Sicily and Andalusia 1505
Landings at Sicily 1506
Landings at Liguria 1508 1509
Landings at Capo Passero in Sicily 1510
Landings at Bougie, Oran and Algiers 1510
Landings at Reggio Calabria 1511
Conquest of Moldavia 1512
Landings at Andalusia and Minorca 1512
Landings at Alicante, Malaga, Cherchell 1513 1514
Capture of Jijel in Algeria and Mahdiya in Tunisia 1514
Bombardment of Bougie, landings at Ceuta, Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Sicily 1514
Conquest of Syria 1516
Conquest of Algeria from Spain 1516 1517
Landings at Elba and Liguria 1516
Conquest of Egypt and the end of the Mameluke Empire 1517
Landings at Capo Limiti, Capo Rizzuto, Calabria 1517
Landings at Provence, Toulon and the Îles d'Hyères in France 1519
Landings at the Balearic Islands 1521
Siege of Knin 1522
Conquest of Rhodes from the Knights of St. John, who relocate their base first to Sicily and later to Malta 1522
Landings at Sardinia 1525
Capture of Capo Passero in Sicily 1526
Landings at Crotone, Reggio Calabria, Castignano, Capo Spartivento, Messina, Tuscany, Campania 1526
Conquest of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia and Bosnia 1527
Landings at Italian and Spanish coastal towns 1527
Ottoman-Spanish War near the Isle of Formentera 1529
Capture of the Isle of Peñón 1529
Landings at Andalusia 1529
Capture of the Isle of Cabrera 1530
Landings at Sicily, the Balearic Islands, Marseilles, Provence, Liguria, Sardinia, Piombino 1530
Landings at the Isle of Favignana, Calabria, Puglia, Tripoli, Spain 1531
Landings at Sardinia, Bonifacio, Montecristo, Elba, Lampedusa, Messina, Calabria 1532
First conquest of Tunisia from Spain, reconquest of Morea 1534
Capture of San Lucido, Cetraro, Capri, Procida, Tunis 1534
Landings at Reggio Calabria, Gaeta, Villa Santa Lucia, Sant'Isidoro, Sperlonga, Fondi, Terracina, Ostia, Ponza, Sicily, Sardinia, bombardment of the ports at the Gulf of Naples 1534
Recapture of Capri 1535
Landings at Spain, the Balearic Islands, Tlemcen 1535
Siege of Klis 1537
Conquest of the Duchy of Naxos, Syros, Aegina, Ios, Paros, Tinos, Karpathos, Kasos 1537
Second siege and capture of Otranto, Castro, Ugento 1537
Landings at Calabria and Corfu 1537
Battle of Preveza 1538
Conquest of Castelnuovo (Herceg Novi) in Dalmatia 1538
Conquest of Aden and Yemen from the Portuguese, Jeddah and Hijaz in Arabia 1538 1539
Capture of Diu in India 1538
Capture of the Gulf of Preveza, Isle of Lefkada, eastern Adriatic and Aegean islands belonging to the Republic of Venice, Candia in Crete 1538
Ottoman-Portuguese Wars in the Indian Ocean 1538 1566
Landings at Crete in Greece and Gujarat in India 1538
Conquest of Risan, Skiathos, Skyros, Andros and Serifos 1539
Reconquest of Castelnuovo 1539
Landings at Cattaro and Pesaro, Corfu, Crete 1539
Capture of Gozo, Pantelleria, Capraia, conquest of Serbia 1540
Landings at Sicily, Corsica, Spain 1540
Defeat of the Spanish-Italian fleet in Algiers 1541
Capture of Esztergom, Hungary 1543
Capture of Reggio Calabria, Messina, Nice, Antibes, Île Sainte-Marguerite, Monaco, San Remo, La Turbie 1543
Landings at Campania, Lazio, venturing into the Tiber River near Rome 1543
Defeat of the Spanish-Italian fleet in the Tyrrhenian Sea, assault on the Kingdom of Naples 1544
Capture of Bonifacio in Corsica, Castiglione della Pescaia, Talamone, Orbetello, Grosseto, Montiano, Porto Ercole, Isle of Giglio, Ischia, Forio, and the Isle of Procida 1544
Landings at San Remo, Borghetto Santo Spirito, Ceriale, Vado Ligure, Piombino, Civitavecchia, Sardinia, Gozo, Pozzuoli, Capo Palinuro, Catona, Fiumara, Calanna, Cariati, Lipari 1544
Capture of Capraia, Monterosso, Corniglia, Rapallo, Pegli, Levanto 1545
Landings at Spain, the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Liguria, Menarola, Riomaggiore, La Spezia 1545
Capture of Mahdiya, Sfax, Sousse, Al Munastir in Tunisia; Laigueglia and Andora in Liguria; Gozo in Malta 1546
Landings at Liguria, San Lorenzo al Mare 1546
Reconquest of Yemen from the Portuguese 1547 1548
Recapture of Gozo in Malta 1547
Landings at both islands of Malta, Sicily, Aeolian Islands, Salina Island, Puglia, Salve, Calabria, Corsica 1547
Capture of Castellamare di Stabia, Pozzuoli and Procida at the Gulf of Naples 1548
Landings at Rapallo, San Fruttuoso, Portofino, San Remo, Corsica, Calabria 1549
Recapture of Mahdiya, Sousse, Al Munastir in Tunisia, Rapallo in Liguria 1550
Landings at Sardinia, Spain, Corsica, Gozo, Liguria, Mahdiya, Tunis, Djerba 1550

Transformation (1550-1700)[edit]

Event Date Result
Raid on Gozo, capture of Taggia and Riva Brigoso in Liguria 1551
Siege of Tripoli (Conquest of Libya from Spain and Malta) 1551
Landings at the Adriatic ports, Sicily 1551
Defeat of the Spanish-Italian fleet near Ponza 1552
Conquest of Oman, Hormuz and Qatar from the Portuguese 1552
Capture of Pantelleria, Ponza, Massa Lubrense, Sorrento, Pozzuoli, Minturno, Nola 1552
Landings at Augusta and Licata in Sicily, Taormina, Gulf of Policastro, Palmi, Gulf of Naples, Sardinia, Corsica, Lazio 1552
Capture of Crotone and Castello in Calabria; Marciana Marina, Rio and Capoliveri in Elba.
Invasion of Corsica (Capture of Bonifacio, Bastia and Calvi).

Recapture of Pianosa and Capri.

Landings at Sicily, Tavolara, Sardinia, Porto Ercole, Piombino, Portoferraio 1553
Capture of Vieste near Foggia; Elba and Corsica 1554
Landings at Dalmatia, Dubrovnik, Orbetello and Tuscany 1554
Defeat of the Spanish-Italian fleet near Piombino 1555
Capture of Paola and Santo Noceto in Calabria, Papulonia in Elba; Bastia in Corsica; Ospedaletti in Liguria 1555
Landings at Capo Vaticano, Ceramica, San Lucido in Calabria; Piombino in Elba; Calvi in Corsica; Sardinia; San Remo and Liguria 1555
Capture of Bergeggi and San Lorenzo in Liguria; Gafsa in Tunisia 1556
Landings at Lampedusa 1556
Capture of Cariati in Calabria 1557
Landings at the Gulf of Taranto and Puglia 1557
Capture of Gharyan, Misratah, Tagiora, Djerba, Reggio Calabria, Aeolian Islands, Massa Lubrense, Cantone, Sorrento, Minorca 1558
Landings at the Strait of Messina, Amalfi, Gulf of Salerno, Torre del Greco, Tuscany, Piombino, Spain 1558
Battle of Djerba 1560
Landings at Stromboli, Gozo, Gulf of Naples 1561
Siege of Oran 1562
Capture of Granada in Spain; Naples in Italy and the fortresses around the city, Chiaia 1563
Landings at Malaga, another siege on Spanish-controlled Oran and Mers-el-Kebir; landings at Liguria, Sardinia, Oristano, Marcellino, Ercolento, Puglia, Abruzzo, San Giovanni near Messina, Capo Passero in Sicily, Gozo in Malta 1563
Ottoman expedition to Aceh (Annexation of Aceh in Sumatra, Indonesia, upon request by Sultan Alaaddin of Aceh who declares allegiance to the Ottoman Empire and asks for protection against Portuguese aggression) 1565
Siege of Malta (including capture of Fort Saint Elmo and the Bastion of Castille on Fort Saint Michael) 1565
Siege of Szigetvár 1566
Conquest of Chios and the end of Genoese presence in the Aegean 1566
Landings at Puglia 1566
First Ottoman naval forces are stationed on Aceh in Sumatra, Indonesia 1569
Landings at Sumatra in Indonesia 1569
Battle of Gozo 1570
Conquest of Cyprus from the Republic of Venice, sieges of Nicosia and Famagusta 1570–1571
Reconquest of Dalmatia from the Republic of Venice 1571
Landings at Corfu 1571
Battle of Lepanto 1571
Landings at Puglia and Corfu 1573
Reconquest of Tunisia from Spain 1574
Landings at Morocco 1574
Landings at Calabria 1576
Defeat of the Portuguese fleet off the coast of Morocco 1578
Reconquest of Crimea and parts of Ukraine 1584
Capture of Lanzarote of the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean 1585
Recapture of Esztergom, Hungary 1605
Defeat of the French-Maltese fleet in the Levant 1609
Landings at Malta and southern Morea 1614
Landings at the shoreline between Cadiz and Lisbon 1616
Capture of Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean 1617
Landings at Sussex, Plymouth 27 ships were taken away from its port), Devon, Hartland Point, Cornwall and the other counties of western England in August 1625
Capture of the Isle of Lundy in the Bristol Channel. Lundy becomes the main base of the Ottoman marine operations in the Atlantic Ocean for the next 5 years 1627
Capture of Vestmannaeyjar near Iceland 1627
Landings in the Northern Atlantic including the British Isles, Shetland Islands, Faroe Islands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Labrador, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Newfoundland and Virginia 1627 1660
Landings at Denmark, Norway and Iceland 1627
Landings at England, Ireland, Denmark and Iceland 1631
Capture of Baltimore, County Cork, in Ireland 1631
Reconquest of Azov from the Russians 1642
Start of the Cretan War: Conquest of Chania in Crete 1645
Conquest of Chisamo and Souda in Crete 1646
Siege of Candia (Heraklion) in Crete begins 1648
Landings at England, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark 1655 1660
Final stage of the Siege of Candia, ends with capture of city. End of the Cretan war. 1666–1669
Sieges of Chyhyryn in Ukraine 1677-1678
Conquest of the castles controlling the Black Sea entrance of the Dnieper River 1679
Reconquest of Chios during the Seventh Ottoman–Venetian War (1684–1699) 1695

Stagnation (1700–1827)[edit]

Event Date Result
Recapture of Preveza[5] 1701
Ottoman invasion of western Georgia 1703 Conquest of Batumi, Poti, and Anaklia
Conquest of Oran, the final Spanish stronghold in Algeria 1708
Reconquest of Moldavia and Azov from the Russians 1711
Start of the Eighth Ottoman-Venetian War with the reconquest of Morea 1715
Conquest of Souda in Crete and the island of Tinos in the Cyclades 1715
Unsuccessful siege of Corfu 1716
Turkish-Russian War 1738
Landings at the entrance of the Dniester River and northern Crimea 1769
Reconquest of Morea and Lemnos after the Orlov Revolt 1770
Battle of Chios followed by Battle of Chesme 1770
Failed landing at Kerch against Russian navy 1774
Failed landing at Kinburn against Russian army 1787
Defeat by Russian fleet near Yılan Island and naval skirmishes around Ochakov 1788
Battles with Russian fleet at Tendra and Kerch 1791
Battle with Russian fleet off Cape Kaliakra 1791
Capture of Corfu from the French by joint Russian-Ottoman fleet 1799 Creation of Septinsular Republic
Reconquest of Egypt 1801
Defense of Dardanelles against British and Russians 1807
Battle of Athos 1807
Reconquest of Medina, Mecca and Hijaz in Arabia 1812 1813
Greek Revolution begins 1821
Recapture of Chios from the Greek rebels and massacre of the population 1822
First Siege of Missolonghi 1822
Recapture of the island of Psara from the Greek rebels and massacre of its population 1824
Third Siege of Missolonghi 1825–1826
Battle of Navarino 1827
Battle of Sinope 1854
Defeat of the Russian forces in the Crimean War, led by France, the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Sardinia 1854 1856
Reconquest of the islands controlling the Black Sea entrance of the Danube River 1857
Reconquest of Montenegro and Shkodër 1862

Decline (1828–1908)[edit]

Dissolution (1908–1922)[edit]

Event Date Result
Battle of Gallipoli 1915–1916 Ottoman victory and saving of the capital Constantinople from invasion
Turkish War of Independence 1919–1923 Turkish Nationalist victory; the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate (1922) and the formation of the Republic of Turkey (1923)

See also[edit]

References and sources[edit]

  1. ^ Nikos D. Karabelas, 2015, The Ottoman conquest of Preveza and its first castle, p. 974.
  2. ^ Nikos D. Karabelas, 2015, The Ottoman conquest of Preveza and its first castle, p. 974.
  3. ^ Nikos D. Karabelas, 2015, The Ottoman conquest of Preveza and its first castle, pp. 972-975.
  4. ^ Nikos D. Karabelas, 2015, The Ottoman conquest of Preveza and its first castle, p. 975.
  5. ^ Nikos D. Karabelas, 2012, Ottoman fortifications in Preveza in 1702, pp. 48-49.
  • The Ottomans: Comprehensive and detailed online chronology of Ottoman history in English.
  • Tarih Bilgi Bankası: Online history database in Turkish.
  • Tarihte Bugün: Online history database in Turkish.
  • E. Hamilton Currey, Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean, London, 1910
  • Bono, Salvatore: Corsari nel Mediterraneo (Corsairs in the Mediterranean), Oscar Storia Mondadori. Perugia, 1993.
  • Melis, Nicola, "The importance of Hormuz for Luso-Ottoman Gulf-centred policies in the 16th century: Some observations based on contemporary sources", in R. Loureiro-D. Couto (eds.), Revisiting Hormuz – Portuguese Interactions in the Persian Gulf Region in the Early Modern Period, "Maritime Asia" 19, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian/Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2008, pp. 107–120.
  • Corsari nel Mediterraneo: Condottieri di ventura. Online database in Italian, based on Salvatore Bono's book.
  • Turkish Navy official website: Historic heritage of the Turkish Navy (in Turkish)
  • Turkish Navy official website: Turkish seamen in the Atlantic Ocean (in Turkish)
  • Bradford, Ernle, The Sultan's Admiral: The life of Barbarossa, London, 1968.
  • Wolf, John B., The Barbary Coast: Algeria under the Turks, New York, 1979; ISBN 0-393-01205-0